Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins was an American realist painter, photographer and fine arts educator. He is acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history. For the length of his professional career, from the early 1870s until his health began to fail some 40 years Eakins worked exactingly from life, choosing as his subject the people of his hometown of Philadelphia, he painted several hundred portraits of friends, family members, or prominent people in the arts, sciences and clergy. Taken en masse, the portraits offer an overview of the intellectual life of Philadelphia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In addition, Eakins produced a number of large paintings which brought the portrait out of the drawing room and into the offices, parks, rivers and surgical amphitheaters of his city; these active outdoor venues allowed him to paint the subject which most inspired him: the nude or clad figure in motion. In the process he could model the forms of the body in full sunlight, create images of deep space utilizing his studies in perspective.
Eakins took a keen interest in the new technologies of motion photography, a field in which he is now seen as an innovator. No less important in Eakins' life was his work as a teacher; as an instructor he was a influential presence in American art. The difficulties which beset him as an artist seeking to paint the portrait and figure realistically were paralleled and amplified in his career as an educator, where behavioral and sexual scandals truncated his success and damaged his reputation. Eakins was a controversial figure whose work received little by way of official recognition during his lifetime. Since his death, he has been celebrated by American art historians as "the strongest, most profound realist in nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century American art". Eakins was lived most of his life in Philadelphia, he was the first child of Caroline Cowperthwait Eakins, a woman of English and Dutch descent, Benjamin Eakins, a writing master and calligraphy teacher of Scots-Irish ancestry. Benjamin Eakins grew up on a farm in Valley Forge, the son of a weaver.
He was successful in his chosen profession, moved to Philadelphia in the early 1840s to raise his family. Thomas Eakins observed his father at work and by twelve demonstrated skill in precise line drawing and the use of a grid to lay out a careful design, skills he applied to his art, he was an athletic child who enjoyed rowing, ice skating, wrestling and gymnastics—activities he painted and encouraged in his students. Eakins attended Central High School, the premier public school for applied science and arts in the city, where he excelled in mechanical drawing. Thomas met fellow artist and lifelong friend, Charles Lewis Fussell in high school and they reunited to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Thomas began at the academy in 1861 and attended courses in anatomy and dissection at Jefferson Medical College from 1864 to 65. For a while, he followed his father's profession and was listed in city directories as a "writing teacher", his scientific interest in the human body led him to consider becoming a surgeon.
Eakins studied art in Europe from 1866 to 1870, notably in Paris with Jean-Léon Gérôme, being only the second American pupil of the French realist painter, famous as a master of Orientalism. He attended the atelier of Léon Bonnat, a realist painter who emphasized anatomical preciseness, a method adapted by Eakins. While studying at the École des Beaux-Arts, he seems to have taken scant interest in the new Impressionist movement, nor was he impressed by what he perceived as the classical pretensions of the French Academy. A letter home to his father in 1868 made his aesthetic clear: She is the most beautiful thing there is in the world except a naked man, but I never yet saw a study of one exhibited... It would be a godsend to see a fine man model painted in the studio with the bare walls, alongside of the smiling smirking goddesses of waxy complexion amidst the delicious arsenic green trees and gentle wax flowers & purling streams running melodious up & down the hills up. I hate affectation.
At age 24, "nudity and verity were linked with an unusual closeness in his mind." Yet his desire for truthfulness was more expansive, the letters home to Philadelphia reveal a passion for realism that included, but was not limited to, the study of the figure. A trip to Spain for six months confirmed his admiration for the realism of artists such as Diego Velázquez and Jusepe de Ribera. In Seville in 1869 he painted Carmelita Requeña, a portrait of a seven-year-old gypsy dancer more and colorfully painted than his Paris studies; that same year he attempted his first large oil painting, A Street Scene in Seville, wherein he first dealt with the complications of a scene observed outside the studio. Although he failed to matriculate in a formal degree program and had showed no works in the European salons, Eakins succeeded in absorbing the techniques and methods of French and Spanish masters, he began to formulate his artistic vision which he demonstrated in his first major painting upon his return to America.
