The Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England, is part of the Tyneside conurbation. The borough council's main office is at Cobalt Business Park in Wallsend; the local authority is North Tyneside Council. North Tyneside is bounded by Newcastle upon Tyne to the west, the North Sea to the east, the River Tyne to the south and Northumberland to the north. Within its bounds are the towns of Wallsend, North Shields and Whitley Bay, which form a continuously built-up area contiguous with Newcastle; the borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the county borough of Tynemouth, with the borough of Wallsend, part of the borough of Whitley Bay, the urban district of Longbenton and part of the urban district of Seaton Valley, all of which were in Northumberland. The following places are located in North Tyneside: Annitsford Backworth Battle Hill Benton Burradon Camperdown Cullercoats Dudley Earsdon Forest Hall Holystone Howdon Killingworth Longbenton Meadow Well Monkseaton Moorside Murton New York North Shields Northumberland Park Palmersville Percy Main Preston Seaton Burn Shiremoor Tynemouth Wallsend Wellfield West Allotment West Moor Whitley Bay Willington Unlike most English districts, its council is led by a directly-elected mayor Labour's Norma Redfearn.
As of March 2016, the council is Labour led, Labour having 51 councillors, the Conservatives 7 and the Lib Dems 2. The council is elected "in thirds", with one councillor from each three-member ward elected each year for the first three years, the mayoral election being held on the fourth year. With three councillors elected from each of 20 wards, there are 60 councillors in total. Riverside By-Election, 4 July 2013 - Labour hold Wallsend By-Election, 16 November 2012 - Liberal Democrat gain from Labour For earlier results see North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council elections. North Tyneside lies in the coalfield that covers the South-East of the historic county of Northumberland, it has traditionally been a centre of heavy industry along with the rest of Tyneside, with for example the Swan Hunter shipyard in Wallsend, export of coal. Today most of the heavy industry has gone, leaving high unemployment in some areas; the borough is the 69th most deprived in England, out of 354. However some parts function as wealthy dormitory suburbs such as Tynemouth.
Recent growth has come in the A19 corridor with retail parks. Two key roads serve North Tyneside: The A19 which leaves the A1 north of Newcastle and runs through the borough and through the Tyne Tunnel to South Tyneside and towards the South; the Coast Road runs from Newcastle to the coast. For most of its length it is grade-separated. North Tyneside is served by 17 stations on the Tyne & Wear Metro on a loop from Newcastle through Wallsend, North Shields, Whitley Bay and back to Newcastle. Trains operate at least every 15 minutes, with extra services in the peak hours. Most of the stations serving North Tyneside fall into fare zones B and C. There are no National Rail stations in the borough, despite the East Coast Main Line and Blyth and Tyne routes passing through; the nearest National Rail station is Newcastle, served by the Tyne & Wear Metro. North Tyneside has an extensive bus network, with most areas benefiting from direct services to Newcastle. Many areas have direct bus services to Blyth or Morpeth.
The principle bus operators in the area are Arriva North East, Go North East and Stagecoach in Newcastle. The Shields Ferry links North Shields to South Shields, in South Tyneside. There is an international ferry terminal at Royal Quays in North Shields, with a service to Amsterdam. Segedunum Roman fort is in Wallsend; the Stephenson Railway Museum in New York, named after George Stephenson and Robert Stephenson who hailed from Tyneside and lived in West Moor in North Tyneside 1802–1824. Tynemouth Castle and Priory North Tyneside includes coastline covering Tynemouth and Whitley Bay Blue Reef Aquarium in Tynemouth St. Mary's Island in Whitley Bay North Shields Fish Quay, Clifford's Fort and the High and Low Lights of North Shields Frederikshavn in Denmark Mönchengladbach in Germany Oer-Erkenschwick in Germany Halluin in France Klaipėda in Lithuania Coatzacoalcos in Mexico Charlotte in North Carolina Archives of North Tyneside (including boroughs of Tynemouth and Whitley Bay and Longbenton Urban District are preserved and accessible at Tyne and Wear Archives Service Wallsend Town Information regarding the town centre and areas covering Wallsend in North Tyneside can be found here
Tynemouth Metro station
Tynemouth Metro station is a station on the Tyne and Wear Metro network and is a Grade II* listed building. It was designed by William Bell for the North Eastern Railway Company; as well as serving the Tyne and Wear Metro, it hosts a number of permanent businesses and a weekly market. North Tyneside Council and Millhouse Developments jointly own Station Developments Limited, which in turn is the owner of Tynemouth station; the railway station was opened in 1882 by the North Eastern Railway. It served as the terminus for the first section of the Metro network from Tynemouth to Haymarket via Benton and Jesmond, that opened on 11 August 1980, it became a through station once more on 14 November 1982 when the section to St James via North Shields and Monument became the fourth section of the network to commence services. British Rail continued to use the bay platforms at the southern end of Platform 2 for services from Newcastle upon Tyne via Wallsend until the day before the first section of the Metro opened, meaning that Tynemouth station never closed.
