New Jersey Register of Historic Places
The New Jersey Register of Historic Places is the official list of historic resources of local and national interest in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The program is administered by the New Jersey's state historic preservation office within the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection; the register was established under the terms of the New Jersey Register of Historic Places Act of 1970. The New Jersey Register mirrors the National Register of Historic Places, uses the same criteria for eligibility. See National Register of Historic Places listings in Gloucester County, New Jersey for the national list. Broad Street Historic District encompassing Broad Street and Delaware Street was listed on February 19, 1988, it includes the Gloucester County Courthouse. See National Register of Historic Places listings in Hunterdon County, New Jersey for the national list. See National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, New Jersey for the national list. See National Register of Historic Places listings in Somerset County, New Jersey for the national list.
New Jersey Historic Trust New Jersey Historical Society National Register of Historic Places listings in New Jersey List of the oldest buildings in New Jersey Official website New Jersey Historic Preservation Office - Lists by county
United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company
The United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company was a railroad company which began as the important Camden & Amboy Railroad whose 1830 lineage began as one of the eight or ten earliest permanent North American railroads, among the first common carrier transportation companies whose prospectus marketed an enterprise aimed at carrying passengers fast and competing with stagecoaches between New York Harbor and Philadelphia-Trenton. Among the other earliest chartered or incorporated railroads, only the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad were chartered with passenger services in mind. After mergers as the UNJ&CC became a subsidiary part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system in New Jersey by the merger and acquisition of several predecessor companies in 1872. Prior to 1872, its main lines were the Camden and Amboy Rail Road and Transportation Company, the first railroad in New Jersey and one of the first railroad in the United States; the Camden and Amboy was the first railroad to be conceived as a passenger railroad and the first to employ steam locomotives to replace animal powered vehicles on rails.
C&A first operated the John Bull, imported from Great Britain ca. 1832. Its operations lead to the important development of the iron T-rail type rail tracks that became standard around the world; the United Company included the Delaware and Raritan Canal, an early foe and friend of the C&A. The new conglomerate included the New Jersey Rail Road and Transportation Company, the first railroad across the New Jersey Palisades; the first railroad charter in the United States was issued on February 6, 1815 to the New Jersey Railroad Company. Its proprietors included the famous inventor John Stevens. Based on turnpike charters, it allowed the company to build between New Brunswick and Trenton, became a model for railroad charters in the future; the Robert Stevens discussed below was the son of John Stevens. In the early 19th Century, travel between New York and Philadelphia America's two largest cities, was difficult and expensive. In 1800, a trip between the two cities could take as long as eleven hours on a good day and as long as twenty on a bad one.
In 1829, eager to reduce the cost and difficulty of travel, New Jersey began investigating a cross-state canal and railroads. Railroads had met with success in Britain and several American cities were planning lines of their own; the legislature, amid aggressive lobbying, decided to build both a canal and a railroad. The canal and the railroad were to be built parallel to each other and controlled by separate companies chartered by the legislature; each corporation was to give the state $100,000 worth of stock and pay a transit tax levied on cargo and each passenger carried. The corporation chartered to build the canal complicated this arrangement by deciding to build a railroad; the legislature responded with a so-called "Marriage Act" to combine the two companies. The Camden & Amboy Rail Road and Transportation Company was chartered on February 4, 1830, on the same day as the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company, after the two competing companies had come to a compromise; the C&A and D&R had the same goals — to connect the Delaware River, serving Philadelphia, with the Raritan River, for access to New York City — one by tow-path canal with some new innovations to cross the hills and the other by the untried railroad technology emerging in Europe.
Both ventures were considered risky, both needed right-of-way grants from the legislature along the river's banks, requiring negotiations and design compromises before either could lay claim to a land rights charter. Subsequently, the D&R was built to the west of the original C&A, leaving the Delaware at Trenton and running northeast to New Brunswick along the Raritan River valley, while the original C&A ran south from New York Harbor via South Amboy on Raritan Bay to Camden, thence across the breadth of New Jersey, connecting by ferry across the Delaware River to Philadelphia, both indirectly but much more linking New York and Philadelphia—at the time America's fastest growing city with its largest city and more tying together many of its oldest industrial centers. Robert L. Stevens was president of the C&A in the 1840s; the C&A was organized on April 28, 1830. Surveys began on June 16; as railroads were a new development in the U. S. rails and locomotives were imported from Britain. Construction began December 1830 at Bordentown on the Delaware River.
