Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, United States owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church and one-third of its U. S. students are from Utah. The university's primary focus is on undergraduate education, but it has 68 master's and 25 doctoral degree programs. Students attending BYU agree to follow an honor code, which mandates behavior in line with LDS teachings such as academic honesty, adherence to dress and grooming standards, abstinence from extramarital sex and from the consumption of drugs and alcohol; the university curriculum includes religious education, with required courses in, the Bible, LDS scripture and history, the university sponsors weekly devotional assemblies with most speakers addressing religious topics. Many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as LDS missionaries.
An education at BYU is less expensive than at similar private universities, since "a significant portion" of the cost of operating the university is subsidized by the church's tithing funds. BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, agriculture, management and mathematical sciences and law; the university is broadly organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges and divisions defining their own admission standards. The university administers two satellite campuses, one in Jerusalem and one in Salt Lake City, while its parent organization, the Church Educational System, sponsors sister schools in Hawaii and Idaho. BYU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the BYU Cougars, their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other sports teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYU's sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships.
Brigham Young University's origin can be traced back to 1862 when a man named Warren Dusenberry started a Provo school in Cluff Hall, a prominent adobe building in the northeast corner of 200 East and 200 North. After some financial difficulties the school was recreated in the Kinsey and Lewis buildings on Center street in Provo, after gaining some recognition for its quality, was adopted to become the Timpanogos branch of the University of Deseret; when financial difficulty forced another closure, on October 16, 1875, Brigham Young president of the LDS Church, deeded the property to trustees to create Brigham Young Academy after earlier hinting a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867. Hence, October 16, 1875, is held as BYU's founding date. Brigham Young had been envisioning for several years the concept of a church university. Said Young about his vision: "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country."
Brigham Young Academy classes commenced on January 3, 1876. Warren Dusenberry served as interim principal for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Young's choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maeser's direction, the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland and future U. S. Senator Reed Smoot; the school, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluff's term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored by the LDS Church until July 18, 1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion; the suggestion received a large amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying the school wasn't large enough to be a university, but the decision passed. One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund said, "I hope their head will grow big enough for their hat."In 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, was replaced by two institutions: Brigham Young High School, Brigham Young University.
The BY High School class of 1907 was responsible for the famous giant "Y", to this day embedded on a mountain near campus. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU, he had not received a high school education. He was an excellent orator and organizer. Under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called "Temple Hill". After some controversy among locals over BYU's purchase of this property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus, the Karl G. Maeser Memorial. Brimhall presided over the University during a brief crisis involving the theory of evolution; the religious nature of the school seemed at the time to collide with this scientific theory. Joseph F. Smith, LDS Church president, settled the question for a time by asking that evolution not be taught at the school. A few have described the school at this time as nothing more than a "religious seminary". However, many of its graduates at this time would go on to great success and become well renowned in their fields.
Franklin S. Harris was appointed the university's president in 1921, he was the first BYU president to have a doctoral degree. Harris made several
The Lamanites are one of the four civilizations of the Book of Mormon, a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, published in 1830 by its founder Joseph Smith, which purports to be an ancient history of God's dealings with people in the Western Hemisphere. In the Book of Mormon's narrative, the Lamanites began as wicked rivals to the more righteous Nephites, but when the Nephite civilization became decadent, it lost divine favor and was destroyed by the Lamanites. Mormons have associated Lamanites with present-day Native American cultures, but there is no scientific or archaeological evidence for that to be the case or that Lamanites or any of the three other groups existed. According to the Book of Mormon, the family of Lehi, described as a wealthy Hebrew prophet; some time after the death of Lehi in the Americas, Nephi, a son of Lehi, was concerned that his brothers and Lemuel, were plotting to kill him and so he, his family, his followers left and went into the wilderness. The followers of Nephi called themselves "Nephites" and referred to others as'"Lamanites," after Laman, Lehi's eldest son.
