In golf stroke mechanics, a drive known as a tee shot, is a long-distance shot played from the tee box, intended to move the ball a great distance down the fairway towards the green. An average professional male golfer is capable of hitting a drive using a 1 wood over 300 yards, maximizing power by driving the legs and hips and the body weight into the swing; some of the biggest hitters on the PGA Tour such as Bubba Watson, Robert Garrigus, John Daly and Dustin Johnson at best are capable of driving a ball over 350 yards, although rare in professional play, but hit drives of over 300 yards. The top 115 longest hitters on the tour in 2017 averaged a drive of 290 yards or over; some of the biggest hitters on the female tour such as Maude-Aimee Leblanc average just below 280 yards. As of 2011, Watson had the longest average drive in professional golf, with an average drive of 315.2 yards, capable of generating a ball speed of 194 mph and drives of up to 370 yards. Mike Austin holds the world record for the longest drive in professional play, driving 515 yards at the Winterwood Golf Course in Las Vegas, Nevada in 1974, blasting it 65 yards past the flag on the par-4 fifth.
His golf swing, known as The Mike Austin Swing, is practiced and taught by current golf professionals. Other notable swings are Jim Furyk's swing and Tiger Woods' swing. Golf driving is big business in the United States and golf driving instruction is a multi-million-dollar business with many manuals and instructors offering their expertise to maximize the drives of their consumers. According to professionals, flexibility and form are important in a drive. A flexible player is able to generate a longer drive by having the ability to swing with a wider arc, creating more thrust; some of the world's longest drivers who are not professional golfers but compete in Long Drive contests such as the RE/MAX World Long Drive Championship, such as Jamie Sadlowski and Mike Dobbyn, are capable of hitting a ball over 400 yards and over 220 mph. Two-time World Long Drive champion Sadlowski is of average height and slight of build but is able to generate drive distances of up to 445 yards, far beyond those of some of the more powerfully built professional golfers because of his unique flexibility and leanness of build.
Motion Golf, a company that creates sophisticated 3-D swing animations of players, has deduced that in his swing he rotates his shoulder 166 degrees, but his hips move only 49 degrees. He claims that the secret behind his long drive is to "Think swing fast, not hard."In February 1971, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first person to golf anywhere other than Earth. He smuggled a golf club and two golf balls on board Apollo 14 with the intent to golf on the Moon, he attempted two drives. He shanked the first attempt. Holding the unofficial world record of the longest golf drive. Yards. However, the official world record holder, Mike Dobbyn, whose longest drive is a world record 551 yards, is 6'8" and a muscular 310 pounds, implying that raw power is very important in the left shoulder and right pectoral and in the twitch muscles on the left side. Several of the past RE/MAX winners such as Sweden's Viktor Johansson have been at least 6'5" and near 300 pounds and five-time winner Jason Zuback was an amateur powerlifter.
Given the length of par 4s being over 400 yards, beyond the maximum driving distance of all players, most holes in one are achieved on par-3 holes for eagle. Given that most par 3s are short, most holes in one are achieved with mid-lower irons rather than drivers
In golf, par is the predetermined number of strokes that a scratch golfer should require to complete a hole, a round, or a tournament. Pars are the central component of stroke play, the most common kind of play in professional golf tournaments; the term is used in golf-like sports such as disc golf, with the same meaning. The length of each hole from the tee placement to the pin determines par values for each hole. Invariably, holes are assigned par values between three and five strokes, which includes the drive and two putts. For a casual player from the middle tees, a par-three hole will be 100–250 yards from the tee to the pin. Par-four holes are 250–470 yards, but tournament players will encounter par-four holes 500 yards or more, as it is common for short par-five holes for normal play to be turned into par-four holes in championship play. Par-five holes are 470–600 yards, but in the modern game holes of over 600 yards are becoming more common in championship play. Other relevant factors in setting the par for the hole include the terrain and obstacles that may require a golfer to take more shots.
