Rhythm means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions". This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to several seconds. In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm may refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space" and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty, Godfried Toussaint, William Rothstein, Joel Lester, Guerino Mazzola. In his television series How Music Works, Howard Goodall presents theories that human rhythm recalls the regularity with which we walk and the heartbeat.
Other research suggests that it does not relate to the heartbeat directly, but rather the speed of emotional affect, which influences heartbeat. Yet other researchers suggest that since certain features of human music are widespread, it is "reasonable to suspect that beat-based rhythmic processing has ancient evolutionary roots". Justin London writes that musical metre "involves our initial perception as well as subsequent anticipation of a series of beats that we abstract from the rhythm surface of the music as it unfolds in time"; the "perception" and "abstraction" of rhythmic measure is the foundation of human instinctive musical participation, as when we divide a series of identical clock-ticks into "tick-tock-tick-tock". Joseph Jordania suggested that the sense of rhythm was developed in the early stages of hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection. Plenty of animals walk rhythmically and hear the sounds of the heartbeat in the womb, but only humans have the ability to be engaged in rhythmically coordinated vocalizations and other activities.
According to Jordania, development of the sense of rhythm was central for the achievement of the specific neurological state of the battle trance, crucial for the development of the effective defense system of early hominids. Rhythmic war cry, rhythmic drumming by shamans, rhythmic drilling of the soldiers and contemporary professional combat forces listening to the heavy rhythmic rock music all use the ability of rhythm to unite human individuals into a shared collective identity where group members put the interests of the group above their individual interests and safety; some types of parrots can know rhythm. Neurologist Oliver Sacks states that chimpanzees and other animals show no similar appreciation of rhythm yet posits that human affinity for rhythm is fundamental, so that a person's sense of rhythm cannot be lost. "There is not a single report of an animal being trained to tap, peck, or move in synchrony with an auditory beat" Human rhythmic arts are to some extent rooted in courtship ritual.
The establishment of a basic beat requires the perception of a regular sequence of distinct short-duration pulses and, as a subjective perception of loudness is relative to background noise levels, a pulse must decay to silence before the next occurs if it is to be distinct. For this reason, the fast-transient sounds of percussion instruments lend themselves to the definition of rhythm. Musical cultures that rely upon such instruments may develop multi-layered polyrhythm and simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature, called polymeter; such are the cross-rhythms of Sub-Saharan Africa and the interlocking kotekan rhythms of the gamelan. For information on rhythm in Indian music see Tala. For other Asian approaches to rhythm see Rhythm in Persian music, Rhythm in Arabian music and Usul—Rhythm in Turkish music and Dumbek rhythms. Most music and oral poetry establishes and maintains an underlying "metric level", a basic unit of time that may be audible or implied, the pulse or tactus of the mensural level, or beat level, sometimes called the beat.
This consists of a series of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time. The "beat" pulse is not the fastest or the slowest component of the rhythm but the one, perceived as fundamental: it has a tempo to which listeners entrain as they tap their foot or dance to a piece of music, it is most designated as a crotchet or quarter note in western notation. Faster levels are division levels, slower levels are mul
Is This Love (Bob Marley & The Wailers song)
"Is This Love" is a song by Bob Marley and the Wailers, released on their 1978 album Kaya. The song was part of the Legend compilation, it peaked at number 9 in the UK charts upon its release in 1978. A live rendition of the song can be found on the Babylon by Bus live album from Paris in 1978. A music video was produced, shot at the Keskidee Arts Centre in London; the original multi-tracks of this song have been made available in collectors' circles and on the Internet. The song is played in the movies In the Name of the Father, Six Days Seven Nights, Lake Placid, 50 First Dates and Just Go With It. Barbadian recording artist Rihanna covered the song during her first worldwide Good Girl Gone Bad Tour; the performance is included in her DVD album Good Girl Gone Bad Live. Scott Matthews has the song as a bonus track on his album Elsewhere; the song is featured as the theme for the ending credits of Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball as well as its sequel, Dead or Alive Xtreme 2. In 1980, it was covered by The Pat Travers Band on their Crash and Burn LP.