After the two groups separated from each other, the rebellious Lamanites were cursed and "cut off from the presence of the Lord." They received a "skin of blackness" so they would "not be enticing" to the Nephites. The Book of Mormon describes the animosity that the Lamanites held: Believing that they were driven out of the land of Jerusalem because of the iniquities of their fathers, that they were wronged in the wilderness by their brethren, they were wronged while crossing the sea; the Book of Mormon recounts that the Lamanites felt that they were wronged by Nephi and so swore vengeance against his descendants: were wroth with him because he departed into the wilderness as the Lord had commanded him, took the records which were engraven on the plates of brass, for they said that he robbed them. And thus they have taught their children that they should hate them, that they should murder them, that they should rob and plunder them, do all they could to destroy them. After the two groups warred for centuries, the narrative states that Jesus Christ appeared to the more righteous Nephites and the Lamanites, who, by had converted in large numbers to righteousness before God.
Soon after his visit, the Lamanites and Nephites merged into one nation and co-existed for two centuries in peace. The Book of Mormon further recounts, "There were no robbers, nor murderers, neither were there Lamanites, nor any manner of -ites; those who remained were again identified as Nephites, but both groups were reported to have fallen into apostasy. The Book of Mormon recounts a series of large battles over two centuries, ending with the extermination of the Nephites by the Lamanites. Mormons have identified the Lamanites as the primary ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas; some publications of the LDS Church have accepted that position. However, the church has stated, "Nothing in the Book of Mormon precludes migration into the Americas by peoples of Asiatic origin." The non-canonical introduction to the 1981 LDS Church edition of the Book of Mormon states that "the Lamanites are the principal ancestors of the American Indians." The wording was changed in the 2006 Doubleday edition and the subsequent editions published by the LDS Church, to state only that the Lamanites "are among the ancestors of the American Indians."Many Latter Day Saints consider Polynesian peoples and the other indigenous peoples of the Americas to be Lamanites.
A 1971 church magazine article claimed that Lamanites "consist of the Indians of all the Americas as well as the islanders of the Pacific."The existence of a Lamanite nation has received no support in mainstream science or archaeology. Genetic studies indicate that the indigenous Americans are related to the present populations in Mongolia and the vicinity, Polynesians to those in Southeast Asia; some Mormon scholars now view Lamanites as one small tribe among many in the ancient Americas, the remainder of which are not discussed in the Book of Mormon, a tribe that intermarried with indigenous Native Americans, or a tribe that descended with modern Asians from common nomadic ancestry but diverged before Lehi's departure from Jerusalem. In the Book of Mormon, Lamanites are described as having received a "skin of blackness" to distinguish them from the Nephites; the "change" in skin color is mentioned in conjunction with God's curse on the descendants of Laman for their wickedness and corruption: "And he had caused the cursing to come upon, yea a sore cursing, because of their iniquity.
For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, they had become like unto a flint. On the other hand, the Book of Mormon teaches that skin color is not a bar to salvation and that God "denieth none that come unto him and white, bond and free and female.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Book of Alma
The Book of Alma: The Son of Alma referred to as the Book of Alma, is one of the books that make up the Book of Mormon. The title refers to a prophet and "chief judge" of the Nephites; the Book of Alma is the longest of all the books of the Book of Mormon, consisting of 63 chapters. The book records the first 39 years of what the Nephites termed "the reign of the judges", a period in which the Nephite nation adopted a constitutional theocratic government in which the judicial and executive branches of the government were combined; the history of the book is outlined as follows: The first four chapters, describe the rebellions of followers of Nehor and Amlici. Contrary to the dominant lay ministry that existed in the Nephite culture, Nehor established a church in which priests were given a separate social status and were paid for their ministry. After killing a religious leader during a theological argument, Nehor was tried and executed for his crimes; the followers of Amlici resented the dominant political and religious parties and sought to reestablish the monarchy that the reign of the judges had replaced.
Alma, chief judge and high priest over the people of Nephi, led an army against Amlici and his followers and drove the rebellion out of the land. Towards the end of chapter four, Alma realizes that the affairs of the Church require his entire concentration, he appoints Nephihah as chief judge and governor of the land. Chapters 5-16 record sermons and missionary travels of Alma between 83 and 78 BC. Alma and one of his converted followers, provide important teachings about the atonement of Christ, overcoming pride and the natural man, retaining conversion, the resurrection of all men, judgment day, their teachings about faith and worship in Alma 32-34 are important sources of instruction and insight. Chapters 17 to 27 describe the missionary labors of the sons of King Mosiah II, the last king over the people of Nephi prior to the peaceful transition of the nation from a monarchy to a republican form of government; the sons of Mosiah, named Ammon, Aaron and Himni, chose to devote themselves to missionary labors preaching to the people of the Lamanite nation, which periodically went to war against the Nephite nation.