In 2007, English Heritage placed the station on its Heritage at Risk register of notable buildings in need of restoration. In early April 2009, plans regarding proposed regeneration of the station were put on show to members of the public and local businesses; the Planning Committee of North Tyneside Council received a planning application dated 16 September 2009 which envisaged substantial redevelopment of the Tynemouth Metro Station site. The owners of the site, Station Developments Limited wished to build a 16 000 sqft supermarket on the site, as well as other improvements. A leading supermarket chain was said to have shown interest; the insertion of a supermarket of such size would be to have a large effect on the amenity of the surrounding area, a designated conservation area. The station was renovated in 2012, following the revamp it was opened by Anne, Princess Royal on 2 July 2012 and removed from the Heritage at Risk register. Trains from St James and Monument travel onwards anticlockwise around the North Tyneside Loop to South Shields via Four Lane Ends, Central Station, Heworth call at Platform 1, while services running in the opposite direction stop at Platform 2.
A weekly market is held in the station concourse every Saturday and Sunday, which doubles as a farmers' market once a month. The Friends of Tynemouth Station have held book fairs several times a year and they have arranged the displays of artwork that travellers see in the central section of the bridge and hanging from the roof area at the station; the station concourse is used as an events area during the annual Mouth of the Tyne Festival. Train times and station information for Tynemouth Metro station from NexusRecent Planning Application Millhouse Developments
Salt is a mineral composed of sodium chloride, a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater; the open ocean has about 35 grams of solids per liter of sea water, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general, saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, salting is an important method of food preservation; some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 6,000 BC, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and the Indians. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along specially built salt roads, across the Sahara on camel caravans; the scarcity and universal need for salt have led nations to go to war over it and use it to raise tax revenues. Salt has other cultural and traditional significance.
Salt is processed from salt mines, by the evaporation of seawater and mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial products are caustic chlorine. Of the annual global production of around two hundred million tonnes of salt, about 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include water conditioning processes, de-icing highways, agricultural use. Edible salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which contains an anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency; as well as its use in cooking and at the table, salt is present in many processed foods. Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an osmotic solute. Excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults; such health effects of salt have long been studied. Accordingly, numerous world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend reducing consumption of popular salty foods; the World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.
All through history, the availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. What is now thought to have been the first city in Europe is Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, a salt mine, providing the area now known as the Balkans with salt since 5400 BC; the name Solnitsata means "salt works". While people have used canning and artificial refrigeration to preserve food for the last hundred years or so, salt has been the best-known food preservative for meat, for many thousands of years. A ancient salt-works operation has been discovered at the Poiana Slatinei archaeological site next to a salt spring in Lunca, Neamț County, Romania. Evidence indicates that Neolithic people of the Precucuteni Culture were boiling the salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage to extract the salt as far back as 6050 BC; the salt extracted from this operation may have had a direct correlation to the rapid growth of this society's population soon after its initial production began. The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi, dates back to at least 6000 BC, making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.
