Fox Broadcasting Company

The Fox Broadcasting Company is an American broadcast television network, a flagship property of the Fox Corporation. The network is headquartered at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City, with additional offices at the Fox Broadcasting Center and at the Fox Television Center in Los Angeles. Launched on October 9, 1986, as a competitor to the Big Three television networks, Fox went on to become the most successful attempt at a fourth television network, it was the highest-rated network in the 18–49 demographic from 2004 to 2012, earned the position as the most-watched American television network in total viewership during the 2007–08 season. Fox and its affiliated companies operate many entertainment channels in international markets, although these do not air the same programming as the U. S. network. Most viewers in Canada have access to at least one U. S.-based Fox affiliate, either free-to-air or through a pay television provider, although Fox's National Football League broadcasts and most of its prime time programming are subject to simultaneous substitution regulations for pay television providers imposed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to protect rights held by domestically based networks.

Fox is named after what was called 20th Century Fox, its original corporate sibling, indirectly for producer William Fox, who founded one of the movie studio's predecessors, Fox Film. Fox is a member of the North American Broadcasters Association and the National Association of Broadcasters. 20th Century Fox had been involved in television production as early as the 1950s, producing several syndicated programs. Following the demise of the DuMont Television Network in August 1956, after it became mired in severe financial problems, the NTA Film Network was launched as a new "fourth network". 20th Century Fox would produce original content for the NTA network. The film network effort would fail after a few years, but 20th Century Fox continued to dabble in television through its production arm, TCF Television Productions, producing series for the three major broadcast television networks; the Fox network's foundations were laid in March 1985 through News Corporation's $255 million purchase of a 50% interest in TCF Holdings, the parent company of the 20th Century Fox film studio.

In May 1985, News Corporation, a media company owned by Australian publishing magnate Rupert Murdoch that had served as a newspaper publisher at the time of the TCF Holdings deal, agreed to pay $2.55 billion to acquire independent television stations in six major U. S. cities from the John Kluge-run broadcasting company Metromedia: WNEW-TV in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D. C. KTTV in Los Angeles, KRIV-TV in Houston, WFLD-TV in Chicago, KRLD-TV in Dallas. A seventh station, ABC affiliate WCVB-TV in Boston, was part of the original transaction but was spun off to the Hearst Broadcasting subsidiary of the Hearst Corporation in a separate, concurrent deal as part of a right of first refusal related to that station's 1982 sale to Metromedia; because Metromedia was spun off from the failed DuMont Television Network, radio personality Clarke Ingram has suggested that the Fox network is a revival or at least a linear descendant of DuMont. The former Metromedia stations WNEW and WTTG were two of the three original owned-and-operated stations of the DuMont network, that the former base of DuMont's operations, the DuMont Tele-Centre in Manhattan became the present-day Fox Television Center.

In October 1985, 20th Century Fox announced its intentions to form a fourth television network that would compete with ABC, CBS, NBC. The plans were to use the combination of the Fox studios and the former Metromedia stations to both produce and distribute programming. Organizational plans for the network were held off until the Metromedia acquisitions cleared regulatory hurdles. In December 1985, Rupert Murdoch agreed to pay $325 million to acquire the remaining equity in TCF Holdings from his original partner, Marvin Davis; the purchase of the Metromedia stations was approved by the Federal Communications Commission in March 1986. These first six stations broadcasting to a combined reach of 22% of the nation's households, became known as the Fox Television Stations group. With the exception of KDAF, all of the original owned-and-operated stations are still part of the Fox network today. Like the core O&O group, Fox's affiliate body consisted of independent stations; the local charter affiliate was, in most cases, that market's top-rated independent, Fox opted to affiliate with a second-tier independent station in markets where a more established independent declined the affiliation.