"I shall seek to achieve my broad effect from the beginning", he declared. Eakins' first works upon his return from Europe included a large group of rowing scenes, eleven oils and watercolors in all, of which the first and most famous is Max Schmitt in a Single Scull. Both his subject and his technique drew attention, his selection of a contemporary sport was "a shock to the
The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand
The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand is an 1879-80 painting by Thomas Eakins. It shows Fairman Rogers driving a coaching party in his four-in-hand carriage through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, it is thought to be the first painting to examine through systematic photographic analysis, how horses move. The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand is in the permanent collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Eakins taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where Rogers was a Board member and chairman of the Committee on Instruction. Rogers recruited Eakins back to the Academy in 1878 and commissioned the painting from his new instructor. Independently wealthy, Rogers was a civil engineer and retired professor at the University of Pennsylvania, he was an avid coaching enthusiast, founder of the Philadelphia Coaching Club and author of the still-definitive guide to the sport: A Manual of Coaching. In the painting, Eakins combined Rogers's love of science with his love of coaching. Both Rogers and Eakins admired and followed Eadweard Muybridge's ground-breaking work in photographing the movement of horses in motion.
In 1877, Muybridge published an instantaneous photograph of the racehorse "Occident", showing for the first time just when all four hooves of a galloping horse left the ground. It was taken for granted that the horse has a period of suspension in the gallop, but, as illustrated here, they thought it was in the extended phase of the stride. Muybridge demonstrated; the following year he conducted an experiment that became one of the seminal events in the history of motion pictures: Sallie Gardner at a Gallop. On June 19, 1878, at a racetrack in Palo Alto, Muybridge positioned a row of 24 cameras set close together at regular intervals, each with a trip wire crossing the track; when the racehorse "Sallie Gardner" galloped past the cameras she tripped the wires, resulting in a short but regular sequence of instantaneous photographs shot close to 1/25 of a second apart. Eakins studied Muybridge's published photographs and taught the new discoveries to his students at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
According to Eakins biographer Gordon Hendricks, seven years before Sallie Gardner was published, Rogers had attempted to photograph his own horses in motion using a camera with a shutter that opened and closed. In 1879, Muybridge invited Rogers to witness his further experiments in California — a 7-day train ride from Philadelphia — but Rogers chose to spend the summer in Newport, Rhode Island. Under Rogers's sponsorship, Muybridge moved to Philadelphia and continue his experiments at the University of Pennsylvania. Eakins visited Rogers in Newport that Summer of 1879, did visit in September, where he may have painted the sketch of Rogers driving his coach through a rocky landscape, it is believed that while in Newport that Eakins created wax models of Rogers's horses, their poses based on another set of Muybridge photographs — the "Abe Edgington" Series, showing a trotter pulling a sulky. Eakins painted individual studies of Rogers's horses both in Newport and Philadelphia. A year earlier, he dissected a horse with his Academy students, may have relied on those anatomical notes.
In the sketch, the animal's hooves are more tentative than in the finished painting. Eakins painted a replica of the sketch. Eakins set the finished painting in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, at a location just north of Memorial Hall, he populated the work with more figures and inverted the coach's direction so as to set it at a sharper angle which better showed the horses' hooves. The sketch shows one passenger and a groom; the painting shows Mr. and Mrs. Rogers, four passengers on a bench behind them and two grooms at the rear of the coach. Eakins made studies of each of the people, he worked through the winter of 1879 through to the following spring. Theodor Siegl conjectures that the landscaped background may have been the last element to be painted in as late as May 1880. Once resolved to show the horses' hooves frozen in motion, Eakins was confronted with the problem of the coach's wheels. In the sketch, he blurred the spokes of the wheels, the traditional way for artists to indicate motion, but this conflicted with his intention to show an instantaneous view of the hooves.
He seems to have gone back and forth about this — artist Joseph Pennell reported that Eakins at first "drew every spoke in the wheels, the whole affair looked as if it had been instantaneously petrified." In the end, Eakins made the same compromise of logic as in the sketch: freezing the horses' hooves, but blurring the spokes of the coach's wheels. In 1899, Eakins painted a black and white replica to be photographed as an illustration for Rogers's A Manual of Coaching. Rogers paid Eakins $500 for the painting, exhibited it at the Philadelphia Society of Artists in November 1880; the reviews were respectful, but unfavorable, noting the inconsistency between the hooves and spokes, using this point as a springboard to lecture about the superiority of Art over Science. Eakins was trying something new and while some understood and appreciated the attempt, when first exhibited the painting was not regarded as successful. According to Hilton Kramer, "... The Fairman Rogers For-In-Hand is a surpassingly dull painting...