There is more salt in animal tissues, such as meat and milk, than in plant tissues. Nomads who subsist on their flocks and herds do not eat salt with their food, but agriculturalists, feeding on cereals and vegetable matter, need to supplement their diet with salt. With the spread of civilization, salt became one of the world's main trading commodities, it was of high value to the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and other peoples of antiquity. In the Middle East, salt was used to ceremonially seal an agreement, the ancient Hebrews made a "covenant of salt" with God and sprinkled salt on their offerings to show their trust in him. An ancient practice in time of war was salting the earth: scattering salt around in a defeated city to prevent plant growth; the Bible tells the story of King Abimelech, ordered by God to do this at Shechem, various texts claim that the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ploughed over and sowed the city of Carthage with salt after it was defeated in the Third Punic War.
Salt may have been used for barter in connection with the obsidian trade in Anatolia in the Neolithic Era. Salt was included among funeral offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC, as were salted birds, salt fish. From about 2800 BC, the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon cedar and the dye Tyrian purple. Herodotus described salt trading routes across Libya back in the 5th century BC. In the early years of the Roman Empire, roads were built for the transportation of salt from the salt imported at Ostia to the capital. In Africa, salt was used as currency south of the Sahara, slabs of rock salt were used as coins in Abyssinia. Moorish merchants in the 6th century traded salt for weight for weight; the Tuareg have traditionally maintained routes across the Sahara for the transportation of salt by Azalai. The caravans
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral composed of oxides, hydroxide calcium oxide and/ or calcium hydroxide. It is the name for calcium oxide which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenoliths in volcanic ejecta; the word lime originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of sticking or adhering. These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials, as chemical feedstocks, for sugar refining, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric times in both the Old World and the New World. Lime is used extensively for wastewater treatment with ferrous sulfate; the rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived limestone or chalk, are composed of calcium carbonate. They may be crushed, or pulverized and chemically altered. Burning converts them into the caustic material quicklime and, through subsequent addition of water, into the less caustic slaked lime or hydrated lime, the process of, called slaking of lime.
Lime kilns are the kilns used for lime slaking. When the term is encountered in an agricultural context, it refers to agricultural lime, crushed limestone, not a product of a lime kiln. Otherwise it most means slaked lime, as the more dangerous form is described more as quicklime or burnt lime. In the lime industry, limestone is a general term for rocks that contain 80% or more of calcium or magnesium carbonates, including marble, chalk and marl. Further classification is by composition as high calcium, silicious, magnesian and other limestones. Uncommon sources of lime include coral, sea shells and ankerite. Limestone is extracted from mines. Part of the extracted stone, selected according to its chemical composition and optical granulometry, is calcinated at about 1,000 °C in different types of lime kilns to produce quicklime according to the reaction: CaCO 3 calcium carbonate → heat CaO calcium oxide + CO 2 carbon dioxide. Before use, quicklime is hydrated, combined with water, called slaking, so hydrated lime is known as slaked lime, is produced according to the reaction: CaO + H 2 O water ⟶ Ca 2 calcium hydroxide.
Dry slaking is when quicklime is slaked with just enough water to hydrate the quicklime, but remain as a powder and is referred to as hydrated lime. In wet slaking, a slight excess of water is added to hydrate the quicklime to a form referred to as lime putty; because lime has an adhesive property with bricks and stones, it is used as binding material in masonry works. It is used in whitewashing as wall coat to adhere the whitewash onto the wall; the process by which limestone is converted to quicklime by heating to slaked lime by hydration, reverts to calcium carbonate by carbonation is called the lime cycle. The conditions and compounds present during each step of the lime cycle have a strong influence of the end product, thus the complex and varied physical nature of lime products. An example is when slaked lime is mixed into a thick slurry with sand and water to form mortar for building purposes; when the masonry has been laid, the slaked lime in the mortar begins to react with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate according to the reaction: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O.
