Burlington is a city in Racine and Walworth counties in the U. S. state with the majority of the city located in Racine County. The population of the portion of the city inside Racine County was 10,464 as of the 2010 census. Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the area, Native American mounds were constructed near the present location of Burlington. For example, around 1830, a small Potawatomi village stood in what is now the Town of Burlington, though it wasn't larger than the present-day city; the earliest certain European presence in what is now Burlington was in the fall of 1799, when a group of French explorers and missionaries led by Francis Morgan de Vereceones made a portage from the Root River to the Fox River, reaching the Fox at Burlington's present location. The first European settlers in Burlington were William Whiting. Smith and Whiting had been in the area making a so-called "jackknife claim" to the land on December 15, 1835; the men left the encampment and returned with Lemuel Smith as well as Benjamin Perce, another member of the group.
The four men searched for arable land and built a cabin on the east side of the Fox River Other settlers arrived in the spring and summer of 1836 from New England. That year, the residents of Foxville unanimously decided to change their settlement's name to "Burlington" after the city Burlington, Vermont. Since its establishment, Foxville had been in Michigan Territory. On July 3, 1836, however, an act of Congress organizing the Wisconsin Territory went into effect, Foxville fell within the borders of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Territory, which at that time included the present-day county of Racine; the two counties separated on December 7, 1836, Foxville ended up in Racine County. The first post office in Foxville was created on March 21, 1837, with Moses Smith, one of the four founders of the city, as the first postmaster. In May 1837, a sawmill and a dam on the Fox River were completed. On January 2, 1838, Rochester township, which included Foxville as well as all of Racine County west of Mount Pleasant, was established.
On March 9, 1839, Burlington township and much of Brighton were separated from Rochester. Burlington was a major New England settlement; the original founders of Burlington consisted of settlers from New England, inherited "Yankee" culture, that is, they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. They were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal; when they arrived in the area, there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie. The settlers laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their "Yankee" New England values, such as staunch support for abolitionism as well as a passion for education and the subsequent construction of many schools. They were members of the Congregationalist Church, though some were Episcopalian.
Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism before moving to what is now Burlington. Burlington, like much of Wisconsin, would be culturally similar to early New England for most of its early history. From 1844 to 1850, the town of Voree, just to the west of Burlington, was the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, one of many sects founded during the LDS succession crisis following the death of Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith. Although James Strang's group relocated to Beaver Island, Michigan in 1850, his parents remained in Voree. After Strang was shot by two disgruntled members in 1856, he was taken to Voree, he is buried in a cemetery in Burlington. Strang's church still maintains a congregation in Voree to this day, the local historical society has erected a monument to the Mormon settlement there. Burlington was incorporated as a village in 1886. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.73 square miles, of which, 7.50 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water.
Burlington is located at 42°40′40″N 88°16′41″W. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,464 people, 4,240 households, 2,702 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,395.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,529 housing units at an average density of 603.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.8% White, 0.9% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 3.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.6% of the population. There were 4,240 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.3% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 38.6 years.
25.4% of residents were under the age of 18.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Waukesha is a city in and the county seat of Waukesha County, United States. It is part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area, its population was 70,718 at the 2010 census. The city is adjacent to the Town of Waukesha; the area that Waukesha now encompasses was first settled by European-Americans in 1834, with Morris D. Cutler as its first settler; when the first settlers arrived, there was nothing but wild prairie. The settlers laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes; the original founders of Waukesha consisted of settlers from New England Connecticut, rural Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine, as well some from upstate New York who were born to parents who had migrated to that region from New England shortly after the American Revolution. These people were "Yankee" settlers, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, they were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s.
Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal as well as the end of the Black Hawk War. When they arrived in what is now Waukesha County there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie, the New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism. They were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian. Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism and some had become Baptists before moving to what is now Waukesha County. Waukesha, like much of Wisconsin, would be culturally continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history. By 1846, the area was incorporated as the Town of Prairie Village. On February 8, 1847, the town changed its name to "Waukesha,". On January 10, 1852, the settled area once known as Prairieville was separated from the town of Waukesha, incorporated as a village and in 1896, incorporated as a city.
The first appointed mayor of the newly incorporated city of Waukesha was John Brehm, who served from January to April 1896. Over the years, many believed, that the origin of the name of the city was an Algonquian word meaning "fox" or "little foxes," when in fact "Waukesha" is an Anglicization of the Ojibwe proper name Waagoshag or the Potawatomi name Wau-tsha. Wau-tsha was the leader of the local tribe at the time of the first European settlement of the area; this is confirmed by accounts of an early settler and historian of the region. According to Lapham, the word for "fox" was pishtaka. Cutler told visitors about Wau-tsha, described as "tall and athletic, proud in his bearing and friendly." Matthew Laflin, an early pioneer of Chicago, provided the capital and enterprise that laid the foundation for Waukesha as a famous Wisconsin watering resort and was the proprietor of the grand resort, the Fountain Spring House. Waukesha was once known for its clean and good-tasting spring water and was called a "spa town."
