Social Darwinism is the application of the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society. The term itself emerged in the 1880s, it gained widespread currency when used after 1944 by opponents of these ways of thinking; the majority of those who have been categorized as social Darwinists did not identify themselves by such a label. Scholars debate the extent to which the various social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin's own views on human social and economic issues, his writings have passages that can be interpreted as opposing aggressive individualism, while other passages appear to promote it. Darwin's early evolutionary views and his opposition to slavery ran counter to many of the claims that social Darwinists would make about the mental capabilities of the poor and colonial indigenes. After the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, one strand of Darwins' followers, led by Sir John Lubbock, argued that natural selection ceased to have any noticeable effect on humans once organised societies had been formed.
But some scholars argue that Darwin's view changed and came to incorporate views from other theorists such as Herbert Spencer. Spencer published his Lamarckian evolutionary ideas about society before Darwin first published his hypothesis in 1859, both Spencer and Darwin promoted their own conceptions of moral values. Spencer supported laissez-faire capitalism on the basis of his Lamarckian belief that struggle for survival spurred self-improvement which could be inherited. An important proponent in Germany was Ernst Haeckel, who popularized Darwin's thought and used it as well to contribute to a new creed, the monist movement; the term Darwinism was coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in his March 1861 review of On the Origin of Species, by the 1870s it was used to describe a range of concepts of evolution or development, without any specific commitment to Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. The first use of the phrase "social Darwinism" was in Joseph Fisher's 1877 article on The History of Landholding in Ireland, published in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society.
Fisher was commenting on how a system for borrowing livestock, called "tenure" had led to the false impression that the early Irish had evolved or developed land tenure. It has appeared necessary to devote some space to this subject, inasmuch as that acute writer Sir Henry Maine has accepted the word " tenure " in its modern interpretation, has built up a theory under which the Irish chief " developed " into a feudal baron. I can find nothing in the Brehon laws to warrant this theory of social Darwinism, believe further study will show that the Cain Saerrath and the Cain Aigillue relate to what we now call chattels, did not in any way affect what we now call the freehold, the possession of the land. Despite the fact that Social Darwinism bears Charles Darwin's name, it is linked today with others, notably Herbert Spencer, Thomas Malthus, Francis Galton, the founder of eugenics. In fact, Spencer was not described as a social Darwinist until the 1930s, long after his death; the social Darwinism term first appeared in Europe in 1880, journalist Emilie Gautier had coined the term with reference to a health conference in Berlin 1877.
Around 1900 it was used by some being opposed to the concept. The term was popularized in the United States in 1944 by the American historian Richard Hofstadter who used it in the ideological war effort against fascism to denote a reactionary creed which promoted competitive strife and chauvinism. Hofstadter also recognized the influence of Darwinist and other evolutionary ideas upon those with collectivist views, enough to devise a term for the phenomenon, "Darwinist collectivism". Before Hofstadter's work the use of the term "social Darwinism" in English academic journals was quite rare. In fact... There is considerable evidence that the entire concept of "social Darwinism" as we know it today was invented by Richard Hofstadter. Eric Foner, in an introduction to a then-new edition of Hofstadter's book published in the early 1990s, declines to go quite that far. "Hofstadter did not invent the term Social Darwinism", Foner writes, "which originated in Europe in the 1860s and crossed the Atlantic in the early twentieth century.
But before he wrote, it was used only on rare occasions. Social Darwinism has many definitions, some of them are incompatible with each other; as such, social Darwinism has been criticized for being an inconsistent philosophy, which does not lead to any clear political conclusions. For example, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics states:Part of the difficulty in establishing sensible and consistent usage is that commitment to the biology of natural selection and to'survival of the fittest' entailed nothing uniform either for sociological method or for political doctrine. A'social Darwinist' could just as well be a defender of laissez-faire as a defender of state socialism, just as much an imperialist as a domestic eugenist; the term "Social Darwinism" has been used by advocates of the supposed ideologies or ideas. The term draws upon the common meaning of Darwinism, which includes a range of evolutionary views, but in the late 19th century was applied more to natural selection as first advanced by Charles Darwin to explain
Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937
The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 was a legislative initiative proposed by U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to add more justices to the U. S. Supreme Court. Roosevelt's purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that the court had ruled unconstitutional; the central provision of the bill would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U. S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every member of the court over the age of 70 years and 6 months. In the Judiciary Act of 1869 Congress had established that the United States Supreme Court would consist of the Chief Justice and eight associate justices. During Roosevelt's first term the Supreme Court struck down several New Deal measures as being unconstitutional. Roosevelt sought to reverse this by changing the makeup of the court through the appointment of new additional justices who he hoped would rule his legislative initiatives did not exceed the constitutional authority of the government.