They lived and taught among the Lamanites between the years 91 and 77 BC. Chapters 28 to 35 relate the account of a rebellion of a subgroup of the Nephite nation who called themselves Zoramites; the Zoramites believed in a form of predestination and taught that all others except their people would be damned. Their apostasy from the Church was conjoined with plans to rebel against the Nephite government. Alma took two of his sons, the sons of Mosiah and Zeezrom on a mission among the Zoramites in an attempt to restore their loyalty to both the Church and the state. Alma and his companions had some success among the poor class of Zoramites who were exiled from the Zoramite community by the governing rich class of Zoramites; the wealthier Zoramites defected and united with the Lamanites. Chapters 36 to 42 record the teachings of Alma to his sons, Helaman and Corianton; these teachings discuss the ministry and atonement of Jesus, the laws of justice and mercy, the need for repentance, the resurrection and judgment of all people.
Chapters 43 to 62 record the struggles of the Nephite people during a war against the attacking Lamanite nation between the years of 74 and 57 BC. The Chief Captain of the Nephites during this time was Captain Moroni; the Nephites were successful in their defense against the Lamanites. Chapter 63 includes concluding historical notes covering the years 56 to 53 BC; this is a period of post-war reconstruction and exploration in the Nephite nation. This outline is based on main sections and antagonist characters in the Book of Alma. There are two main features in this history, chapters 1 - 42 deal with Missionary Work, chapters 43 - 63 contain the Wars; the history of the Zoramites provides a transition from Missionary Work to the War chapters of the Book of Alma. The two main sections mirror the first two antagonist characters and Amlici. Mission chapters Nehor: rebels against the Church Amlici: rebels against the Republic Korihor: the AntiChrist Zoramites Zoram: the Apostate Nephites religious Zerahemnah: the war leader of the Zoramites political War chapters Amalickiah: the man who wants to be king Ammoron: the vengeful brother of Amalickiah Zeezrom Lamoni Anti-Nephi-Lehi In Alma 5, Alma the Younger speaks to the people of Zarahemla in which he asks 50 rhetorical questions, which are cited in the LDS church.
Alma's sermon on faith to the Zoramites in Alma 32 is used to explain the process of developing faith. Investigators are invited to try a similar experiment of faith in order to come to develop a testimony, it is worth noting that Alma doesn't compare faith to a seed, he compares the word to a seed, although this is a common misconception. According to John W. Welch, based on the appearance of the following elements in Alma 12-13, the Nephite temple ceremony utilized familiar temple motifs, including: Abundant creation imagery regarding the fall of Adam and Eve The redemption The issuance of commandments One's calling Clothing The facing of judgment Symbolic entrance into the presence of God Nyman, Monte; the Book of Mormon: Alma, the Testimony of the Word, Book of Mormon Symposium Series
Plates of Nephi
According to the Book of Mormon, the plates of Nephi, consisting of the large plates of Nephi and the small plates of Nephi, are a portion of the collection of inscribed metal plates which make up the record of the Nephites. This record was abridged by Mormon and inscribed onto gold plates from which Joseph Smith translated the Book of Mormon after an angel revealed to him the location where the plates were buried on a hill called Cumorah near the town of Palmyra, New York. Palaeographic study of the plates is not possible. According to the Book of Mormon prophet Nephi: "I make an abridgment of the record of my father, upon plates which I have made with mine own hands. Nephi's father, was a prophet who, after prophesying of the destruction of Jerusalem, left with members of his extended family around 600 BC and was directed to the New World. Nephi was commanded to make two sets of plates: A small set of plates "for the special purpose that there should be an account engraven of the ministry of my people," and "the other plates are for the more part of the reign of the kings and the wars and contentions of my people."
These plates, as well as other records made and found by Nephi's people were handed down from generation to generation. After Nephi had begun the large plates, he was instructed by the Lord to make another set of plates to record "the ministry and the prophecies, the more plain and precious parts of them." These smaller plates were kept by Nephi's descendants until about 150 BC, when the prophet Amaleki delivered the plates to Benjamin, king of Zarahemla, who "put them with the other plates, which contained records, handed down by the kings". Amaleki's last writing was the statement that the small plates were full and from this point there were no further additions to the small plates. Mormon did not abridge the small plates of Nephi but he did include them in the records he gave to his son Moroni; the first six books of the Book of Mormon, from First Nephi to Omni are said to be a translation of the small plates of Nephi. Joseph Smith said the large plates of Nephi were continually maintained until about AD 385, when the prophet Mormon, seeing that the destruction of the Nephite nation was imminent, abridged the large plates of Nephi.