Because of both these factors, Fox in a situation similar to what DuMont had experienced four decades before had little choice but to affiliate with UHF stations in all except a few markets where the network gained clearance. The Fox Broadcasting Company debuted with a soft launch at 11:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific Time on Thursday, October

4765 Wasserburg

4765 Wasserburg, provisional designation 1986 JN1, is a bright Hungaria asteroid, suspected binary system and asteroid pair from the innermost regions of the asteroid belt 3 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 5 May 1986, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at Palomar Observatory, named after geologist Gerald J. Wasserburg. Wasserburg is a bright member of the Hungaria family, which form the innermost dense concentration of asteroids in the Solar System, it orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–2.1 AU once every 2 years and 9 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 24 ° with respect to the ecliptic, it was first identified as 1983 EA1 at Palomar in 1983, extending the body's observation arc by 3 years prior to its official discovery observation. Wasserburg forms an asteroid pair with 2001 XO105, was part of Petr Pravec's sample study Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission, published in the journal Nature. According to preliminary results from the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Wasserburg measures 1.777 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an outstandingly high albedo of 1.000, while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes it to be an E-type asteroid, with albedo of 0.40 – derived from 434 Hungaria the family's namesake and most prominent member – and calculates a larger diameter of 3.82 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 13.7.

Between 2006 and 2014, several rotational lightcurves of Wasserburg were obtained from photometric observations by astronomers Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory, Petr Pravec at Ondřejov Observatory, Julian Oey at Blue Mountains Observatory. Best rated lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period between 3.6231 and 3.6280 hours with a brightness variation between 0.07 and 0.60 magnitude. Due to the changing amplitude, Wasserburg is one of the more elongatedly shaped primary asteroids of all known smaller binaries with an diameter of less than 10 kilometers. After being recognized as an asteroid pair, American astronomer Brian Warner observed faint mutual eclipsing and occultation events in April 2013. After repeated lightcurve subtraction, he was able to show that Wasserburg is a binary system with a minor-planet moon orbiting it every 15.97 hours. Assuming a depth of 0.03 magnitude, he estimated a secondary-to-primary mean-diameter ratio of 0.16±0.02. The Johnston's archive derives a diameter of 280±80 meters for the satellite, based on the primary diameter given by WISE.

A semi-major axis of 2.9 kilometers is estimated for the moons orbit. However, photometric observations taken in 2015, could not detect the presence of a satellite and Wasserburg remains only a suspected binary; this minor planet was named after American Gerald J. Wasserburg, a professor of geology and geophysics at Caltech in California, he was a pioneer of radiometric dating methods used in isotope geochemistry and was prominent for his accurate age determination measurements of moon rocks, which were instrumental for reconstructing the origin of the Moon and for the hypothesis of the Late Heavy Bombardment. Wasserburg carried out isotopic analyses of meteorites, developed a time scale for the formation and evolution of the Solar System, contributed to the theory of nucleosynthesis; the official naming citation was published on 27 June 1991. Asteroids with Satellites, Robert Johnston, Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 4765 Wasserburg at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 4765 Wasserburg at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Mtwara Region

Mtwara Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. The regional capital is the municipality of Mtwara. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 1,270,854, lower than the pre-census projection of 1,374,767. For 2002-2012, the region's 1.2 percent average annual population growth rate was the 26th highest in the country. It was the fourteenth most densely populated region with 76 people per square kilometer; the boundary with Mozambique to the south is formed by the Ruvuma River. To the west, Mtwara is bordered by Ruvuma Region, to the north by Lindi Region, to the east is the Indian Ocean. Development of the Mtwara Region has been constrained by the lack of highway and energy infrastructures; the Dar es Salaam-Kibiti-Lindi-Mtwara road has been improved by the completion of the Mkapa Bridge over the Rufiji River. Mnazi Bay gas promises to provide reliable and adequate electricity for powering industrial and commercial activities in the region; the regional commissioner of the Mtwara Region is Anatoli A. Tarimo.

In 1948, the British Government formulated the "Tanganyika groundnut scheme" through the Overseas Food Corporation. The purpose was to alleviate the worldwide shortage of vegetable oils. In this region the exported crop was to go through the port of Mtwara, created for the scheme and linked to the growing areas near Nachingwea by a new railway; the region is administratively divided as five districts with Mtwara Municipal and Masasi Town having separate councils