The painting lacks. Representational accuracy, "scientific" or otherwise, was a necessary co-efficient of this moral imperative in art, but it was not itself a sufficient basis for it." Goodr
Józef Marian Chełmoński was a Polish painter of the realist school with roots in the historical and social context of the late Romantic period in partitioned Poland. He is famous for monumental paintings now at the Sukiennice National Art Gallery in Kraków and at the MNW in Warsaw. Chełmoński was born in the village of Boczki near Łowicz in central Congress Poland under the Russian military control, his first drawing teacher was his father. After finishing high school in Warsaw, Jozef studied in Warsaw Drawing Class and took private lessons from Wojciech Gerson. From 1871 to 1874 Chełmoński lived in Munich, he worked with Polish painters assembled around Maksymilian Gierymski. There, he studied for a few months at the academy of H. Anschutz and A. Strahuber. In 1872 and 1874 Chełmoński visited Tatra Mountains and Ukraine, his first paintings were done under the influence of Gerson. The works that followed were villages. In 1875 Chełmoński went to Paris, where he had many important exhibitions and became known to the art scene.
With many orders, the artistic level of his paintings decreased. From 1878 to 1887 Chełmoński visited Poland and Venice. In 1887 he returned in 1889 settled in the village of Kuklówka Zarzeczna. Contact with his homeland and nature are qualities revealed in his artworks. From that time are the best liked, or the most beloved of Chełmoński's paintings are paintings such as Partridge on the Snow, The Storks or Before Thunderstorm. Chełmoński represented the trend in art called "Polish Patriotic Painting", he died in Kuklówka near Grodzisk Mazowiecki in 1914. Józef Chełmoński Paintings Maciej Masłowski: Malarski żywot Józefa Chełmońskiego,Warsaw 1965, ed. "PIW". Media related to Józef Chełmoński at Wikimedia Commons
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a hill located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval; the museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin. The various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts; the Philadelphia Museum of Art administers several annexes including the Rodin Museum located on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman Building, located across the street just north of the main building; the Perelman Building, which opened in 2007, houses more than 150,000 prints and photographs, along with 30,000 costume and textile pieces, over 1,000 modern and contemporary design objects including furniture and glasswork. The museum administers the historic colonial-era houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove, both located in Fairmount Park.
The main museum building and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia and administered by a registered nonprofit corporation. Several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad; the attendance figure for the museum was 793,000 in 2017, which ranks it among the top one hundred most-visited art museums in the world. The museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Memorial Hall, which contained the art gallery, was intended to outlast the Exposition and house a permanent museum. Following the example of London's South Kensington Museum, the new museum was to focus on applied art and science, provide a school to train craftsmen in drawing, painting and designing; the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10, 1877..
The museum's collection began with objects from the Exposition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exposition's ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the museum's library were among the first donations; the location outside of Center City, was distant from many of the city's inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881 was dropped until 1962. Starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings; the Countess de Brazza's lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection. In 1893 Anna H. Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years and Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Annunciation was bought in 1899. In the early 1900s, the museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program.
Fiske Kimball was the museum director during the rapid growth of the mid- to late-1920s, which included one million visitors in 1928—the new building's first year. The museum enlarged its print collection in 1928 with about 5,000 Old Master prints and drawings from the gift of Charles M. Lea, including French, German and Netherlandish engravings. Major exhibitions of the 1930s included works by Eakins, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh, Degas. In the 1940s, the museum's major gifts and acquisitions included the collections of John D. McIlhenny, George Grey Barnard, Alfred Stieglitz. Early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections; the gift of Philadelphian Grace Kelly's wedding dress is the best known gift of the 1950s. Extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections, 71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Marcel Duchamp's Étant donnés.
In 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the museum and the bicentennial of the nation. During the last three decades major acquisitions have included After the Bath by Edgar Degas and Fifty Days at Iliam by Cy Twombly; the City Council of Philadelphia funded a competition in 1895 to design a new museum building, but it was not until 1907 that plans were first made to construct it on Fairmount, a rocky hill topped by the city's main reservoir. The Fairmount Parkway, a grand boulevard that cut diagonally across the grid of city streets, was designed to terminate at the foot of the hill, but there were conflicting views about whether to erect a single museum building, or a number of buildings to house individual collections. The architectural firms of Horace Trumbauer and Zantzinger and Medary collaborated for more than a decade to resolve these issues; the final design is credited to two architects in Trumbauer's firm: Howell Lewis Shay for the building's plan and massing, Julian Abele for the detail work and perspective drawings.
