Royce Hall is a building on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Designed by the Los Angeles firm of Allison & Allison and completed in 1929, it is one of the four original buildings on UCLA's Westwood campus and has come to be the defining image of the university; the brick and tile building is in the Lombard Romanesque style, once functioned as the main classroom facility of the university and symbolized its academic and cultural aspirations. Today, the twin-towered front remains the best known UCLA landmark; the 1800-seat auditorium was designed for speech acoustics and not for music. Named after Josiah Royce, a California-born philosopher who received his bachelor's degree from UC Berkeley in 1875, the building's exterior is composed of elements borrowed from numerous northern Italian sources. While different in their composition and near-symmetry, the two towers of Royce make an abstract reference to those of the famous Abbey Church of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan. A building of similar form on a much smaller scale was a centerpiece of the College of California campus in Oakland in 1860, the predecessor of the University of California.
Damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, Royce Hall underwent a $70.5 million seismic renovation designed by Barton Phelps & Associates and Anshen + Allen Los Angeles, completed in 1998. This program of extensive structural strengthening, functional improvements, conservation work inserted a new building within the old; the towers were strengthened and restored on an emergency basis. The project for the rest of the 200,000 square foot building accommodated a new structural system of six-story, concrete shear panels located around the "big box" of the auditorium and connected by concrete beams to the building's historic exterior brickwork. Royce Hall's eligibility for National Register listing prompted FEMA earthquake resistance requirements beyond normal safety levels and triggered close design scrutiny by federal and state preservation officers; the new "soft" structure responds in unison with original masonry infill panels to provide sufficient lateral resistance to protect the building's historic fabric from damage.
The sidewalls of the auditorium were reconfigured to hold foot-thick concrete shear panels the volume of which could have lessened its reverberant character. New wall openings, cut into abandoned rooftop areaways, are enclosed by new structure to form operable acoustic galleries allow variable acoustic responses. Along with new ceiling coves, the galleries increase the volume of the hall by 40,000 cubic feet and lengthen its reverberation period by over a second at their maximum setting. Skylights in the gallery restore natural light to the spectacular coffered ceiling, now for the first time, brightly illuminated. Unlike the former plaster interior, the new walls are clad in brick and terra cotta identical to that on the original exterior of the building; the uneven texture of projecting blocks improves sound diffusion. Its pattern is abstracted from Lombard Romanesque motifs in Lucca and other cities in the valley of the Po River in northern Italy; the hall, post renovation, covered 191,547 square feet.
In 1936, University of California President Robert Gordon Sproul appointed a committee to oversee programming and in 1937, Royce Hall's first performing arts season was born. The first subscription series included the great contralto Marian Anderson, the Budapest String Quartet, the Los Angeles Philharmonic. In addition its world-renowned acoustics, the monument is a must-see for anyone who visits UCLA because of its asymmetrical features; the hall contains a 6,600-pipe E. M. Skinner pipe organ and expanded in 1999 by Robert Turner. During the 1930s, Salt Lake Tabernacle organist Alexander Schreiner gave public recitals three times a week on the instrument; the organ was featured in several recording sessions of the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta. It serves as one of the home venues for the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra. Luminaries who have appeared on its stage include musicians George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, Ella Fitzgerald, speakers Albert Einstein and John F. Kennedy. In 1960, Henri Temianka conducted his "Let's Talk Music" series at Royce Hall.