Some golf courses feature par-sixes and rarely, par-sevens, but the latter are not recognised by the United States Golf Association. Typical championship golf courses have par values of 72, comprising four par-threes, ten par-fours, four par-fives. Championship course par can be as high as 73 to as low as 69. Most 18-hole courses not designed for championships have a par close to 72. Courses with par above 73 are rare. Courses built on small parcels of land will be designed as "Par-3 Courses" in which every hole is a par-three. A golfer's score is compared with the par score. If a course has a par of 72 and a golfer takes 75 strokes to complete the course, the reported score is +3, or "three-over-par" and takes three shots more than par to complete the course. If a golfer takes 70 strokes, the reported score is −2, or "two-under-par". Tournament scores are reported by totalling scores relative to par in each round. If each of the four rounds has a par of 72, the tournament par would be 288. For example, a golfer could record a 70 in the first round, a 72 in the second round, a 73 in the third round, a 69 in the fourth round.
That would give a tournament score of 284, or "four-under-par". Scores on each hole are reported in the same way. Names are given to scores on holes relative to par. Bogey means one shot more than par. "Going round in bogey" meant an overall par score, starting at the Great Yarmouth Golf Club in 1890, based on the phrase "bogey man" and a popular music hall song Here Comes the Bogey Man. Notionally, players competed against Colonel Bogey, this gave the title to a 1914 marching tune, Colonel Bogey March; as golf became more standardised in the United States, par scores were tightened and recreational golfers found themselves scoring over par, with bogey changing meaning to one-over-par. Bogeys are common in professional play, common for many casual and club players. More than one shot over par is known as a double-bogey, triple-bogey, so on. However, it is more common to hear scores higher than a triple bogey referred to by the number of strokes rather than by name. For example, a player having taken eight shots to negotiate a par-three, would be far more to refer to it as an "eight" or being "five-over-par", rather than a "quintuple-bogey".
Double-bogeys and worse scores are uncommon for top performers in professional play. It is considered somewhat noteworthy. Scoring four bogey-free rounds in a tournament is rare. Examples are Lee Trevino at the 1974 Greater New Orleans Open; each of them won the tournament except Piñero. Par means scoring even; the golfer has taken as many strokes as the hole's par number. In theory, pars are achieved with the remaining shots being used to reach the green. Reaching the green in two strokes fewer than the hole's par is called achieving a "green in regulation". For example, to reach the green of a par-five hole in regulation, the player would take three strokes, with the other two strokes allocated for putting the ball into the hole. Par derives its name from the Latin for equal. Birdie means scoring one under par; this expression was coined at the Atlantic City Country Club in Northfield, New Jersey. According to a story, passed down, one day in 1899, three golfers, George Crump, William Poultney Smith, his brother Ab Smith, were playing together when Crump hit his second shot only inches from the cup on a par-four hole after his first shot had struck a bird in flight.
The Smith brothers exclaimed that Crump's shot was "a bird". Crump's short putt left him one-under-par for the hole, from that day, the three of them referred to such a score as a "birdie". In short order, the entire membership of the club began using the term; as the Atlantic City Country
The Masters Tournament is one of the four major championships in professional golf. Scheduled for the first full week of April, the Masters is the first major of the year, unlike the others, it is always held at the same location, Augusta National Golf Club, a private course in the southeastern United States, in the city of Augusta, Georgia; the Masters was started by noted amateur champion Bobby Jones and investment banker Clifford Roberts. After his grand slam in 1930, Jones acquired the former plant nursery and co-designed Augusta National with course architect Alister MacKenzie. First played 85 years ago in 1934, the tournament is an official money event on the PGA Tour, the European Tour, the Japan Golf Tour; the field of players is smaller than those of the other major championships because it is an invitational event, held by the Augusta National Golf Club. The tournament has a number of traditions. Since 1949, a green jacket has been awarded to the champion, who must return it to the clubhouse one year after his victory, although it remains his personal property and is stored with other champions' jackets in a specially designated cloakroom.