In 1902, Abele had become the first African-American student to be graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture, presently known as Penn's School of Design. Abele adapted classical Greek temple columns for
A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. It is sprung and drawn by four horses. Used before steam-powered rail transport was available a stagecoach made long scheduled trips using stage stations or posts where the stagecoach's horses would be replaced by fresh horses; the business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging. Familiar images of the stagecoach are that of a Royal Mail coach passing through a turnpike gate, a Dickensian passenger coach covered in snow pulling up at a coaching inn, a highwayman demanding a coach to "stand and deliver"; the yard of ale drinking glass is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though it was used for drinking feats and special toasts. The stagecoach was a closed four-wheeled vehicle drawn by hard-going mules, it was used as a public conveyance on an established route to a regular schedule. Spent horses were replaced with fresh horses at posts, or relays.
A simplified and lightened form of stagecoach, known as a stage wagon, mud-coach, or mud-wagon, was used in the United States under difficult conditions. These were the vehicles. In addition to the stage driver or coachman who guided the vehicle, a shotgun messenger armed with a coach gun might travel as a guard beside him. A stagecoach traveled at an average speed of about 5 miles per hour, with the average daily mileage covered being around 60 to 70 miles.'Stage' referred to the distance between stage stations on a route but through metonymy it came to be applied to the stagecoach. The first crude depiction of a coach was in an English manuscript from the 13th century; the first recorded stagecoach route ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the island. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool.
The stagecoach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took ten days to make the journey during the summer months. Stagecoaches became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were performed at coaching inns such as Southwark. By the end of the 17th century stagecoach routes ran down the three main roads in England; the London-York route was advertised in 1698: Whoever is desirous of going between London and York or York and London, Let them Repair to the Black Swan in Holboorn, or the Black Swan in Coney Street, where they will be conveyed in a Stage Coach, which starts every Thursday at Five in the morning. The novelty of this method of transport excited much controversy at the time. One pamphleteer denounced the stagecoach as a "great evil mischievous to trade and destructive to the public health." Another writer, argued that: Besides the excellent arrangement of conveying men and letters on horseback, there is of late such an admirable commodiousness, both for men and women, to travel from London to the principal towns in the country, that the like hath not been known in the world, and, by stage-coaches, wherein any one may be transported to any place, sheltered from foul weather and foul ways.
The speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey - from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach", it was advertised with the following announcement - "However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour.
More dramatic improvements were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office. The postal delivery service in Britain had existed in the same form for about 150 years—from its introduction in 1635, mounted carriers had ridden between "posts" where the postmaster would remove the letters for the local area before handing the remaining letters and any additions to the next rider; the riders were frequent targets for robbers, the system was inefficient. Palmer made much use of the "flying" stagecoach services between cities in the course of his business, noted that it seemed far more efficient than the system of mail delivery in operation, his travel from Bath to London took a single day to the mail's three days. It occurred to him that this stagecoach service could be developed into a national mail delivery service, so in 1782 he suggested to the Post Office in London that they take up the idea, he met resistance from officials who believed that th
The four-in-hand knot is a method of tying a necktie. It is known as a simple knot or schoolboy knot, due to its simplicity and style; some reports state that carriage drivers tied their reins with a four-in-hand knot, while others claim that the carriage drivers wore their scarves in the manner of a four-in-hand, but the most etymology is that members of the Four-in-Hand Club in London began to wear the neckwear, making it fashionable. The knot produced by this method is on the narrow side, notably asymmetric, appropriate for most, but not all occasions. For United States Army uniforms, United States Navy uniforms that include a necktie, the four-in-hand knot is one of three prescribed options for tying the necktie, the other two being the half-Windsor and Windsor; the four-in-hand knot is tied by placing the tie around the neck and crossing the broad end of the tie in front of the narrow end. The broad end is folded behind the narrow end and brought forward on the opposite side, passed across the front horizontally, folded behind the narrow end again, brought over the top of the knot from behind, tucked behind the horizontal pass, the knot pulled snug.