Soloists who performed with the CCS under Temianka's direction included David Oistrakh, Jean-Pierre Rampal and Benny Goodman. A "Concerts for Youth" series included participation by children from the audience. In 1985, Patrick Stewart performed a demonstration of various plays at Royce Hall to aid a friend, a member of the faculty. During this performance, television producer Robert Justman sat in attendance. Watching Stewart convinced him that he was the right actor to portray Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: The Next Generation. In 2012, the hall installed a new $128,000 Steinway concert grand piano. Nicknamed "Sapphire" by the staff, the piano has been used as the centerpiece of a $25,000-per-plate fundraising dinner to support emerging artists. Parts of the film The Nutty Professor were filmed in Royce Hall. Presentation of the annual Los Angeles Times book prizes are made during the Los Angeles Times Festival of Books in association with UCLA in Royce Hall. In Noah Hawl
Chupícuaro is an important prehispanic archeological site from the late preclassical or formative period. The culture that takes its name from the site dates to 400 BC to 200 AD, or alternatively 500 BC to 300 AD. although some academics suggest an origin as early as 800 BC. Although included with the cultures of the Mexican West, Chupícuaro is both close to the Valley of Mexico and the northern edge of Meso-America. Information on the epynomous site, composed of several burial grounds, remains fragmentary, since most of it was flooded when the Presa Solis dam was built in the 1940s. A INAH excavation was able to salvage a little before. Other excavations took place beginning in 1998, by the CEMCA, CNRS and l'INAH, contributed to knowledge of Chupicuaro culture.. On the northern border of Mesoamerica, west of the Mexican Plateau, just seven kilometers from Acámbaro, in Guanajuato State, México, it lies in hills near the Lerma River and its tributary the Coroneo or Tiger River; the name Chupícuaro can be translated as blue place.
The name derives from the Purépecha language word "chupicua", a name for the "Ipomoea" plant, used for blue dye, the term "ro", place. This prehispanic archaeological site is located on the banks of the Lerma River, between the present-day cities of Acámbaro and Tarandacuao in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. Little is known about the history of this site; the first explorations uncovered pottery objects and tombs. The site is below water because of the dam, although the surrounding area is still being explored. Chichimeca nomadic groups arrived from the current San Luis Potosí state; these groups settled in a large village of huts built over platforms coated with stone. They grew corn and squash on the banks of the Lerma River and its tributaries. Based on the existence of metals and stone molcajetes used to grind corn, they planted chili and tomatoes, it is known they were hunters-fishers-gathers. According to several authors, this settlement developed between 500 BCE and 300 CE; the first inhabitants of this area were hunter-gatherers who lived along the river and developed agricultural knowledge.
In 2013 the level of the water behind the dam in Chupicuaro was lowered for a couple of days. Archeologists brought the towers from the old church to the town of Nuevo Chupicuaro in Guanajuato — the town founded in 1946 after the townspeople of the original town of Chupicuaro had to move out following the construction of the dam. From type evidence, its development has been established between 500 BCE and 300 CE, although some scientists suggest an older development, as far back as 800 BCE. Ibarrilla, an unexcavated site in Leon, Guanajuato, is seen as part of the Chupicuaro complex; this archaeological site is one of the most extensive and important of the country according to one author. There are thought to be more than a dozen pyramids built on an oval basement. Only one has been explored; the rest of the structures remain to be explored. There are tombs and other scattered remains in an estimated 500 m2 area; this culture is important due to its influence in the area. It may have spread to what is now the southern United States, circa 500 BCE.
There are theories. Ceramics of this culture pre-date the classical Mesoamerican period, include angular figurines with geometric shapes; the Acámbaro museum exhibits pieces from the Purépecha and Otomi cultures. The Chupícuaro culture developed in a vast territory, or it was defined as Chupícuaro style or tradition in, Michoacán, Mexico State, Colima, Querétaro and Zacatecas, it is estimated that Chupícuaro facilitated the northward expansion of Mesoamerican elements Chupícuaro had an important cultural development and expansion of its style in distant areas from the diffusing center and influenced ceramic traditions, which lasted until the end of the classical period, into the Postclassical, as seen in Purépecha Michoacán ceramic. At the end of 1985, at the first prehispanic societies meeting in relation to the Chupícuaro culture, it was noted, that Chupícuaro tradition ceramics manufacturing groups, should be considered part of Mesoamerican stratified societies, with a definite political and territorial structure, rather than as isolated village societies, lacking ceremonial centers and architecture.