In most instances, only a first-time and reigning champion may remove his jacket from the club grounds. A golfer who wins the event multiple times uses the same green jacket awarded upon his initial win; the Champions Dinner, inaugurated by Ben Hogan in 1952, is held on the Tuesday before each tournament, is open only to past champions and certain board members of the Augusta National Golf Club. Beginning in 1963, legendary golfers past champions, have hit an honorary tee shot on the morning of the first round to commence play; these have included Fred McLeod, Jock Hutchinson, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Byron Nelson, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Gary Player. Since 1960, a semi-social contest at the par-3 course has been played on Wednesday, the day before the first round. Nicklaus has the most Masters wins, with six between 1963 and 1986. Palmer and Tiger Woods won four each, five have won three titles at Augusta: Jimmy Demaret, Sam Snead, Gary Player, Nick Faldo, Phil Mickelson. Player, from South Africa, was the first non-American player to win the tournament, in 1961.
The Augusta National course first opened 86 years ago in 1933 and has been modified many times by different architects. Among the changes: greens have been reshaped and, on occasion re-designed, bunkers have been added, water hazards have been extended, new tee boxes have been built, hundreds of trees have been planted, several mounds have been installed; the idea for Augusta National originated with Bobby Jones, who wanted to build a golf course after his retirement from the game. He sought advice from Clifford Roberts, who became the chairman of the club, they came across a piece of land in Augusta, Georgia, of which Jones said: "Perfect! And to think this ground has been lying here all these years waiting for someone to come along and lay a golf course upon it." The land had been an indigo plantation in the early nineteenth century and a plant nursery since 1857. Jones hired Alister MacKenzie to help design the course, work began in 1931; the course formally opened in 1933, but MacKenzie died before the first Masters Tournament was played.
The first "Augusta National Invitational" Tournament, as the Masters was known, began on March 22, 1934, was won by Horton Smith, who took the first prize of $1,500. The present name was adopted in 1939; the first tournament was played with current holes 10 through 18 played as the first nine, 1 through 9 as the second nine reversed permanently to its present layout for the 1935 tournament. The Augusta National Invitational field was composed of Bobby Jones' close associates. Jones had petitioned the USGA to hold the U. S. Open at Augusta but the USGA denied the petition, noting that the hot Georgia summers would create difficult playing conditions. Gene Sarazen hit the "shot heard'round the world" in 1935, holing a shot from the fairway on the par 5 15th for a double eagle; this tied Sarazen with Craig Wood, in the ensuing 36-hole playoff Sarazen was the victor by five strokes. The tournament was not played from 1943 to 1945, due to World War II. To assist the war effort and turkeys were raised on the Augusta National grounds.
The Big Three of Arnold Palmer, Gary Player, Jack Nicklaus dominated the Masters from 1960 through 1978, winning the event 11 times among them during that span. After winning by one stroke in 1958, Palmer won by one stroke again in 1960 in memorable circumstances. Trailing Ken Venturi by one shot in the 1960 event, Palmer made birdies on the last two holes to prevail. Palmer would go on to win another two Masters in 1962 and 1964. Jack Nicklaus emerged in the early 1960s, served as a rival to the popular Palmer. Nicklaus won his first green jacket in 1963. Two years he shot a then-course record of 271 for his second Masters win, leading Bobby Jones to say that Nicklaus played "a game with which I am not familiar." The next year, Nicklaus won his third green jacket in a grueling 18-hole playoff against Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer. This made Nicklaus the first player to win consecutive Masters, he won again in 1972 by three strokes. In 1975, Nicklaus won by one stroke in a close contest with Tom Weiskopf and Johnny Miller in one of the most exciting Masters to date.