The carbon dioxide that takes part in this reaction is principally available in the air or dissolved in rainwater so pure lime mortar will not recarbonate under water or inside a thick masonry wall. The lime cycle for dolomitic and magnesium lime is not well understood but more complex because the magnesium compounds slake to periclase which slake more than calcium oxide and when hydrated produce several other compounds thus these limes contain inclusions of portlandite, brucite and other magnesium hydroxycarbonate compounds; these magnesium compounds have limited, contradictory research which questions whether they "...may be reactive with acid rain, which could lead to the formation of magnesium sulfate salts." Magnesium sulfate salts may damage the mortar when they dry and recrystalize due to expansion of the crystals as they form, known as sulfate attack. Lime used in building materials is broadly classified as "pure", "hydraulic", "poor" lime. Uses include lime mortar, lime plaster, lime render, lime-ash floors, tabby concrete, silicate mineral paint, limestone blocks which may be of many types.
The qualities of the many types of processed lime affect. The Romans used two types of lime mortar to make Roman concrete, which allowed them to revolutionize architectur
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. A merchant is anyone, involved in business or trade. Merchants have been known for as long as industry and trade have existed. During the 16th-century, in Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: One term, described local traders such as bakers, etc.. The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In ancient Rome and Greece, merchants may have been wealthy, but were not accorded high social status. In contrast, in the Middle East, where markets were an integral part of the city, merchants enjoyed high status. In modern times, the term has been used to refer to a businessperson or someone undertaking activities for the purpose of generating profit, cash flow and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth. Merchants have been known for as long as humans have engaged in commerce.
Merchants and merchant networks were known to operate in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome. During the European medieval period, a rapid expansion in trade and commerce, led to the rise of a wealthy and powerful merchant class; the European age of discovery opened up new trading routes and gave European consumers access to a much broader range of goods. From the 1600s, goods began to travel much further distances as they found their way into geographically dispersed market places. Following the opening Asia and the discovery of the New World, goods were imported from long distances: calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World. By the eighteenth century, a new type of manufacturer-merchant was emerging and modern business practices were becoming evident; the English term, "merchant" comes from the Middle English, which itself originated from the Vulgar Latin mercatant or mercatans, formed from present participle of mercatare meaning to trade, to traffic or to deal in.
The term is used to refer to any type of reseller, but can be used with a specific qualifier to suggest a person who deals in a given characteristic such as "speed merchant" to refer to someone who enjoys fast driving. Other known uses of the term include: "dream merchant" used to describe someone who peddles idealistic visionary scenarios and "merchant of war" to describe proponents of war. Elizabeth Honig has argued that concepts relating to the role of a merchant began to change in the mid-16th century; the Dutch term, became rather more fluid during the 16th century when Antwerp was the most global market town in Europe. Two different terms, for a merchant, began to be used, meerseniers referred to local merchants including bakers, sellers of dairy products and stall-holders, while the alternate term, was used to describe those who traded in goods or credit on a large scale; this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks of traders who took up their places on a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience.
Broadly, merchants can be classified into two categories: A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between the producer and retail merchant dealing in large quantities of goods. In other words, a wholesaler does not sell directly to end-users; some wholesale merchants only organize the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail merchant or retailer sells merchandise to end-users or consumers in small quantities. A shop-keeper is a retail merchant. However, the term'merchant' is used in a variety of specialised contexts such as in merchant banker, merchant navy or merchant services. Merchants have existed as long as business and commerce have been conducted. A merchant class characterized many pre-modern societies. Open air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome; these markets occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place.
These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, in ancient Rome the forum. Rome had two forums; the latter was a vast expanse. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling through permanent or semi-permanent retail premises such as stall-holders at market places or shop-keepers selling from their own premises or through door-to-door direct sales via merchants or peddlers; the nature of direct selling centred around transactional exchange, where the goods were on open display, allowing buyers to evaluate quality directly through visual inspection. Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal playing into public concerns about the quality of produce; the Phoenicians were well known amongst contemporaries as "traders in purple" – a
HM Revenue and Customs
Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs is a non-ministerial department of the UK Government responsible for the collection of taxes, the payment of some forms of state support and the administration of other regulatory regimes including the national minimum wage. HMRC was formed by the merger of the Inland Revenue and Her Majesty's Customs and Excise, which took effect on 18 April 2005; the department's logo is the St Edward's Crown enclosed within a circle. The department is responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes including Income Tax, Corporation Tax, Capital Gains Tax and Inheritance Tax, indirect taxes including Value Added Tax, excise duties and Stamp Duty Land Tax, environmental taxes such as Air Passenger Duty and the Climate Change Levy. Other aspects of the department's responsibilities include National Insurance Contributions, the distribution of Child Benefit and some other forms of state support including the Child Trust Fund, payments of Tax Credits, enforcement of the National Minimum Wage, administering anti-money laundering registrations for Money Service Businesses and collection and publication of the trade-in-goods statistics.
