The Southern School of Chinese painting called "literati painting", is a term used to denote art and artists which stand in opposition to the formal Northern School of painting. The distinction is not geographic, but relates to the style and contents of the works, to some extent to the position of the artist. Where professional, formal painters were classified as Northern School, scholar-bureaucrats who had either retired from the professional world or who were never a part of it constituted the Southern School. According to William Watson, while the Northern School contains "the painters who favour clear, emphatic structure in their compositions, with the use of explicit perspective devices", the Southern School "cultivate a more intimate style of landscape bathed in cloud and mist, in which pleasing calligraphic forms tend to take the place of conventions established for the representation of rocks, etc; the painter of the Southern School was interested in distant effects, but his colleague of the Northern School paid more attention to the devices of composition which achieve the illusion of recession, at the same time more attentive to close realism of detail....
Some artists hover between the two". A more philosophical distinction is that the Southern School painters "were thought to have sought the inner realities and expressed their own lofty natures" while the Northern "painted only the outward appearance of things, the worldly and decorative". Never a formal school of art in the sense of artists training under a single master in a single studio, the Southern School is more of an umbrella term spanning a great breadth across both geography and chronology; the literati lifestyle and attitude, the associated style of painting, can be said to go back quite far to early periods of Chinese history. However, classification of the "Southern School" as such, that is, the coining of the term, is said to have been made by the scholar-artist Dong Qichang, who borrowed the concept from Ch'an Buddhism, which has Northern and Southern Schools. Southern School painters worked in ink wash painting with black ink, focused on expressive brushstrokes and a somewhat more impressionistic approach than the Northern School's formal attention to detail and use of color and refined traditional modes and methods.
The stereotypical literati painter lived in retirement in the mountains or other rural areas, not isolated, but immersed in natural beauty and far from mundane concerns. They were lovers of culture, hypothetically enjoying and taking part in all Four Arts of the Chinese Scholar as touted by Confucianism, that is, calligraphy and games of skill and strategy, they would combine these elements into their work, would gather with one another to share their interests. Literati paintings are most of landscapes of the shanshui genre, feature scholars in retirement, or travellers and enjoying the scenery, or immersed in culture. Figures are depicted carrying or playing guqin, residing in quite isolated mountain hermitages. Calligraphic inscriptions, either of classical poems or ones composed by a contemporary literati, are quite common. However, while this sort of landscape, with certain features and elements, is the standard stereotypical Southern School painting, the genre varied quite as the literati painters themselves, in rejecting the formal strictures of the Northern School, sought the freedom to experiment with subjects and styles.
Although the term itself originates much the artists attached to it go back to at least the Tang dynasty, with a larger group from the Northern Song dynasty. In the latter period the tradition of literati landscape painting seems to have acquired most of the characteristics that it kept throughout its history, a number of writings on theory have survived from it. Several of the famous names from the periods between the Tang and Song periods were high officials, but in periods landscape painting became a refuge and form of muted protest within their class for officials out of favour, or who opposed and avoided the court. During the Qing period, the canons of classical Chinese painting derived from the criteria set out by Dong Qichang, Mo Shilong, Chen Jiru, they identified two different schools: the “Northern School of Painting” and the “Southern School of Painting” called “Literati Painting”. They were inspired by two schools formed by the schism of Chan Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty: the Northern Chan school and the Southern Chan school.
Like other traditions in Chinese art, the early Southern style soon acquired a classic status and was much copied and imitated, with painters sometimes producing sets of paintings each in the style of a different classic artist. Though affected by the confrontation with Western painting from the 18th-century on, the style continued to be practiced until at least the 20th century. Beginning in the 18th century, the attitudes of the Chinese literati began to be taken up by Japanese artists; as the Japanese literati were forbidden to leave Japan, had little access to original Chinese works, the lifestyle and art changed in Japan. Outside of native Japanese inspirations, these bunjin gained Chinese influence only through woodblock-printed art books which attempted
Ni Zan was a Chinese painter during the Yuan and early Ming periods. Along with Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Wang Meng, he is considered to be one of the Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty. Ni Zan was born into a wealthy family in Wuxi, his courtesy name was Yuan Zhen, his art names were Yun Lin Zi, Huan Xia Sheng, Jing Man Min. He was born after the death of the Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler who defeated the Song and established dominance over all the areas that had traditionally been considered China; the Yuan rulers did not trust many of the Confucian scholars and instead preferred to appoint Mongolians and Muslims to administrative positions. Ni Zan was born into an elite family who could afford the cost of a rigorous Confucian education for him in spite of the unavailability of high-paying governmental jobs that traditionally were the reward for such an education, he was one of a number of wealthy scholars and poets who were part of a movement that radically altered traditional conceptions of Chinese painting.