Since the U. S. Constitution does not define the size of the Supreme Court, Roosevelt pointed out that it was within the power of the Congress to change it; the legislation was viewed by members of both parties as an attempt to stack the court, was opposed by many Democrats, including Vice President John Nance Garner. The bill came to be known as Roosevelt's "court-packing plan". In November 1936, Roosevelt won a sweeping reelection victory. In the months following, Roosevelt proposed to reorganize the federal judiciary by adding a new justice each time a justice reached age seventy and failed to retire; the legislation was unveiled on February 5, 1937, was the subject of Roosevelt's 9th Fireside chat of March 9, 1937. His claim "can it be said that full justice is achieved when a court is forced by the sheer necessity of its business to decline, without an explanation, to hear 87% of the cases presented by private litigants?" Publicly denying the President’s statement, Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, reported "there is no congestion of cases on our calendar.
When we rose March 15 we had heard arguments in cases in which cert has been granted only 4 weeks before. This gratifying situation has obtained for several years". Three weeks after the radio address the Supreme Court published an opinion upholding a Washington state minimum wage law in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish; the 5–4 ruling was the result of the sudden jurisprudential shift by Associate Justice Owen Roberts, who joined with the wing of the bench supportive to the New Deal legislation. Since Roberts had ruled against most New Deal legislation, his support here was seen as a result of the political pressure the president was exerting on the court; some interpreted his reversal as an effort to maintain the Court's judicial independence by alleviating the political pressure to create a court more friendly to the New Deal. This reversal came to be known as "the switch in time that saved nine". Roosevelt's legislative initiative failed; the bill was held up in the Senate Judiciary Committee by Democratic committee chair Henry F. Ashurst who delayed hearings in the Judiciary Committee saying, "No haste, no hurry, no waste, no worry—that is the motto of this committee."
As a result of his delaying efforts, the bill was held in committee for 165 days, opponents of the bill credited Ashurst as instrumental in its defeat. The bill was further undermined by the untimely death of its chief advocate in the U. S. Senate, Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson. Contemporary observers broadly viewed Roosevelt's initiative as political maneuvering, its failure exposed the limits of Roosevelt's abilities to push forward legislation through direct public appeal. Public perception of his efforts here was in stark contrast to the reception of his legislative efforts during his first term. Roosevelt prevailed in establishing a majority on the court friendly to his New Deal legislation, though some scholars view Roosevelt's victory as pyrrhic. Following the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt won the 1932 presidential election on a promise to give America a "New Deal" to promote national economic recovery; the 1932 election saw a new Democratic majority sweep into both houses of Congress, giving Roosevelt legislative support for his reform platform.
Both Roosevelt and the 73rd Congress called for greater governmental involvement in the economy as a way to end the depression. During the president's first term, a series of successful challenges to various New Deal programs were launched in federal courts, it soon became clear that the overall constitutionality of much of the New Deal legislation that which extended the power of the federal government, would be decided by the Supreme Court. A minor aspect of Roosevelt's New Deal agenda may have itself directly precipitated the showdown between the Roosevelt administration and the Supreme Court. Shortly after Roosevelt's inauguration, Congress passed the Economy Act, a provision of which cut many government salaries, including the pensions of retired Supreme Court justices. Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. who had retired in 1932, saw his pension halved from $20,000 to $10,000 per year. The cut to their pensions appears to have dissuaded at least two older Justices, Willis Van Devanter and George Sutherland, from retirement.