Gary Player became the first non-American to win the Masters in 1961, beating Palmer, the defending champion. In 1974, he won again by two strokes. After no
U.S. Open (golf)
The United States Open Championship known as the U. S. Open, is the annual open national championship of golf in the United States, it is the third of the four major championships in golf, is on the official schedule of both the PGA Tour and the European Tour. Since 1898 the competition has been 72 holes of stroke play, with the winner being the player with the lowest total number of strokes, it is staged by the United States Golf Association in mid-June, scheduled so that, if there are no weather delays, the final round is played on the third Sunday, Father's Day. The U. S. Open is staged at a variety of courses, set up in such a way that scoring is difficult, with a premium placed on accurate driving; as of 2019 the U. S. Open awards a $12 million purse, the largest of all 4 major championships and second largest of all PGA Tour events; the first U. S. Open was played on October 4, 1895, on a nine-hole course at the Newport Country Club in Newport, Rhode Island, it was played in a single day. Ten professionals and one amateur entered.
The winner was Horace Rawlins, a 21-year-old Englishman, who had arrived in the U. S. earlier that year to take up a position at the host club. He received $150 cash out of a prize fund of $335, plus a $50 gold medal. In the beginning, the tournament was dominated by experienced British players until 1911, when John J. McDermott became the first native-born American winner. American golfers soon began to win and the tournament evolved to become one of the four majors. Since 1911, the title has been won by players from the United States. Since 1950, players from only six countries other than the United States have won the championship, most notably South Africa, which has won five times since 1965. A streak of four consecutive non-American winners occurred from 2004 to 2007 for the first time since 1910; these four players, South African Retief Goosen, New Zealander Michael Campbell, Australian Geoff Ogilvy and Argentine Ángel Cabrera, are all from countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Northern Ireland's Graeme McDowell became the first European player to win the event since Tony Jacklin of England in 1970.
U. S. Open play is characterized by tight scoring at or around par by the leaders, with the winner emerging at around par. A U. S. Open course is beaten and there have been many over-par wins. An Open course is quite long and will have a high cut of primary rough; some courses that are attempting to get into the rotation for the U. S. Open will undergo renovations to develop these features. Rees Jones is the most notable of the "Open Doctors"; as with any professional golf tournament, the available space surrounding the course and local infrastructure factor into deciding which courses will host the event. The U. S. Open is open to any professional, or to any amateur with a USGA Handicap Index not exceeding 1.4. Players may obtain a place by being exempt or by competing in qualifying; the field is 156 players. About half of the field is made up of players who are exempt from qualifying; the current exemption categories are: Winners of the U. S. Open for the last ten years Winner and runner-up from the previous year's U.
S. Amateur and winners of the previous year's U. S. Junior Amateur and U. S. Mid-Amateur Winner of the previous year's Amateur Championship The previous year's Mark H. McCormack Medal winner for the top-ranked amateur golfer in the world Winners of each of Masters Tournament, Open Championship and PGA Championship for the last five years Winners of the last three Players Championships Winner of the current year's BMW PGA Championship Winner of the last U. S. Senior Open In the year after the Olympic golf tournament, the reigning men's gold medalist Top 10 finishers and ties from the previous year's U. S. Open Players who qualified for the previous year's Tour Championship The top 60 in the Official World Golf Ranking as of two weeks before the start of the tournament The top 60 in the OWGR as of the tournament date Special exemptions selected by the USGA All remaining spots after the second top 60 OWGR cutoff date filled by alternates from qualifying tournaments; the exemptions for amateurs apply.