Their paintings depicted representations of natural settings that were localized, portraying valued vistas that reflected their individual feelings. During the 1340s a number of droughts and floods caused a famine throughout Ni Zan's region, which subsequently led to peasant revolts; these revolts peaked in 1350 due to the government’s use of forced labor to repair the dikes on the Yellow River. Throughout the 1340s, the Yuan rulers imposed heavy taxes on the rich landowners of the region in order to cover the cost of the ongoing natural disasters. There are many divergent opinions concerning Ni Zan’s reaction to these taxes, his ensuing actions are unclear. However, it has been established that he distributed all of his possessions to his friends and moved into a houseboat, he left on the eve of the millenarianist Red Turban Revolt and travelled throughout the peaceful southeast while various revolutionary parties tore through his region of origin. It was at this time. Ni Zan's landscapes after 1345 all take much the same form: ink-monochrome paintings of separated riverbanks rendered in sketch brushwork and foreground trees silhouetted against the expanse of water.
His sparse landscapes never defy many traditional concepts of Chinese painting. Many of his works hardly represent the natural settings. Indeed, Ni Zan consciously used his art as a medium of self-expression. In 1364, he said “I use bamboo painting to write out the exhilaration in my breast, all. Why should I worry whether it shows likeness or not?” Ni Zan travelled around southern China during the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty and spent his time painting. During his lifetime, his work was valued and in itself was enough to pay for the hospitality provided by his friends as he travelled, he returned to his hometown in 1371 after the establishment of the Ming Dynasty. In 1372, he painted his Rongxi Studio. Masterpieces of Chinese Art, by Rhonda and Jeffrey Cooper, Todtri Productions, 1997. ISBN 1-57717-060-1 Cahill, James. Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yuan Dynasty: 1279-1368. New York: Weatherhill, 1976. 114-120. Fong, Wen C. Beyond Representation: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy 8th-14th Century.
New Haven: Yale UP, 1992. Siren, Osvald. Chinese Painting: Leading masters and principles. Vol. IV. New York: Hacker Art Books, 1973. 79-84. Xin, Nie Chongzhen, Lang Shaojin, Richard M. Barnhart, James Cahill, Wu Hung. Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting. New Haven: Yale UP, 1997. Vandier-Nicolas, Peinture chinoise et tradition lettrée, Paris: Seuil. 173-177. Ci hai bian ji wei yuan hui (辞海编辑委员会）. Ci hai （辞海）. Shanghai: Shanghai ci shu chu ban she （上海辞书出版社）, 1979. Ni Zan and his painting gallery at China Online Museum Met Museum Sung and Yuan paintings, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Ni Zan
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty, it now houses the Palace Museum; the Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for 500 years. Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex covers 72 hectares; the palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world. Since 1925, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artifacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum's former collection is now in the National Palace Museum in Taipei.
Both museums were split after the Chinese Civil War. Since 2012, the Forbidden City has seen an average of 15 million visitors annually, received more than 16 million visitors in 2016 and 2017; the common English name "Forbidden City" is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng. The name Zijin Cheng first formally appeared in 1576. Another English name of similar origin is "Forbidden Palace"; the name "Zijin Cheng" is a name with significance on many levels. Zi, or "Purple", refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, in traditional Chinese astrology was the heavenly abode of the Celestial Emperor; the surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure, was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or "Forbidden", referred to the fact that no one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor's permission. Cheng means a city. Today, the site is most known in Chinese as Gùgōng, which means the "Former Palace".
The museum, based in these buildings is known as the "Palace Museum". When Hongwu Emperor's son Zhu Di became the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, construction began in 1406 on what would become the Forbidden City. Construction required more than a million workers. Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood found in the jungles of south-western China, large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing; the floors of major halls were paved with "golden bricks", specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou. From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun dynasty, he soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process. By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing dynasty.
The Qing rulers changed the names on some of the principal buildings, to emphasise "Harmony" rather than "Supremacy", made the name plates bilingual, introduced Shamanist elements to the palace. In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war. In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year. After being the home of 24 emperors – 14 of the Ming dynasty and 10 of the Qing dynasty – the Forbidden City ceased being the political centre of China in 1912 with the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use, until he was evicted after a coup in 1924; the Palace Museum was established in the Forbidden City in 1925. In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City.
Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II, but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1948 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. This small but high quality collection was kept in storage until 1965, when it again became public, as the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal. During the Cultural Revolution, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city; the Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the "Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties", due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. It is administered by the Palace Museum, carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state.
In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial. A Starbucks store that opened in 2000 sparked objections and closed on 13 July 2007. Chinese media took notice of a pair of souvenir shops
The Yuan dynasty the Great Yuan, was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, the conquest was not complete until 1279, his realm was, by this point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368 which ended in Ming dynasty defeating the Yuan dynasty, the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty; some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language and the'Phags-pa script. The Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire.
In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven. The dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu. In the Proclamation of the Dynastic Name, Kublai announced the name of the new dynasty as Great Yuan and claimed the succession of former Chinese dynasties from the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors to the Tang dynasty. In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, the Ilkhanate; as such, the Yuan was sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the western khans, their subservience was nominal and each continued its own separate development. In 1271, Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan. "Dà Yuán" is from the clause "大哉乾元" in the Commentaries on the Classic of Changes section regarding the first hexagram Qián.