Both would find many aspects of the New Deal unconstitutional. The flurry of new laws in the wake of Roosevelt's first hundred days swamped the Justice Department with more r
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in the last book of the New Testament of the Bible, the Book of Revelation by John of Patmos, at 6:1–8. The chapter tells of a book or scroll in God's right hand, sealed with seven seals; the Lamb of God opens the first four of the seven seals, which summons four beings that ride out on white, red and pale horses. Though theologians and popular culture differ on the first Horseman, the four riders are seen as symbolizing Conquest or Pestilence, War and Death; the Christian apocalyptic vision is that the Four Horsemen are to set a divine apocalypse upon the world as harbingers of the Last Judgment. One reading ties the Four Horsemen to the history of the Roman Empire subsequent to the era in which the Book of Revelation was written as a symbolic prophecy. I saw when the Lamb broke one of the seven seals, I heard one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder, “Come.” I looked, behold, a white horse, he who sat on it had a bow.
Based on the above passage, a common translation into English, the rider of the White Horse is referred to as "Conquest". The name could be construed as "Victory", as in the translation found in the Jerusalem Bible, he carries a bow, wears a victor's crown. The White Rider has been called "Pestilence" in popular culture. Irenaeus, an influential Christian theologian of the 2nd century, was among the first to interpret this Horseman as Christ himself, his white horse representing the successful spread of the gospel. Various scholars have since supported this notion, citing the appearance, in Revelation 19, of Christ mounted on a white horse, appearing as The Word of God. Furthermore, earlier in the New Testament, the Book of Mark indicates that the advance of the gospel may indeed precede and foretell the apocalypse; the color white tends to represent righteousness in the Bible, Christ is in other instances portrayed as a conqueror. However, opposing interpretations argue that the first of the Four Horsemen is not the horseman of Revelation 19.
They are described in different ways, Christ's role as the Lamb who opens the seven seals makes it unlikely that he would be one of the forces released by the seals. It must be noted that while the rider of the white horse wields a bow and wears a single crown, Christ rides forth with a sword, wearing many diadems. Besides Christ, the Horseman could represent the Holy Spirit; the Holy Spirit was understood to have come upon the Apostles at Pentecost after Jesus' departure from Earth. The appearance of the Lion in Revelation 5 shows the triumphant arrival of Jesus in Heaven, the first Horseman could represent the sending of the Holy Spirit by Jesus and the advance of the gospel of Jesus Christ. Other interpretations relying on comparative religious research ascribe the first Horseman as guiding for "the right path". Under another interpretation, the first Horseman is called Pestilence, is associated with infectious disease and plague, it appears at least as early as 1906. The interpretation is common in popular culture references to the Four Horsemen.
The origin of this interpretation is unclear. Some translations of the Bible mention "plague" or "pestilence" in connection with the riders in the passage following the introduction of the fourth rider. "They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, plague, by the wild beasts of the earth.". However, it is a matter of debate as to whether this passage refers to the first rider, or to the four riders as a whole. Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, in his 1916 novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, provides an early example of this interpretation, writing "The horseman on the white horse was clad in a showy and barbarous attire. While his horse continued galloping, he was bending his bow. At his back swung the brass quiver filled with poisoned arrows, containing the germs of all diseases." One interpretation held by evangelist Billy Graham, casts the rider of the white horse as the Antichrist, or a representation of false prophets, citing differences between the white horse in Revelation chapter 6 and Jesus on the white Horse in Revelation chapter 19.
In Revelation 19, Jesus has many crowns. In Revelation 6, the rider has just one; this indicates a third person giving authority to the rider to accomplish his work. According to Edward Bishop Elliott's interpretation, that the Four Horsemen represent a prophecy of the subsequent history of the Roman Empire, the white color of this horse signifies triumph and health in the political Roman body. For the next 80 or 90 years succeeding the banishment of the apostle John to Patmos covering the successive reigns of the emperors Nerva, Trajan and the two Antonines, a golden age of prosperity, civil liberty and good government unstained with civil blood unfolded; the agents of this prosperity personified by the rider of the white horse are these five emperors wearing crowns that reigned with absolute authority and power under the guidance of virtue and wisdom, the armies being restrained by their firm and gentle hands. This interpretation points out that the bow was preeminently a we
Louis Dembitz Brandeis was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Jewish immigrant parents from Bohemia, who raised him in a secular home, he attended Harvard Law School, graduating at the age of 20 with what is rumored to be the highest grade average in the law school's history. Brandeis settled in Boston, where he founded a law firm and became a recognized lawyer through his work on progressive social causes. Starting in 1890, he helped develop the "right to privacy" concept by writing a Harvard Law Review article of that title, was thereby credited by legal scholar Roscoe Pound as having accomplished "nothing less than adding a chapter to our law", he published a book entitled Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It, suggesting ways of curbing the power of large banks and money trusts. He fought against powerful corporations, public corruption, mass consumerism, all of which he felt were detrimental to American values and culture.