This earned the city the nicknames "Spring City" and "Saratoga of the West."According to author Kristine Adams Wendt, in 1868, Colonel Richard Dunbar, a sufferer of diabetes, chanced upon the medicinal properties of what he named the Bethesda Spring while viewing a parcel of land purchased by his sister. Testimonials found in a Dunbar brochure of 1873 proclaimed. Wendt reports that by 1872, "area newspapers carried accounts of a community ill equipped to handle its new popularity among the suffering multitudes; the semi-weekly Wisconsin of July 31, 1872, reported'that 500 visitors are quartered in hotels and scattered in private families here, seeking benefit from the marvelous waters…'" The "healing waters" were so valued that a controversial attempt was made to build a pipeline between the city and Chicago so that they could be enjoyed by visitors to the 1893 Columbian Exposition. According to Time magazine, "he scheme had been conceived by one Charles Welsh, given the springs by his uncle, but after several miles of pipe were laid, it was discovered that the cost was too great."Richard W. Sears, founder of Sears and Roebuck, may have been attracted to Waukesha by the waters.
In failing health, Sears retired from business in 1908 and, according to The New York Times, "spent his time on his great farm near Waukesha." In 1914, Sears died in Waukesha of Bright's disease. In 1956, Helen Moore, who ran a mud bath spa in Waukesha, appeared as a guest on. Over the years, the natural springs have been spoiled by pollution and a number have gone dry. Water drawn from an aquifer reached radium levels exceeding federal standards. In 2013, Waukesha applied for permission to withdraw water from Lake Michigan; because Waukesha is outside the lake's basin, the 2008 Great Lakes Compact makes the city ineligible to withdraw water from the lake without approval from the governors of Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio and Wisconsin. In June, 2016, the governors approved Waukesha's application. One of the most important "firsts" in American sports history occurred in Waukesha on September 5, 1906, when Carroll College hosted the football team from St. Louis University. SLU halfback Bradbury Robinson threw the first legal forward pass in football history in that game.
The Carroll pl
Fox Lake, Illinois
Fox Lake is a village in Grant and Antioch townships in Lake County and Burton Township, McHenry County, United States. The population was 10,579 at the 2010 census; the village was incorporated on December 15, 1906, certified by the state on April 13, 1907. The area was first explored during the 17th century by the French. In the late 19th century, it was known as Nippersink Point. Early in the 20th century, there were but a few hundred residents. During the summer season, the population would reach an estimated 20,000 people, at its peak, the area had 50 hotels and 2,000 cottages. Infamous Chicago gangster Al Capone utilized an establishment now known as the Mineola Hotel and Restaurant as a hideout. In 1979, the Mineola was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and may be the largest wooden frame structure in the state. Many Chicagoans have established summer homes in Fox Lake; the village is situated among the Chain O'Lakes, where swimming, jet skiing and boarding are popular activities.
In 2006, there were an estimated 28,000 boats registered on the lake system. Boating accidents are prevalent in today's society, number of accidents on Fox Lake have decreased in part to stricter regulations on boating under the influence and other factors. Fiscal year 2010 had death by boat; that number rose in 2015 to 1 injury and 1 death. The two fatalities in 2015 were caused by drowning due to alcohol use. In September 2015, Police Lt. Joe Gliniewicz was found shot to death, the subsequent manhunt for the shooters impacted the entire community. Thousands of civilians gathered for a memorial procession of hundreds of supporting officers, to show their support for police fatalities. After a two-month investigation, authorities released information to the effect that Gliniewicz committed "a staged suicide", that he had been involved in financial malfeasance related to his job. "Fox Lake incorporated under a Village form of government, with an elected village president, six trustees, a village clerk.
The village president is recognized as the mayor." The table below is a list of mayors from the village's inception in 1907 to present. Fox Lake is located at 42°24′12″N 88°10′58″W, 55 miles northwest of downtown Chicago and 20 miles west of Waukegan, Illinois; the village center is located on the south shore of Pistakee Lake, Nippersink Lake, Fox Lake, three connected water bodies that form part of the Chain O'Lakes system, flowing southwest via the Fox River to the Illinois River. The village limits extend north in a sinuous manner all the way to the Wisconsin border. According to the 2010 census, Fox Lake has a total area of 9.942 square miles, of which 8.12 square miles is land and 1.822 square miles is water. Wilmot Road State Park Road Grass Lake Road U. S. Route 12 Grand Avenue Illinois Route 173 Rollins Road Big Hollow Road Nippersink Road As of the census of 2000, there were 9,178 people, 4,046 households, 2,330 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,249.1 people per square mile.