Before 2011, the sole OWGR cutoff for entry was the top 50 as of two weeks before the tournament. An exemption category for the top 50 as of the tournament date was added for 2011 in response to the phenomenon of golfers entering the top 50 between the original cutoff date and the tournament. Through 2011, exemptions existed for leading money winners on the PGA, European and Australasian tours, as well as winners of multiple PGA Tour eve
Outline of golf
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to golf: Golf – precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest strokes. Golf can be described as all of the following: a form of entertainment or recreation a game a ball game a sport a precision sport Variations of golf Scoring Stroke play Match play Skins game Stableford Four-ball golf Alternate shot Beach golf Disc golf Footgolf Indoor golf Miniature golf Sholf Long drive Snow golf Speed golf Pitch and putt History of golf Timeline of golf Timeline of golf history Timeline of golf history Timeline of golf history Timeline of golf Golf book Golf course Links Teeing ground Hazards Driving range List of golf courses in Canada List of golf courses in India List of golf courses in North Dakota List of golf courses in Portugal List of golf courses in The Villages List of golf courses in the Philippines List of golf courses in the United Kingdom Rules of golf Penalty Scoring Golf etiquette Golf equipment Golf clubs Wood Putter Iron Wedge Pitching wedge Gap wedge Sand wedge Lob wedge Hybrid Obsolete golf clubs Golf ball Tee Golf bag Golf cart Golf stroke mechanics Drive Caddie Golf instruction Golf mirror List of golf video games International Golf Federation The R&A United States Golf Association Professional Golfers' Association Professional Golfers' Association of America Grand Slam Men's major golf championships Women's major golf championships Senior major golf championships Professional tours LPGA PGA Tour PGA European Tour Team competitions Ryder Cup Presidents Cup Solheim Cup International Crown Seve Trophy EurAsia Cup Walker Cup Eisenhower Trophy Curtis Cup Espirito Santo Trophy Multi-sport games Golf at the Summer Olympics Golf at the Asian Games Golf at the Pacific Games Golf at the Pan American Games Golf at the Summer Universiade Golf at the Youth Olympic Games Rankings Official World Golf Ranking Women's World Golf Rankings World Amateur Golf Ranking Golf in Australia Golf in China Golf in India Golf in Ireland Golf in the Philippines Golf in Russia Golf in Scotland Golf in Thailand Golf in the United States Broadcast television partners PGA Tour on ABC PGA Tour on CBS Fox Golf Channel on NBC Cable television partners Golf on ESPN Fox Sports 1 Golf Channel Golf on TNT PGA Tour on USA Golf Channel The Big Break Feherty Fore Inventors Only Golf Central Highway 18 Live From...
Shell's Wonderful World of Golf Radio partners ESPN Radio SiriusXM PGA Tour Radio Personalities by network List of ESPN/ABC golf commentators List of PGA Tour on CBS commentators Fox USGA#Commentators List of Golf Channel personalities List of Golf Channel on NBC commentators Golf on TNT#Commentators PGA Tour on USA#Commentators Other programs Dan Doh!! Défi mini-putt Golf Shots The Golf Show Monday Night Golf The Scottish Golf Show Wandering Golfer Golf publications Golf Digest Golf Magazine Golf World Golfweek Links Travel + Leisure Golf List of golf video games List of male golfers List of female golfers List of men's major championships winning golfers List of golfers with most Asian Tour wins List of golfers with most Challenge Tour wins List of golfers with most Champions Tour major championship wins List of golfers with most European Tour wins List of golfers with most Japan Golf Tour wins List of golfers with most LPGA Tour wins List of golfers with most LPGA major championship wins List of golfers with most Ladies European Tour wins List of golfers with most PGA Tour Champions wins List of golfers with most PGA Tour of Australasia wins List of golfers with most PGA Tour wins List of golfers with most Sunshine Tour wins List of golfers with most Web.com Tour wins List of golfers with most wins in one PGA Tour event List of golf course architects List of Olympic medalists in golf Glossary of golf Outline of sports The R&A, St Andrews USGA: United States Golf Association International Golf Federation
Grand Slam (golf)
The Grand Slam in professional golf is winning all of golf's major championships in the same calendar year. Other variations include the Career Grand Slam, winning all of the major tournaments within a player's career, or the non-calendar year Grand Slam known as the Tiger Slam, holding all major titles at the same time although not in the same year; the Grand Slam in men's golf is an unofficial term used to describe a golfer who wins all four major championships in a calendar year. In the modern era, the Grand Slam requires victories at the Masters Tournament, the U. S. Open, The Open Championship, the PGA Championship in a single calendar year. Prior to the creation of the Masters Tournament, the national amateur championships of the U. S. and the UK were considered major championships. During that earlier era, the Grand Slam comprised consecutive victories at the U. S. Amateur, British Amateur along with the U. S. Open and the Open Championship. Only Bobby Jones has completed a Grand Slam. No man has achieved a modern era Grand Slam.