Responsibility for the protection of the UK's borders passed to the UK Border Agency within the Home Office on 1 April 2008 and to UK Border Force and the National Crime Agency in 2013. HMRC has two overarching Public Service Agreement targets for the period 2008–2011: Improve the extent to which individuals and businesses pay the tax due and receive the credits and payments to which they are entitled Improve customers' experiences of HMRC and improve the UK business environment HMRC is a law enforcement agency which has a strong cadre of Criminal Investigators responsible for investigating Serious Organised Fiscal Crime; this includes all of the previous HMCE criminal work such as tobacco and oils smuggling. They have aligned their previous Customs and Excise powers to tackle previous Inland Revenue criminal offences, they are responsible for seizing billions of stolen pounds of HMG's revenue. Their skills and resources include the full range of intrusive and covert surveillance and they are a senior partner in the Organised Crime Partnership Board.
HMRC criminal investigation officers have wide-ranging powers of arrest, entry and detention. The main power is to detain anyone who has committed, or whom the officer has reasonable grounds to suspect has committed, any offence under the Customs and Excise Acts as well as related fraud offences. On 30 June 2006, under the authority of the new Labour Home Secretary, John Reid, extensive new powers were given to HMRC. Under Chairman Sir David Varney, a new Criminal Taxes Unit of senior tax investigators was created to target suspected fraudsters and criminal gangs. To disrupt and clamp down on criminal activity; this HMRC/CTU would pursue suspects in the same way the US Internal Revenue Service caught out Al Capone on tax evasion. These new powers included the ability to impose penalties without needing to prove the guilt of suspected criminals. On 19 July 2006, the Executive Chairman of Sir David Varney resigned. HMRC is listed under parts of the British Government which contribute to intelligence collection and assessment.
Their prosecution cases may be coordinated with the Crown Prosecution Service. The department is organised around four operational groups, each led by a director general; the four operational groups are: Personal Tax led by Mike BakerBenefits and Credits led by Nick Lodge Business Tax led by Jim Harra Customer Compliance led by Penny CiniewiczIn addition to the four operational groups, there are five supporting groups. These are: Permanent Secretary for Tax group Chief Finance Officer group Chief information Officer group General Counsel and Solicitor group Chief People Officer groupHMRC deals with the top 2,000 large business via CRM; the next 8,400 business are dealt with via Customer Co-ordinators who provide a single point of contact with HMRC. The merger of the Inland Revenue and HM Customs & Excise was announced by Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown in the Budget on 17 March 2004; the name for the new department and its first executive chairman, David Varney, were announced on 9 May 2004.
Varney joined the nascent department in September 2004, staff started moving from Somerset House and New Kings Beam House into HMRC's new headquarters building at 100 Parliament Street in Whitehall on 21 November 2004. The planned new department was announced formally in the Queen's Speech of 2004 and a bill, the Commissioners for Revenue and Customs Bill, was introduced into the House of Commons on 24 September 2004, received Royal Assent as the Commissioners for Revenue and Customs Act 2005 on 7 April 2005; the Act creates a Revenue and Customs Prosecutions Office responsible for the prosecution of all Revenue and Customs cases. The old Inland Revenue and Customs & Excise departments had different historical bases, internal cultures and legal powers; the merger was described by the Financial Times on 9 July 2004, as "mating the C&E terrier with the IR retriever". For an interim period officers of HMRC are empowered to use existing Inland Revenue powers in relation to matters within the remit of the old Inland Revenue and existing Customs powers in relation to matters within the remit of the old Customs & Excise.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.