R. Stephenson and Company built a locomotive steam engine for the Camden and Amboy, completed in July 1831 and shipped to Philadelphia from Liverpool on the 14th of the same month, it was received by "Edwin A. Stephens for the Camden and South Amboy R. Road & Trans Co." The locomotive engine was named John Bull in reference to its place of manufacture. As of 1986, it was the oldest operable locomotive engine; the John Bull arrived at Bordentown on September 4, 1831 and was first tested November 12. The first section, from Stewarts Point Wharf near Bordentown north to Hightstown, was opened to the public on October 1, 1832, being operated by horse at first. Service between Philadelphia and Stewarts Point Wharf was provided by steamboats, a stagecoach trip was used between Hightstown and South Amboy; the trip ran in 9.5 hours, 1 -- 2 hours faster than other routes. The remainder of the line to South Amboy (the current
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
First National State Bank Building
The First National State Bank Building is located at 810 Broad Street in Newark, Essex County, New Jersey, United States. The building was designed by Cass Gilbert and was built in 1912; the building stands 165 ft and is twelve stories tall with a steel frame and with a facade of applied masonry. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 10, 1977. After sitting abandoned for many years, although the ground floor was occupied by a series of retail establishments, the building was renovated and converted into a Hotel Indigo by Hanini Developers and opened in August 2014. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, New Jersey List of tallest buildings in Newark Four Corners Historic District
Downtown Newark is the Central Business District of Newark in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. Downtown is the site of the original Puritan settlement of Newark located at a bend in the Passaic River; the first settlers, led by Robert Treat, landed not far from the present site of the New Jersey Performing Arts Center. The intersection of Broad and Market Streets, known as the Four Corners was once considered the busiest intersection in the nation, is the heart of traditional downtown. Most of Newark's office buildings are located in this area. In the post-World War II era, downtown seemed to be moving north during the New Newark architectural period, in the direction of Washington Park. Since the 1967 riots, it has been shifting east in the direction of Newark Penn Station, the Gateway Center and the Passaic River. Panasonic constructed their North American HQ building on Raymond Blvd near McCarter Hwy. There are several more new office buildings including One Newark Center, The Legal And Communications Building, The two Penn Plaza office buildings, the Claremont building on McCarter Hwy, office space for the FBI and a few more federal agencies, a few other office buildings.
There is several projects in the design stages for this area. Downtown Newark is the home to Newark's major cultural venues - the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, the 3,000-seat Newark Symphony Hall, Prudential Center, the critically acclaimed Newark Museum, Military Park, the New Jersey Historical Society. Downtown is home to Seton Hall University School of Law and Aljira, an emerging artist's gallery, it is home to Government Center, an area of municipal and federal government offices and Newark Convention and Visitors Bureau, where visitors can find out all things happening right here in the city of Newark. It was once home to a Chinatown neighborhood centered on Mulberry Arcade, off of Mulberry Street, near Lafayette and Green Streets. Many of downtown's cultural and historical sites are linked by the unmarked Lenape Trail, which leads to Branch Brook Park, the Watchung Mountains and the Passaic Meadows on this yellow-blazed trail; the $375 million Prudential Center, home to the New Jersey Devils, opened on October 25, 2007, with the first of ten concerts by Bon Jovi.
Since numerous "big name" acts have performed there, the Rolling Stones pay per view concert in 2013 was broadcast from the Prudential Center. At the time, the arena was the New York metropolitan area's first all-new professional sports venue in over two decades. Much of the city's retail and commercial developments is centered on Market Street; the intersection of the two streets, known as Four Corners is considered to be one of the busiest in the state and at one time was considered the busiest in the country. Both Broad Street and Market Street are a bustle of activity crowded with numerous shops. Broad Street has many street vendors as well. At night, the streets are vacant and shops are closed; the City of Newark is committed to turning downtown into a "24-hour city" and the downtown area is beginning to develop a 24-hour presence. The former Hahne's and Lefcourt buildings have been converted into mixed use developments including a Whole Foods, other retail establishments, over one hundred residential apartments beginning in 2014.
A six story addition and underground parking was built on the Halsey St side of the complex. Two brand new luxury high rise apartment buildings have opened. One Theatre Square, directly opposite the NJPAC, developed by Dranoff Properties, it is 23 stories and features private balconies/terraces, parking deck, rooftop swimming pool, other amenities. Nearby, Boraie Development constructed the 21 story luxury apartment building known as 40 Rector Street, it was constructed on the former site of Science High School. It has many amenities including underground parking, rooftop swimming pool and tiki bar, etc.. Rutgers–Newark has built a six hundred bed dormitory on Central Avenue. An old office building on Clinton Street has successfully been converted to luxury lofts. Additionally, 1180 Raymond, across from Military Park and Newark's second tallest building, completed a $150 million conversion to luxury apartments in 2006; the former home of New Jersey Bell at 540 Broad St was being converted into market rate apartments.
Verizon will still lease three floors in the building. The structure is named Walker House; the former Kislak building at 579 Broad St near Central Ave is being converted into market rate apartments by a development company from New Orleans called Red Mellon Restorations. On Market Street, many new lofts have been built, including Rock Plaza Lofts. Market Street near Mulberry Street has become a restaurant row, featuring establishments from a German style beer garden to a critically acclaimed barbecue restaurant. A new Mariott Courtyard Hotel was built at the corner of Broad Street and Lafayette Street near Prudential Center arena. An Indigo Hotel opened a few years ago at Broad Street and Edison Place in the former First National State Bank building. On East Park Street, the former Carlton Hotel was completely renovated and is now a TRYP By Wyndham hotel. On Broad Street and Williams Street is another adaptive reuse called Williams Flats, featuring upscale apartments and ground floor retail space.
Under construction at the corner of Broad Street and Hill Street is an IHOP restaurant with four floors of market rate apartments on top. Teachers Village, which consists of 12 separate residential buildings and some businesses, was opened; the Ironside Newark complex is under construction and M&M Mars has sig
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important