Tiger Woods won all four major events consecutively within a 365-day period, but his victories were spread over two calendar years. The term refers to a former tour tournament, the PGA Grand Slam of Golf, an annual off-season tournament contested by the winners of the four major championships. In the current annual playing order, the modern major championships are: April - Masters Tournament - hosted as an invitational by and played at Augusta National Golf Club May - PGA Championship - hosted by the PGA of America and played at various locations in the USA; the 2019 edition will be the first held in May. June - U. S. Open - hosted by the USGA and played at various locations in the USA July - The Open Championship - hosted by The R&A and always played on a links course at various locations in the UKThe term "Grand Slam" was first applied to Bobby Jones' achievement of winning the four major golf events of 1930: The Open Championship, the U. S. Open, the U. S. Amateur and the British Amateur; when Jones won all four, the sports world searched for ways to capture the magnitude of his accomplishment.
Up to that time, there was no term to describe such a feat. The Atlanta Journal's O. B. Keeler dubbed it the "Grand Slam," borrowing a bridge term. George Trevor of the New York Sun wrote that Jones had "stormed the impregnable quadrilateral of golf." Keeler would write the words that would forever be linked to one of the greatest individual accomplishments in the history of sports: This victory, the fourth major title in the same season and in the space of four months, had now and for all time entrenched Bobby Jones safely within the'Impregnable Quadrilateral of Golf,' that granite fortress that he alone could take by escalade, that others may attack in vain, forever. Jones remains the only man to have achieved the Grand Slam, since before the creation of The Masters and the advent of the professional era, the amateur championships were considered major championships; the modern definition could not be applied until at least 1934, when the Masters was founded, still carried little weight in 1953 when Ben Hogan won the Masters, U.
S. Open, Open Championship; that year, it was impossible to win all four as the PGA Championship preceded and overlapped with the Open Championship. Hogan is the only player to have won the Masters, U. S. Open, Open Championship in the same calendar year. In 1960, Arnold Palmer won the Masters in April and U. S. Open in June. According to his autobiography, A Golfer's Life, he and his friend Bob Drum, while on the trans-Atlantic flight to The Open Championship at St Andrews, came up with the idea that adding it and the PGA Championship titles that July would constitute a modern Grand Slam. Drum spread the notion among the gathered media and it caught on. Two years earlier, the PGA had changed to stroke play, it started to be held two weeks after the Open Championship in 1960. Scheduling problems continued through the 1960s as the last two majors were held in successive weeks in July on five occasions; the PGA was returned to July for the next three. With the formation of the Tournament Players Division in late 1968, now the PGA Tour, the PGA Championship permanently moved to August in 1969, except for the 1971 edition, held in late February to avoid the summer heat of Florida.
Tiger Woods came closest to meeting the modern definition of golf's Grand Slam by holding all four modern major championships — the U. S. Open, Open Championship, PGA Championship in 2000 and the 2001 Masters — although not in the same calendar year; this has been referred to as a Consecutive Grand Slam, Non-calendar year Grand Slam, or, after the only player to achieve it in golf, a Tiger Slam. In fact before Woods accomplished this, there was much debate over the definition of "Grand Slam." Fred Couples said, "I don't know how I can put it more simply... if he wins all four, it's a Slam." As noted above, because th
A golf ball is a special ball designed to be used in the game of golf. Under the rules of golf, a golf ball has a mass no more than 1.620 oz, has a diameter not less than 1.680 in, performs within specified velocity and symmetry limits. Like golf clubs, golf balls are subject to testing and approval by the R&A and the United States Golf Association, those that do not conform with regulations may not be used in competitions, it is believed that hard wooden, round balls were the first balls used for golf between the 14th through the 17th centuries. Though they were no doubt used for other similar contemporary stick and ball games, made from hardwoods such as beech and box trees, there is no definite evidence that they were used in golf in Scotland, it is if not more that leather balls filled with cows' hair were used, imported from The Netherlands from at least 1486 onward. Or the featherie ball was developed and introduced. A featherie, or feathery, is a hand-sewn round leather pouch stuffed with chicken or goose feathers and coated with paint white in color.