The counterpart in the Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus. In Mongolian, Dai Ön was used in conjunction with the "Yeke Mongghul Ulus", resulting in ᠳᠠᠢᠦᠨᠶᠡᠬᠡᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠦᠯᠦᠰ, meaning "Great Yuan Great Mongol State"; the Yuan dynasty is known by westerners as the "Mongol dynasty" or "Mongol Dynasty of China", similar to the names "Manchu dynasty" or "Manchu Dynasty of China" which were used by westerners for the Qing dynasty. Furthermore, the Yuan is sometimes known as the "Empire of the Great Khan" or "Khanate of the Great Khan", which appeared on some Yuan maps, since Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Great Khan. Both terms can refer to the khanate within the Mongol Empire directly ruled by Great Khans before the actual establishment of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271. Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes of the steppes and became Great Khan in 1206, he and his successors expanded the Mongol empire across Asia. Under the reign of Genghis' third son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234, conquering most of northern China.
Ögedei offered his nephew Kublai a position in Hebei. Kublai was unable to read Chinese but had several Han teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani, he sought the counsel of Chinese Confucian advisers. Möngke Khan succeeded Ögedei's son, Güyük, as Great Khan in 1251, he granted his brother Kublai control over Mongol held territories in China. Kublai built schools for Confucian scholars, issued paper money, revived Chinese rituals, endorsed policies that stimulated agricultural and commercial growth, he adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia renamed Shangdu. Many Han Chinese and Khitan defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin. Two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima, the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army. Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan. Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols. There were 4 Han Tumens and 3 Khitan Tumens, with each Tumen consisting of 10,000 troops.
The three Khitan Generals Shimobeidier and Xiaozhacizhizizhongxi commanded the three Khitan Tumens and the four Han Generals Zhang Rou, Yan Shi, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima commanded the four Han tumens under Ogödei Khan. Möngke Khan commenced a military campaign against the Chinese Song dynasty in southern China; the Mongol force that invaded southern China was far greater than the force they sent to invade the Middle East in 1256. He died in 1259 without a successor. Kublai returned from fighting the Song in 1260 when he learned that his brother, Ariq Böke, was challenging his claim to the throne. Kublai convened a kurultai in Kaiping. A rival kurultai in Mongolia proclaimed Ariq Böke Great Khan. Kublai depended on the cooperation of his Chinese subjects to ensure that his army received ample resources, he bolstered his popularity among his subjects by modeling his government on the bureaucracy of traditional Chinese dynasties and adopting the Chinese era name of Zhongtong. Ariq Böke was hampered by inadequate supplies and surrendered in 1264.
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Wu Zhen (painter)
Wu Zhen was a painter born in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, during the Yuan dynasty of China, one of the so-called Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty. He followed the Dong Yuan school of painting. Following along with trends of the time, Wu's works tended less toward naturalism and more toward abstraction, focusing on dynamic balance of elements, personifying nature, his painting The Central Mountain, dated 1336, is his greatest work and shows his style clearly. It is a symmetrical image, with one large mountain in its center and others to each side; the mountains have rounded tops, in fact all of Wu's lines in this painting are smooth and flowing. The painting is a reinterpretation of traditional landscape paintings as it brings abstract style and brushwork to landscape to create a work focused on balance. Landscapes Clear and Radiant: The Art of Wang Hui, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Wu Zhen
Huang Gongwang was born Lu Jian during the late Song Dynasty in Changshu, Jiangsu. He was the oldest of the "Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty.". At the age of 10, the Song fell to the Mongol founders of the Yuan Dynasty and he, like many other Chinese scholars of the time, found his path to officialdom and a good career limited. "He was first an unranked ling-shih at a Surveillance Office in the Chiang-che Branch Secretariat engaged in some sort of land tax supervision. He served as a secretary in the metropolitan Censorate where he was involved in the slander case of a minister, Chang Lu, he seems to have spent quite some time in jail before retreating into Taoism disillusioned." He spent his last years in the Fu-ch'un mountains near Hangzhou devoting himself to Taoism, where around 1350 he completed one of his most famous, arguably greatest, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains. In art he rejected the landscape conventions of his era's Academy, but is now regarded as one of the great literati painters.
Art historian James Cahill identified Huang Gongwang as the artist who "most decisively altered the course of landscape painting, creating models that would have a profound effect on landscapists of centuries." One of Huang Gongwang’s strongest influences was his technique of using dry brush strokes together with light ink washes to build up his landscape paintings. He wrote a treatise on landscape painting, Secrets of Landscape Painting; as was typical for Chinese scholar-officials of his era, he wrote poetry and had some talent for music. Masterpieces of Chinese Art, by Rhonda and Jeffrey Cooper, Todtri Productions, 1997. ISBN 1-57717-060-1 James Cahill, "The Yuan Dynasty" in Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting, ed. by Yang Xin, Richard M. Barnhart, et. al. Yale University Press, 1997. Sherman E. Lee and Wai-Kam Ho. Chinese Art Under the Mongols: The Yuan Dynasty; the Cleveland Museum of Art, 1968. Landscapes Clear and Radiant: The Art of Wang Hui, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Huang Gongwang Huang Gongwang and "Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains" at the National Palace Museum