There were 4,652 housing units at an average density of 633.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.49% White, 0.76% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.54% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.80% of the population. There were 4,046 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.98. In the village, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village is $46,548, the median income for a family is $58,843. Males have a median income of $42,009 versus $29,063 for females; the per capita income for the village is $24,350. 6.4% of the population and 4.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 7.2% of those under the age of 18 and 9.1% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Grant Community High School Fox Lake Grade School District #114 Stanton Middle School Big Hollow Elementary School Big Hollow School District 38 Saint Bede School Gavin Elementary School Billy Klaus and third basemen for six Major League Baseball teams, his brother, Bobby Klaus, was a Major League Ball Player. Ann-Margret, Ann-Margret Olsson, singer, dancer Once lived in Fox Lake, she is related to former mayor. Alexander Joseph McGavick, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of La Crosse Village of Fox Lake
Ottawa is a city located at the confluence of the navigable Illinois River and Fox River in LaSalle County, United States. The Illinois River is a conduit for river barges and connects Lake Michigan at Chicago, to the Mississippi River, North America's 25,000 mile river system; the population estimate was 18,562 as of 2013. It is the county seat of LaSalle County and it is part of the Ottawa-Peru, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Ottawa was the site of the first of the Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858. During the Ottawa debate Stephen A. Douglas, leader of the Democratic Party accused Abraham Lincoln of forming a secret bipartisan group of Congressmen to bring about the abolition of slavery; the John Hossack House was a "station" on the Underground Railroad, Ottawa was a major stop because of its rail and river transportation. Citizens in the city were active within the abolitionist movement. Ottawa was the site of a famous 1859 extrication of a runaway slave named Jim Gray from a courthouse by prominent civic leaders of the time.
Three of the civic leaders, John Hossack, Dr. Joseph Stout and James Stout stood trial in Chicago for violating the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Ottawa was important in the development of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which terminates in LaSalle, Illinois, 12 miles to the west. On February 8, 1910, William Dickson Boyce a resident of Ottawa, incorporated the Boy Scouts of America. Five years also in Ottawa, Boyce incorporated the Lone Scouts of America. Boyce is buried in Ottawa Avenue Cemetery; the Ottawa Scouting Museum, on Canal Street, opened to the public on December 6, 1997. The museum features the history of Girl Scouting and Camp Fire. In 1922, the Radium Dial Company moved from Peru, Illinois to a former high school building in Ottawa; the company employed hundreds of young women who painted watch dials using a paint called "Luna" for watch maker Westclox. RDC went out of business in 1936, two years after the company's president, Joseph Kelly Sr. left to start a competing company, Luminous Processes Inc. a few blocks away.
According to the 2010 census, Ottawa has a total area of 12.799 square miles, of which 12 square miles is land and 0.799 square miles is water. Because of numerous silica sand deposits Ottawa has been a major sand and glass center for more than 100 years. Transportation of the sand is facilitated by the navigable Illinois river and the Illinois Railway Ottawa Line. One of its largest employers is Pilkington Glass works, a successor to LOF. Concentrated in automotive glass, the plant now manufactures specialty glass and underwent a $50 million renovation in 2006. Ottawa sand continues to be extracted from several quarries in the area, is recognized in glass-making and abrasives for its uniform granularity and characteristics. Sabic purchased GE Plastics, a successor to Borg Warner automotive glass manufacture, operates a large plastics facility in Ottawa, is a major employer. Ottawa sand is a standard testing medium in geotechnical engineering; as of the 2010 Census, there were 18,768 people residing in the city with a population density of 1,563.9 people per square mile.
The age distribution consisted of 23.3 % persons under 16.6 % aged 65 or over. Females made up 51.2% of the population. The racial makeup of the city was 93.4% White, 2.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 1.5% from two or more races, 3.4% Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,841 households occupying 8,569 housing units; the average household size was 2.39 persons. Per capita income was $25,414 and the median household income was $47,480; the median value of owner-occupied housing units was $132,900. Ottawa has registered historic landmarks. Recent additions to Ottawa have included renovations to its historic mansion, Reddick Mansion, artistic murals throughout the central business district. Ottawa is known as the scenic gateway to Starved Rock State Park, the most popular state park in Illinois, with some 2 million visitors per year; the Fox River, which flows through communities like Elgin and Aurora, empties into the Illinois in downtown Ottawa. Ottawa is home to one of the largest skydiving operations in the country, Skydive Chicago.
Ottawa Scouting Museum honors Ottawa resident William D. Boyce, the founder of the Boy Scouts of America. Once an old Norwegian Lutheran Church, Norsk Museum is located 9 miles northeast of Ottawa, on Highway 71; the museum is dedicated to the Scandinavian settlers who founded the area around neighboring Norway, Illinois, in the 1800s. Jacob C. Zeller founded the Zeller Court Place Tavern in 1871, at 615 Columbus Street; the original Zeller Inn was demolished in 1982. The Zeller Inn tavern known as the Court Place, still remains, now called Zeller Inn; the courtyard patio area on Columbus street is. The tavern contains the original mahogany bar built by the Sanders Bros in Ottawa, marble counters, tiled floors and walls, stained glass door and light fixtures, it was known for its Gilded Age brilliance — tiled mahogany bar, carved gargoyles, pressed-tin ceiling and solid oak backbar. The mirror on the bar is the same since its establishment in 1871, brought over from the 1800s era European Worlds Fair.
Zeller's initials, JCZ, are still visible in a tiled mosaic on the side of the bar and in the glass light domes that hang from the ceiling. This is one of the oldest taverns in Illinois, with original features which remain intact and displays the arc
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an