The volume measurement for the feathers was a gentleman's top hat full of feathers. The feathers were softened before they were stuffed into the leather pouch. Making a featherie was a tedious and time-consuming process. An experienced ball maker could only make a few balls in one day, so they were expensive. A single ball would cost between 2 shillings and 5 shillings, the equivalent of 10 to 20 US dollars today. There were a few drawbacks to the featherie. First, it was hard to make a round, spherical ball, because of this, the featherie flew irregularly; when the featherie became too wet, its distance would be reduced, there was a possibility of its splitting open upon impact when hit or when hitting the ground or other hard surface. Despite these, the featherie was still a dramatic improvement over the wooden ball, remained the standard golf ball well into the 19th century. In 1848, the Rev. Dr. Robert Adams Paterson invented the gutta-percha ball; the guttie was made from dried sap of the Malaysian sapodilla tree.
The sap could be made round by heating and shaping it in a round mold. Because gutties were cheaper to produce, could be re-formed if they became out-of-round or damaged, had improved aerodynamic qualities, they soon became the preferred ball for use. Accidentally, it was discovered that nicks in the guttie from normal use provided a ball with a more consistent ball flight than a guttie with a smooth surface. Thus, makers began intentionally making indentations into the surface of new balls using either a knife or hammer and chisel, giving the guttie a textured surface. Many patterns were used; these new gutties, with protruding nubs left by carving patterned paths across the ball's surface, became known as "brambles" due to their resemblance to bramble fruit. The next major breakthrough in golf ball development came in 1898. Coburn Haskell of Cleveland, Ohio had driven to nearby Akron, Ohio for a golf date with Bertram Work, the superintendent of the B. F. Goodrich Company. While he waited in the plant for Work, Haskell picked up some rubber thread and wound it into a ball.
When he bounced the ball, it flew to the ceiling. Work suggested Haskell put a cover on the creation, and, the birth of the 20th century wound golf ball that would soon replace the guttie bramble ball; the new design became known as the rubber Haskell golf ball. For decades, the wound rubber ball consisted of a liquid-filled or solid round core, wound with a layer of rubber thread into a larger round inner core and covered with a thin outer shell made of balata sap; the balata is South America and the Caribbean. The tree is tapped and the soft, viscous fluid released is a rubber-like material similar to gutta-percha, found to make an ideal cover for a golf ball. Balata, however, is soft. If the leading edge of a lofted short iron contacts a balata-covered ball in a location other than the bottom of the ball a cut or "smile" will be the result, rendering the ball unfit for play in most instances. In the early 1900s, it was found that dimpling the ball provided more control of the ball's trajectory and spin.
David Stanley Froy, James McHardy, Peter G. Fernie received a patent in 1897 for a ball with indentations. Players were able to put additional backspin on the new wound, dimpled balls when using more lofted clubs, thus inducing the ball to stop more on the green. Manufacturers soon began selling various types of golf balls with various dimple patterns to improve the length, trajectory and overall "feel" characteristics of the new wound golf balls. Wound, balata-covered golf balls were used into the late twentieth century. In the mid-1960s, a new synthetic resin, an ionomer of ethylene acid named Surlyn, was introduced, as were new urethane blends for golf ball covers, these new materials soon displaced balata as they proved more durable and more resistant to cutting. Along with various other materials that came into use to replace the rubber-wound internal sphere, golf balls came to be classified as either two-piece, three-piece, or four-piece balls according to the number of layered components.
These basic materials continue to be used in modern balls, with further advances in technology creating balls that can be customized to a player's strengths and