The knot is slid up the narrow end of the tie until snug against the collar. Using the notation of The 85 Ways to Tie a Tie, by Thomas Fink and Yong Mao, the four-in-hand knot is tied Li Ro Li Co T. In more utilitarian settings, the four-in-hand knot is known as the buntline hitch, it was used by sailors throughout the age of sail for the rigging of ships and remains a useful working knot today. Although topologically identical, when the knot is made in the manner used to fasten a flat necktie, it appears somewhat different from when tied in cylindrical cordage for load-bearing purposes. A variant of the four-in-hand, with the long end of the tie passed back around and above the just-tied knot, was employed by Aristotle Onassis, who caused it to become fashionable in some circles. Fink and Mao record this variant as Knot 2on. Small knot – a lesser known but somewhat simpler necktie knot Half-Windsor knot – a more symmetric and broader knot Windsor knot – a more symmetric and bulkier knot List of knots Neckties at Curlie
A coach is a large closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small elevated seat in front called a box, box seat or coach box; the term "coach" first came into use in the 15th century, spread across Europe. There are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles. Kocs was the Hungarian post town in the 15th century onwards, which gave its name to a fast light vehicle, which spread across Europe. Therefore, the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, the Slovak koč and Czech kočár all derive from the Hungarian word "kocsi" meaning "of Kocs", it was not until about the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, that coaches were introduced to England. Coaches were reputedly introduced into England from France by Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel.
A coach with four horses is a coach-and-four. A coach together with the horses and attendants is a turnout; the bodies of early coaches were hung on leather straps. In the eighteenth century steel springs were substituted, an improvement in suspension. An advertisement in the Edinburgh Courant for 1754 reads: The Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accommodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach-machine, hung on steel springs, exceedingly light and easy... In the mid 19th century American Concord stagecoaches used leather straps in a similar way. A coach might have a built-in compartment called a boot, used as a seat for the coachman and for storage. A luggage case for the top of a coach was called an imperial; the front and rear axles were connected by a main shaft called the reach. A crossbar known as a splinter bar supported the springs. Coaches were decorated by painters using a sable brush called a liner. In the 19th century the name coach was used for U. S. railway carriages, in the 20th century to motor coaches.
See John Taylor for a adverse opinion of the arrival of horsedrawn coaches in England. There are a number of coach types, including but not limited to: Coach: a large heavy vehicle designed to carry passengers State coach: A coach of state is used to carry important persons, like a visiting president of China and high nobility such as princes and dukes on state occasions. Private coach: a expensive cumbersome 17th century luxury replaced as they were developed by light fast carriages except on formal occasions. Road coach: a private coach kept for pleasure. See Driving club Drag or Park drag: a gentleman's coach kept for pleasure. See Driving clubThe principal ceremonial coaches in the United Kingdom are the Gold State Coach, Irish State Coach and Scottish State Coach. Funeral coach: not a coach but a U. S. name for a hearse, a wagon adapted to carry a coffin hackney coach a hired coach Stagecoach: heavy four-in-hand, closed. Stage wagon or mud wagon: lighter and smaller than a stagecoach, flat sides, simpler joinery The business of a coachman, like the pilot of an aircraft, was to expertly direct and take all responsibility for a coach or carriage and its horses, their stabling and maintenance and the associated staff.
He was called a jarvey or jarvie in Ireland. If he drove dangerously fast or recklessly he was a jehu (from Jehu, king of Israel, noted for his furious attacks in a chariot, or a Phaeton. A postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the near horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach when there was no coachman. A guard on a horse-drawn coach was called a shooter. Traveling by coach, or pleasure driving in a coach, as in a tally-ho, was called coaching. In driving a coach, the coachman used a coachwhip provided with a long lash. Experienced coachmen never used the lash on their horses, they used the whip to flick the ear of the leader to give them the office to move on, or cracked it next to their heads to request increased speed. Box coat: a heavy overcoat with or without shoulder capes used by coachmen exposed to all kinds of weather. Hammercloth: ornamented and fringed was hung over the coachman's seat on a ceremonial coach. Cockhorse: An extra horse led behind a coach to be hitched when passing over steep or difficult terrain.
Stable was a building to shelter horses close to the owner's house. Staff accommodation would be close within the same building. Coach house was a special building for sheltering a coach or coaches but coaches were more kept within the stable building. Coaching inn or coaching house provided accommodation for travellers and provided a change of horses and offered stabling. Coach dog or carriage dog was trained to run in attendance on a coach Dalmatians. A coach horse