From that first impulse, subsequent social groups presented their own cultural expressions at a regional level in the Mesoamerican context.. The Acámbaro region had five Prehispanic cultures: Chupícuaro – Late Preclassical - 800 BCE to 200 CE. Los Morales - Late Preclassical - 400 BCE to 250 CE. Teotihuacán - Classical Period - 200 CE to 900 CE. Toltec – Early Postclassical - 900 CE to 1200 CE. Purépecha – Late Postclassical - 1200 CE to 1525 CE. Source: Archaeology Hall, Acámbaro Local Museum, Guanajuato, 2001; the decline of Olmec culture at the beginning of the Late Preclassical period marked a period of cultural diversification and assimilation of Olmec elements into cultural systems, the origin of several of the most important Mesoamerican traditions. However, Cuicuilco in the south of the Valley of Mexico, the Chupícuaro, are the most important; the first became the largest city in Mesoamerica and the main ceremonial center of the Valley of Mexico. The decline of Cuicuilco paralleled the emergence of Teot
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac
The Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac in Paris, France, is a museum featuring the indigenous art and cultures of Africa, Asia and the Americas. The museum collection has 450,000 objects, of which 3,500 are on display at any given time, in both permanent and temporary thematic exhibits. A selection of objects from the museum is displayed in the Pavillon des Sessions of the Louvre; the Quai Branly Museum opened in 2006, is the newest of the major museums in Paris. It received 1.15 million visitors in 2016. It is jointly administered by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication and the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, serves as both a museum and a center for research; the Musée du quai Branly is located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, close to the Eiffel Tower and the Pont de l'Alma. The nearest Paris Métro and RER stations are Alma -- Pont de l'Alma. Following the tradition of French presidents building museums as monuments to their time in office, as exemplified by Presidents Georges Pompidou.
Still the first half of the 20th Century, a number of French intellectuals and scientists, including André Malraux, André Breton, Claude Lévi-Strauss, had called for a single and important museum in Paris dedicated to the arts and cultures of the indigenous people of the colonized territories, considered primitive peoples without own culture to the science of that time and the non-European art was considered exotic art, drawing upon the large collections gathered by French explorers, missionaries and ethnologists. A proposal for such a museum had been made by the ethnologist and art collector Jacques Kerchache in a 1990 manifesto in the newspaper Libération, called "The masterpieces of the entire world are born free and equal." The manifesto was signed by three hundred artists, philosophers and art historians. Kerchache brought the idea to the attention of Jacques Chirac Mayor of Paris, became his advisor. Chirac was elected president of France in 1995, in the following year announced the creation of a new museum combining the collections of two different museums: the 25,000 objects of the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie, created for the Colonial Exposition of 1931, remade in 1961 by André Malraux, the Minister of Culture under President Charles DeGaulle, into a museum dedicated to the cultures of the overseas possessions of France.
The collections of the laboratory of ethnology of Musée de l'Homme, created for the Paris Exposition of 1937 and contained 250,000 objects. The two museums and collections were different in their purposes and approaches; as a result of this division, the new museum was put under two different ministries. In addition to these existing collections, gathered by French explorers and ethnologists from around the world, the directors of the new museum acquired ten thousand objects; the first venture of the new museum was the opening of a new gallery within the Louvre Museum, in the Pavillon des Sessions, dedicated to what were called the arts premiers, the "first arts". The new section met immediate resistance; the issue was resolved by a decree by President Chirac and the government of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin on 29 July 1998, to construct an new museum at 29-55 quai Branly on the banks of the Seine not far from the Eiffel Tower in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. In December 1998, the museum was established, Stéphane Martin was named its president.