He became active in the Zionist movement, seeing it as a solution to antisemitism in Europe and Russia, while at the same time being a way to "revive the Jewish spirit." When his family's finances became secure, he began devoting most of his time to public causes and was dubbed the "People's Lawyer". He insisted on serving on cases without pay so that he would be free to address the wider issues involved; the Economist magazine calls him "A Robin Hood of the law." Among his notable early cases were actions fighting railroad monopolies, defending workplace and labor laws, helping create the Federal Reserve System, presenting ideas for the new Federal Trade Commission. He achieved recognition by submitting a case brief called the "Brandeis Brief", which relied on expert testimony from people in other professions to support his case, thereby setting a new precedent in evidence presentation. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson nominated Brandeis to become a member of the Supreme Court, his nomination was bitterly contested because, as Justice William O. Douglas wrote, "Brandeis was a militant crusader for social justice whoever his opponent might be.
He was dangerous not only because of his arithmetic, his courage. He was dangerous because he was incorruptible... the fears of the Establishment were greater because Brandeis was the first Jew to be named to the Court." On June 1, 1916, he was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 47 to 22, to become one of the most famous and influential figures to serve on the high court. His opinions were, according to legal scholars, some of the "greatest defenses" of freedom of speech and the right to privacy written by a member of the Supreme Court. Louis David Brandeis was born on November 13, 1856, in Louisville, the youngest of four children, his parents, Adolph Brandeis and Frederika Dembitz, both of whom were Ashkenazi Jews, immigrated to the United States from their childhood homes in Prague, Bohemia. They emigrated as part of their extended families for both political reasons; the Revolutions of 1848 had produced a series of political upheavals and the families, though politically liberal and sympathetic to the rebels, were shocked by the antisemitic riots that erupted in Prague while the rebels controlled it.
In addition, the Habsburg Empire had imposed business taxes on Jews. Family elders sent Adolph Brandeis to America to observe and prepare for his family's possible emigration, he spent a few months in the Midwest and was impressed by the nation's institutions and by the tolerance among the people he met. He wrote home to his wife, "America's progress is the triumph of the rights of man." His parents were followers of Eve Frank, a mystic cult leader and daughter of Jacob Frank, who founded Frankism. The Brandeis family chose to settle in Louisville because it was a prosperous river port, his earliest childhood was shaped by the American Civil War, which forced the family to seek safety temporarily in Indiana. The Brandeis family held abolitionist beliefs. Louis's father developed a grain-merchandising business. Worries about the U. S. economy took the family to Europe in 1872, but they returned in 1875. The Brandeises were considered a "cultured family", trying not to discuss business or money during dinner, preferring subjects related to history and culture, or their daily experiences.
Having been raised on German culture, Louis read and appreciated the writings of Goethe and Schiller, his favorite composers were Beethoven and Schumann. In their religious beliefs, although his family was Jewish, only his extended family practiced a more conservative form of Judaism, while his parents practiced a more relaxed form called frankism, they celebrated the main Christian holidays along with most of their community, treating Christmas as a secular holiday. His parents raised their children to be "high-minded idealists" rather than depending on religion for their purpose and inspiration. In years, his mother, wrote of this period: I believe that only goodness and truth and conduct, humane and self-sacrificing toward those who need us can bring God nearer to us... I wanted to give my children the highest ideals as to morals and love. God has blessed my endeavors. According to biographer Melvin Urofsky, Brandeis was influenced by his uncle Lewis Naphtali Dembitz. Unlike other members of the extended Brandeis family, Dembitz practiced Judaism and was i
Willis Van Devanter
Willis Van Devanter was an American lawyer who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1911 to 1937. Born in Marion, Indiana to a family of Dutch Americans, he received a Bachelor of Laws from the Cincinnati Law School in 1881, he was the Knights of Pythias. After three years private practice in Marion, he moved to the Wyoming Territory where he served as city attorney of Cheyenne and a member of the territorial legislature. At the age of 30, he was appointed chief judge of the territorial court. After statehood, he served as Chief Justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court for four days, and resumed private practice for seven years, during which he worked for the Union Pacific and other railroads. In 1896 he represented the state of Wyoming before the U. S. Supreme Court in Ward v. Race Horse 163 U. S. 504. At issue was a state poaching charge for hunting out of season, its purported conflict with an Indian treaty that allowed the activity; the Native Americans won in the U.