This abridgement, with additions by Mormon's son, was part of the set of gold plates Moroni delivered to Joseph Smith. The books within the Book of Mormon from The Words of Mormon to Fourth Nephi, are taken from Mormon's abridgment of the large plates. Although the large plates were intended for the more secular history of the Nephites, it is obvious from the version available in the Book of Mormon that there was a good deal of spiritual content as well, including sermons and moral lessons; some periods of time are covered in more detail than others, in particular a series of wars between the Nephites and the Lamanites in the Book of Alma. Whether the uneven coverage is a reflection of the original record or is an artifact of Mormon's abridgement is not clear from the text. While recording his own history, Nephi mentioned "the record, kept by my father" in a few places. Nephi mentioned that he had made an abridgement of the record of his father at the beginning of his own record. While translating the gold plates, Joseph Smith reluctantly allowed his associate, Martin Harris, to take the entirety of the translation to that point, 116 manuscript pages, to show to Harris's wife and her family, to convince them that his financial support of Smith was worthwhile.
Although charged to ensure its safety, Harris lost the manuscript. The lost portion, part of the large plates of Nephi, contained Nephi's record of his father, Lehi's, ministry and was known as The Book of Lehi. Joseph Smith recorded, in the Doctrine and Covenants, sections 3 and 10, that the Lord instructed him not to re-translate the portion of the book, lost but to continue forward. In place of the lost Book of Lehi, the translation from the small plates of Nephi was used, which covered the same time period. Both Nephi and Mormon recorded that the small plates were made for a "wise purpose", known to the Lord; the aforementioned sections of the Doctrine and Covenants state that the loss of the Book of Lehi was foreseen by the Lord and that it was for this purpose that the small plates were provided. The Plates of Laban, Sword of Laban, the Plates of Nephi, Plates of Ether, other records engraven on metal plates, at least one record engraven upon stone were passed down from generation to generation.
Each generation had one caretaker, responsible for these items records. Here is the list of caretakers, according to the Book of Mormon: Nephi, son of Lehi — The first caretaker of: Small and Large Plates of Nephi Plates and Sword of Laban — Retrieved by Nephi and his brothers in the First Book of Nephi chapters 3 & 4 Record of Lehi Jacob, son of Lehi — Nephi's brother Enos, son of Jacob Jarom, son of Enos Omni, son of Jarom Amaron, son of Omni Chemish, son of Omni — brother of Amaron Abinadom, son of Chemish Amaleki, son of AbinadomJaredite Record — During the time of Mosiah, the Nephites fled to the land of Zarahemla and discovered the Mulekites who had found a stone tablet with writing on it. Mosiah interpreted the writings by the power of God, it turned out to be a record of the people of Jared, more recorded in the Book of Ether. Amaleki was the last to writ
Book of Mosiah
The Book of Mosiah is one of the books which make up the Book of Mormon. The title refers to a king of the Nephites at Zarahemla; the book covers the time period between ca 130 BC and 91 BC, except for when the book has a flashback into the Record of Zeniff, which starts at ca 200 BC, according to footnotes. Aside from stating that it was abridged by Mormon, the text says nothing about its authorship. Royal Skousen, a professor of linguistics at Brigham Young University, said contextual evidence indicated that the beginning of the original Book of Mosiah were lost in the 116 pages of the Book of Mormon manuscript lost by Martin Harris, meaning what is now known as the first chapter of Mosiah was the third chapter. According to original research by John Sawyer and John W. Welch, the term mosiah was an ancient Hebrew term; the key meaning of the word mosiah was "savior." King Benjamin had three sons, Mosiah and Helaman. The king made sure, they studied the prophesies recorded on them. He had them learn the writings on the plates of brass which were taken from Laban, which were the only way the Nephites knew the commandments of God given to Moses.