In 1983, Carly Simon covered the song on her album Hello Big Man. In 2003, it was covered by a Hawaiian reggae music group. Three Plus's album 3+ 4 U, which featured the cover, won the 2003 Na Hoku Hanohano Award for Reggae Album of the Year, their version of "Is This Love" is featured on the 2010 compilation album Putamayo Presents: Tribute To A Reggae Legend: Bob Marley. In 2006, it was covered by Karen Lane and Paul Malsom on their album Can't Help It, 33JAZZ141. In 2010, it was covered by Corinne Bailey Rae and released digitally as a single and on 2011's The Love E. P; this version won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance at 54th Grammy Awards. In the book Marley and Me, author John Grogan says that he and his wife Jenny came up with Marley's name when, during an argument about what to name their dog, Jenny walked to the tape deck and pushed play, the song started playing. A reference to the song is made in the lyrics "Just like the song on our radio set / We’ll share the shelter of my single bed" from James Blunt's song "Stay the Night", the first single of the 2010 album Some Kind of Trouble.
Bon Jovi's song "Lay Your Hands on Me" opens with the lyrics "you're ready, I'm willing, able. Help me lay my cards down on the table", which bears a clear similarity to the lyrics of "Is This Love". Allen Stone performs the Corinne Bailey Rae version of this song on the tour of his self-titled album, Allen Stone. Adam Lambert covered the song in an acoustic set in Sydney, Australia, in the summer of 2012, as well as in his 2013 "We Are Glamily" world tour. In June 2016, it was remixed by LVNDSCAPE and Leon Bolier, the remix version reached #16 single in the UK. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse, of the mensural level. The beat is defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect. In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including: pulse, meter, specific rhythms, groove. Rhythm in music is characterized by a repeating sequence of stressed and unstressed beats and divided into bars organized by time signature and tempo indications. Metric levels faster than the beat level are division levels, slower levels are multiple levels. Beat has always been an important part of music; some music genres such as funk will in general de-emphasize the beat, while other such as disco emphasize the beat to accompany dance. As beats are combined to form measures, each beat is divided into parts; the nature of this combination and division is. Music where two beats are combined is in duple meter, music where three beats are combined is in triple meter.
Music where the beat is split in two are in simple meter, music where the beat is split in three are called compound meter. Thus, simple duple, simple triple, compound duple, compound triple. Divisions which require numbers, are irregular divisions and subdivisions. Subdivision begins two levels below the beat level: starting with a quarter note or a dotted quarter note, subdivision begins when the note is divided into sixteenth notes; the downbeat is the first beat of the bar, i.e. number 1. The upbeat is the last beat in the previous bar which precedes, hence anticipates, the downbeat. Both terms correspond to the direction taken by the hand of a conductor; this idea of directionality of beats is significant. The crusis of a measure or a phrase is a beginning; the anacrusis doesn't have the same'explosion' of sound. An anticipatory note or succession of notes occurring before the first barline of a piece is sometimes referred to as an upbeat figure, section or phrase. Alternative expressions include "pickup" and "anacrusis".
In English, anákrousis translates as "pushing up". The term anacrusis was borrowed from the field of poetry, in which it refers to one or more unstressed extrametrical syllables at the beginning of a line. In typical Western music 44 time, counted as "1 2 3 4, 1 2 3 4...", the first beat of the bar is the strongest accent in the melody and the likeliest place for a chord change, the third is the next strongest: these are "on" beats. The second and fourth are weaker—the "off-beats". Subdivisions that fall between the pulse beats are weaker and these, if used in a rhythm, can make it "off-beat"; the effect can be simulated by evenly and counting to four. As a background against which to compare these various rhythms a bass drum strike on the downbeat and a constant eighth note subdivision on ride cymbal have been added, which would be counted as follows: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 —play eighth notes and bass drum alone 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4—the stress here on the "on" beat play But one may syncopate that pattern and alternately stress the odd and beats, respectively: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 —the stress is on the "unexpected" or syncopated beat play So "off-beat" is a musical term applied to syncopation that emphasizes the weak beats of a bar, as opposed to the usual on-beat.