S. Federal District Court. From 1897 to 1903 Van Devanter served in Washington, D. C. as an assistant attorney general, working in the Department of Interior. He was a professor at The George Washington University Law School from 1897 to 1903. On February 4, 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Van Devanter to a seat on the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals created by 32 Stat. 791. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 18, 1903, received his commission the same day. In 1910, William Howard Taft elevated him to the Supreme Court. Taft nominated Van Devanter on December 12, 1910, to the Associate Justice seat vacated by Edward D. White. Three days Van Devanter was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 15, 1910, received his commission the following day. Van Devanter assumed senior status on June 2, 1937, one of the first Supreme Court Justices to do so. Although no longer on the Court at that point, he remained available to hear cases in the lower courts until his death and presided over civil trials.
On the court, he made his mark in opinions on public lands, Indian questions, water rights, admiralty and corporate law, but is best remembered for his opinions defending limited government in the 1920s and 1930s. He served for over twenty-five years, voted against the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the National Recovery Administration, federal regulation of labor relations, the Railway Pension Act, unemployment insurance, the minimum wage. For his conservatism, he was known as one of the Four Horsemen, along with Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, he was anti-Semitic but less so than McReynolds, who refused to interact with or speak to eventual Jewish Supreme Court Justices Louis Brandeis and Felix Frankfurter. His opinion in United States v. Sandoval held that because the New Mexico Pueblos were "intellectually and morally inferior" and "easy victims to the evils and debasing influence of intoxicants" they were subject to restrictions on alcohol sales in Indian Country.
The decision has since been the basis for Pueblo protection of tribal lands. Van Devanter had chronic writer's block—even characterized as "pen paralysis"—and, as a result, he wrote fewer opinions than any of his brethren, averaging three a term during his last decade on the Court, he wrote on constitutional issues. However, he was respected as an expert on judicial procedure. In December 1921, Chief Justice Taft appointed him, along with Justices McReynolds and Sutherland, to draw up a proposal that would amend the nation's Judicial code and which would define further the jurisdiction of the nation's circuit courts. Known as "the Judges' Bill", it retained mandatory jurisdiction over cases that raised questions regarding federal jurisdiction, it called for the circuit courts of appeal to have appellate jurisdiction to review "by appeal or writ of error" final decisions in the district courts, as well as for the district courts for Alaska, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Canal Zone. The circuit courts were empowered to modify, enforce or set aside orders of the Federal Communications Commission, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Trade Commission.
The proposed bill further provided that'a final judgment or decree in any suit in the highest court of a state in which a decision in the suit could be had, "where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States may be reviewed by the Supreme Court on a writ of error." Lastly, cases involving final decrees which brought into question the validity of a wide range of Federal or state treaties would come to the Court by certiorari. Four justices would be required to vote affirmatively to accept petitions, which meant that the Court's agenda would now by enrolled by "judicial review." The Chief Justice, together with the three Justices, made repeated trips to Congress, in 1925, after two years of debate, the new Code was passed. Van Devanter retired as a Supreme Court Justice on May 18, 1937, after Congress voted full pay for justices over seventy who retired, he acknowledged that he might have retired five years earlier due to illness, if not for his concern about New Deal legislation, a
Benjamin N. Cardozo
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He had served as the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals. Cardozo is remembered for his significant influence on the development of American common law in the 20th century, in addition to his philosophy and vivid prose style. Born in New York City, Cardozo passed the bar in 1891 after attending Columbia Law School, he won an election to the New York Supreme Court in 1913 but joined the New York Court of Appeals the following year. He won election as Chief Judge of that court in 1926. In 1932, President Herbert Hoover appointed Cardozo to the Supreme Court to succeed Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Cardozo served on the Court until 1938, formed part of the liberal bloc of justices known as the Three Musketeers, he wrote the Court's majority opinion in notable cases such as Nixon v. Condon and Steward Machine Co. v. Davis. Cardozo, the son of Rebecca Washington and Albert Jacob Cardozo, was born in 1870 in New York City.