Benjamin tells his sons that the plates are the only thing keeping the Nephites from dwindling in unbelief like the Lamanites. Came the time when King Benjamin had to decide which of his three sons would receive his kingdom, he settled on Mosiah, told his son to gather the people together at the temple so he could make the announcement. But that would be just a formality. Benjamin gave his son the actual reins of power immediately. Additionally he passed on to Mosiah the plates of Nephi, the brass plates, the sword of Laban, the Liahona. King Benjamin's discourse in chapters 2 through 5 is considered by many Book of Mormon readers to be a significant piece of the Book of Mormon; the king spoke of his life in service to the people, how he labored with his own hands that the people would not be unduly burdened with taxes. Yet he does not bring this up to boast, only to affirm that he has been in the service of God; the King served God by serving his fellow human beings. He brings this to their mind as an example.
If he, their king, labored to serve the people the people ought to labor to serve one another. And if he, their earthly king, merits any thanks from the people, how much more does God their heavenly king merit thanks from them, yet if the people served God with all their power, they would remain in reality unprofitable servants, because God causes them to exist from instant to instant. The only thing God requires from them in payment for creating the people and keeping them alive is for them to keep his commandments, he speaks of an angelic visitation and prophecies of Jesus Christ, his birth, identifying his mother as being named Mary, his ministry and miracles, his suffering and resurrection. He speaks of Jesus as being the judge, of his atonement as the means to overcome sin and the tendencies of the natural man in order to become a holy person, he emphasizes the importance to have faith in Jesus and to repent in order to become a child of Jesus Christ through His atonement. He decrees that his son Mosiah is the new king.
The book changes time narration as it reflects on events that are now being unfolded. The Nephites wanted to know what had happened to some of them who had taken a trip back to the land of Nephi in an attempt to reclaim it. Mosiah sends a small group on an expedition to find out; some of this small group is met by guards and taken to prison and brought before a king named Limhi. Limhi tells this group their story and shows the Record of Zeniff, the leader of the first group to try to reclaim the land of Nephi; this story within a story encompasses chapters 9 through 22. Zeniff, whose original mission was to spy on the Lamanites, saw the good among them and desired that they not be destroyed; this led to a conflict in his party. He and those who were not killed in the conflict, returned to Zarahemla, he became over-zealous to inherit the land of his fathers so he gathered others and they went to take the land, but they were struck with famine because they were slow to remember God. They come to a city, Zeniff and four of his men went to the king.
He made a deal with the king of the Lamanites to have a piece of the land of Nephi. He becomes king of this Nephite colony, they prevailed at that time. Zeniff passes rule to his son Noah. Noah is a wicked king, he is one of the more favorite villains among Book of Mormon readers. He collects exorbitant taxes from his people to build a palace and he and his ministers live a life of comfort and self-indulgence, his wicked ways lead the whole colony into wickedness. Along comes a man named Abinadi, he is a holy man, a prophet, he begins to preach that they must repent. He speaks against prophecies that he will be killed if he doesn't repent. Abinadi is arrested and brought before King Noah where he gives what is considered a important discourse in the Book of Mormon. Abinadi asks the ministers what they preach and they respond that they preach the Law of Moses. Abinadi tells them that they ought to teach the Law of Moses, but rebukes them for not obeying it themselves, including the Ten Commandments, which he quotes to them.
Abinadi continues to explain that the Law of Moses is a teaching method to prepare people for the coming of Jesus Christ. He speaks of the atonement, faith and redemption through Je
Ensign (LDS magazine)
The Ensign of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints shortened to Ensign, is an official periodical of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The magazine was first issued in January 1971, along with the Friend; each of these magazines replaced the older church publications Improvement Era, Relief Society Magazine, The Instructor, the Millennial Star. Unlike some of its predecessors, the Ensign contains no advertisements; as an official church publication, the Ensign contains faith-promoting and proselytizing information, stories and writings of church leaders. The May and November editions of the Ensign provide reports of the proceedings of the church's annual and semi-annual general conferences; these issues contain the full sermons and business of the conferences, as well as a current photographic list of the church's general authorities and general officers. The text of every issue of the magazine is available on the church's web site; each issue since January 2001 is available in PDF format.
In April 2018, the magazine discontinued its First Presidency message, an article traditionally found at the front of the magazine written by a member of the church's First Presidency. This message was traditionally used by home teachers for a lesson as they visited their assigned families; this change coincided with the church's revamping of the home teaching program into what is now known as ministering. List of Latter Day Saint periodicals Herald Ensign official homepage Ensign archive