This is a fundamental technique of African polyrhythm. According to Grove Music, the "Offbeat is where the downbeat is replaced by a rest or is tied over from the preceding bar"; the downbeat can never be the off-beat. Certain genres tend to emphasize the off-beat, where this is a defining characteristic of rock'n'roll and Ska music. A back beat, or backbeat, is a syncopated accentuation on the "off" beat. In a simple 44 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4."A big part of R&B's attraction had to do with the stompin' backbeats that make it so eminently danceable," according to the Encyclopedia of Percussion. An early record with an emphasised back beat throughout was "Good Rockin' Tonight" by Wynonie Harris in 1948. Although drummer Earl Palmer claimed the honor for "The Fat Man" by Fats Domino in 1949, which he played on, saying he adopted it from the final "shout" or "out" chorus common in Dixieland jazz, urban contemporary gospel was stressing the back beat much earlier with hand-clapping and tambourines.
There is a hand-clapping back beat on "Roll'Em Pete" by Pete Johnson and Big Joe Turner, recorded in 1938. A distinctive back beat can be heard on "Back Beat Boogie" by Harry James And His Orchestra, recorded in late 1939. Other early recorded examples include the final verse of "Grand Slam" by Benny Goodman in 1942 and some sections of The Glenn Miller Orchestra's " Kalamazoo", while amateur direct-to-disc recordings of Charlie Christian jamming at Minton's Playhouse around the same time have a sustained snare-drum back-beat on the hottest choruses. Outside U. S. popular music, there are early recordings of music with a distinctive backbeat, such as the 1949 recording of Mangaratiba by
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and
Four to the Floor
"Four to the Floor" is a hit single by the British band Starsailor. The song was released as the third and final single from the band's second album Silence Is Easy and became a major hit, peaking a #1 in France, #1 in Wallonia, #5 in Australia, #24 in the UK. Furthermore, "Four to the Floor" was ranked #70 on Triple J's Hottest 100 of 2004 in Australia; as of July 2014, it was the 84th best-selling single of the 21st century in France, with 333,000 units sold. There are two different videos for "Four to the Floor." In the first one, the band played in a scenario accompanied by the members of a symphonic orchestra appearing and disappearing according to the development of the song and the instruments. The second one, which uses the Thin White Duke remix of the song, features a genderless little person of unknown age in a hooded winter jacket spray-painting graffiti on public walls in or near the city of London; the band members of Starsailor are depicted as animated graffiti whilst playing the title song throughout.
At the end of the video the faceless, anonymous elfin creature is caught while standing on a bridge and shaken down by the police. One of the scenes in the video can be seen as the art cover for the Hard-Fi single Hard to Beat. In Australia, this video was set to the album version/radio edit of the song; the video shows the images of famous Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara and Ben Byrne wears a T-shirt with the word "socialism" though there is not a clear connection between those images and the concept of the video. "Four to the Floor" - 3:54 "A Message" - 4:28 This version was packaged with a fold-out poster. "Four to the Floor" - 3:54 "Four to the Floor" - 5:12 "Four to the Floor" - 4:36 "Four to the Floor" The Soulsavers remix can be heard in the 2004 film Layer Cake and on the film's soundtrack. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A hi-hat is a combination of two cymbals and a foot pedal, all mounted on a metal stand. It is a part of the standard drum kit used by drummers in many styles of music including rock and blues. Hi-hats consist of a matching pair of small to medium-sized cymbals mounted on a stand, with the two cymbals facing each other; the bottom cymbal is fixed and the top is mounted on a rod which moves the top cymbal towards the bottom one when the pedal is depressed. The hi-hat evolved from a "sock cymbal", a pair of similar cymbals mounted at ground level on a hinged, spring-loaded foot apparatus. Drummers invented the first sock cymbals to enable one drummer to play multiple percussion instruments at the same time. Over time these became mounted on short stands - known as "low-boys" - and activated by foot pedals similar to those used in the 2010s; when extended upwards 3' they were known as "high sock" cymbals, which evolved over time to the familiar "high-hat" term. The cymbals may be played by closing them together with the foot pedal, which creates a "chck" sound or striking them with a stick, which may be done with them open, closed and closed after striking to dampen the ring, or closed and opened to create a shimmering effect at the end of the note.
Depending on how hard a hi-hat is struck and whether it is "open", a hi-hat can produce a range of dynamics, from quiet "chck" sounds, done with gently pressing the pedal. While the term hi-hat refers to the entire setup, in some cases, drummers use it to refer to the two cymbals themselves. Initial versions of the hi-hat were called clangers, which were small cymbals mounted onto a bass drum rim and struck with an arm on the bass drum pedal. Came shoes, which were two hinged boards with cymbals on the ends that were clashed together. Next was the low-sock, low-boy or low-hat, pedal-activated cymbals employing an ankle-high apparatus similar to a modern hi-hat stand. A standard size was some with heavy bells up to 5 inches wide. Hi-hats that were raised and could be played by hand as well as foot may have been developed around 1926 by Barney Walberg of the drum accessory company Walberg and Auge; the first recognized master of the new instrument was "Papa" Jo Jones, whose playing of timekeeping "ride" rhythms while striking the hi-hat as it opened and closed inspired the innovation of the ride cymbal.
Another claim, published in Jazz Profiles Blogspot on August 8, 2008, to the invention of the hi-hat is attributed to drummer William "O'Neil" Spencer. Legendary Jazz drummer, "Philly Jo Jones", was quoted describing his understanding about the hi-hat history. Jones said, "I dug O'Neil, he came to club in Philadelphia where I was working in 1943, I think it was, talked to me about the hi-hat. I was using the low-hat. O'Neil was the one. I believe man, he suggested' when playing 4/4 time. The idea seemed so right hadn't heard anyone do that before." The editor of the 2008 Jazz Profiles article made specific mention to others who are thought to invent the hi-hat, including Jo Jones, but Kaiser Marshall. Not to take away from Papa Jones accomplishments in drumming style and technique, a 2013 Modern Drummer article credits Papa Jones with being the first to use brushes on drums and shifting time keeping from the bass drum to the hi-hat; until the late 1960s, standard hi-hats were 14 inches, with 13 inches available as a less-common alternative in professional cymbal ranges, smaller sizes down to 12 inches restricted to children's kits.
In the early 1970s, hard rock drummers began to use 15-inch hi-hats, such as the Paiste Giant Beat. In the late 1980s, Zildjian released its revolutionary 12-inch Special Recording hats, which were small, heavy hi-hat cymbals intended for close miking either live or recording, other manufacturers followed suit, Sabian for example with their 10-inch mini hats. In the early to mid-1990s, Paiste offered 8-inch mini hi-hats as part of its Visions series, which were among the world's smallest hi-hats. Starting in the 1980s, a number of manufacturers experimented with rivets in the lower cymbal, but by the end of the 1990s, the standard size was again 14 inches, with 13 inches a less-common alternative, smaller hats used for special sounds. Rivets in hi-hats failed to catch on. Modern hi-hat cymbals are much heavier than modern crash cymbals, reflecting the trend to lighter and thinner crash cymbals as well as to heavier hi-hats. Another evolution is that a pair of hi-hat cymbals may not be identical, with the bottom heavier than the top, vented.
Some examples are Sabian's Fusion Hats with holes in the bottom cymbal, the Sabian X-cellerator, Zildjian Master Sound and Zildjian Quick Beats, Paiste Sound Edge, Meinl Soundwave. Some drummers use mismatched hi-hats from different cymbal ranges, of different manufacturers, of different sizes. Max Roach was known for using a 15-in