The site selected for the new museum, covering an area of 25,000 square meters, was occupied by a collection of buildings belonging to the Ministry of Reconstruction and Urbanism. President François Mitterrand had intended it for one of his grand projects, an international conference center, but that project had been abandoned because of intense opposition from the residents of the neighborhood. At the beginning of 1999 a jury was formed and an international competition was held to select an architect; the competition was won by French architect Jean Nouvel, whose other major works included the Institute of the Arab World, Fondation Cartier in Paris, the renovation of the Lyon Opera, the Palais de Justice in Nantes, the Parc Poble Nou in Barcelona. In his design for the new museum, Nouvel took into account the criticisms of the neighbors who had blocked the Mitterrand project; the new museum was designed to be as out of sight. The shape of the main building follows the curve of the Seine, the three administrative buildings are constructed to harmonize with the Haussmann-period buildings next to them.
In an attempt to create "an origina
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Magdalene Anyango Namakhiya Odundo is a Kenyan-born British studio potter. Magdalene Odundo was born in Nairobi and received her early education in both India and Kenya, she attended the Kabete National Polytechnic in Kenya to study Graphics and Commercial Art and moved to England in 1971 to follow her chosen vocation in Graphic Design. Magdalene completed her qualifications in foundation art and graphics at the Cambridge College of Art. After a while in England she discovered pottery, in 1974–75 she visited Nigeria, visiting the Pottery Training Centre in Abuja, Kenya to study traditional hand-built pottery techniques, she travelled to San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico to observe the making of black-burnished vessels. In 1976, Odundo received a BA from West Surrey College of Design, she earned a master's degree at the Royal College of Art in London. She taught at the Commonwealth Institute in London from 1976 to 1979 and at the Royal College of Art in London from 1979 to 1982, before returning to teach at Surrey Institute of Art & Design in 1997, becoming Professor of Ceramics in 2001.
In March 2016 she was inaugurated as an Emerita Professor of the University for the Creative Arts, with a celebration event held at the Farnham campus against the backdrop of her important work in glass, Transition II. She works in Surrey. Odundo's best-known ceramics are hand built; each piece is burnished, covered with slip, burnished again. The pieces are fired in an oxidizing atmosphere. A second firing in an oxygen-poor atmosphere causes the clay to turn black, she uses the same types of techniques used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans and likes to take inspiration from countries like China and Mexico. Her graphic design skills still remain with her as she sketches her interest in natural forms and the design of form to help her with her ceramic creations. Many of the vessels Odundo creates are reminiscent of the human form following the curves of the spine, stomach, or hair. Furthermore, the shape of expression of her vessels are symbolic of the female body, her work is now a part of permanent collections of nearly 50 international museums including: Art Institute of Chicago The British Museum, London The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, New York National Museum of African Art, Washington DCIn 2006, her work was presented in an exhibition titled "Resonance and Inspiration" at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art of the University of Florida.
This was her first solo exhibition in her first solo appearance in Florida. This exhibit was the first time her drawings and sketches were presented alongside her vessels, her free-form drawing style replicates the same shape and form as her vessels, serving as a glimpse into how Odundo perceives her three-dimensional works in two dimensions. Odundo was awarded the African Art Recognition Award by Detroit Institute of Arts in 2008, the African Heritage Outstanding Achievement in the Arts award in 2012, together with honorary doctorates from the University of Florida and University of the Arts London, she was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for services to Art in the Queen's Birthday Honours 2008. Odundo has been recognized as a significant player in contemporary ceramics, making her name a large contributor to African Art in the US during the 90's; as said by Augustus Casely-Hayford, " on something of the wisdom and experience of the Leach, or a line borrowed from ancient European antiquity, to create a trans-global, trans-temporal visual system of her own.
Berns, Marla C. Ceramic Gestures, New Vessels by Magdalene Odundo, Santa Barbara: University Art Museum, University of California, 1995. Jegede, Contemporary African Art, Five Artists, Diverse Trends, Ind.: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 2000. Slayter-Ralph, Magdalene Odundo, London: Lund Humphries, 2004. Http://www.magdaleneodundo.com/ website Guide to Chinese Ceramics Magdalene Odundo at Anthony Slayter-Ralph fine art
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well