Both Cardozo's maternal grandparents, Sara Seixas and Isaac Mendes Seixas Nathan, his paternal grandparents, Ellen Hart and Michael H. Cardozo, were Western Sephardim of the Portuguese Jewish community, affiliated with Manhattan's Congregation Shearith Israel; the family were descended from Jewish-origin New Christian conversos who left the Iberian Peninsula for Holland during the Inquisition, after which they returned to Judaism. Cardozo family tradition held that their marrano ancestors were from Portugal, although Cardozo's ancestry has not been traced to Portugal. However, "Cardozo", "Seixas" and "Mendes" are the Portuguese, rather than Spanish, spelling of those common Iberian surnames. Benjamin Cardozo was a twin with his sister Emily, they had a total of four siblings, including brother. One of many cousins was the poet Emma Lazarus. Benjamin was named for his uncle, Benjamin Nathan, a vice president of the New York Stock Exchange and the victim of a noted famous unsolved murder case in 1870.
Albert Cardozo, Benjamin Cardozo's father, was a judge on the Supreme Court of New York until 1868, when he was implicated in a judicial corruption scandal, sparked by the Erie Railway takeover wars. The scandal led to the creation of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York and his father's resignation from the bench. After leaving the court, he practiced law for nearly two decades more until his death in 1885. Rebecca Cardozo died in 1879 when Emily were young; the twins were raised during much of their childhood by their older sister Nell, 11 years older. One of Benjamin's tutors was Horatio Alger. At age 15, Cardozo entered Columbia University where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, went on to Columbia Law School in 1889. Cardozo wanted to enter a profession that could materially aid himself and his siblings, but he hoped to restore the family name, sullied by his father's actions as a judge; when Cardozo entered Columbia Law School, the program was only two years long. Cardozo declined to stay for an extra year, thus left law school without a law degree.
Cardozo began practicing appellate law alongside his older brother. Benjamin Cardozo practiced law in New York City until year-end 1913 with Simpson and Cardozo. In November 1913, Cardozo was narrowly elected to a 14-year term on the New York Supreme Court, taking office on January 1, 1914. In February 1914, Cardozo was designated to the New York Court of Appeals under the Amendment of 1899, was the first Jew to serve on the Court of Appeals. In January 1917, he was appointed to a regular seat on the Court of Appeals to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Samuel Seabury, in November 1917, he was elected on the Democratic and Republican tickets to a 14-year term on the Court of Appeals. In 1926, he was elected, to a 14-year term as Chief Judge, he took office on January 1, 1927, resigned on March 7, 1932 to accept an appointment to the United States Supreme Court. His tenure was marked by a number in tort and contract law in particular; this is due to timing. In 1921, Cardozo gave the Storrs Lectures at Yale University, which were published as The Nature of the Judicial Process, a book that remains valuable to judges today.
Shortly thereafter, Cardozo became a member of the group that founded the American Law Institute, which crafted a Restatement of the Law of Torts, a host of other private law subjects. He wrote three other books that became standards in the legal world. While on the Court of Appeals, he criticized the Exclusionary rule as developed by the federal courts, stated that: "The criminal is to go free because the constable has blundered." He noted that many states had rejected the rule, but suggested that the adoption by the federal courts would affect the practice in the sovereign states. In 1932, President Herbert Hoover appointed Cardozo to the Supreme Court of the United States to succeed Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes; the New York Times said of Cardozo's appointment that "seldom, if in the history of the Court has an appointment been so universally commended." Democratic Cardozo's appoint
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo