The Full Monty
The Full Monty is a 1997 British comedy film directed by Peter Cattaneo, starring Robert Carlyle, Mark Addy, William Snape, Steve Huison, Tom Wilkinson, Paul Barber and Hugo Speer. The screenplay was written by Simon Beaufoy; the film is set in Sheffield, England and, starting off with a travelogue of the city in 1972, tells the story of six unemployed men, four of them former steel workers, who decide to form a male striptease act in order to gather enough money to get somewhere else and for the main character, Gaz, to be able to see his son. Gaz declares that their show will be better than the Chippendales dancers because they will go "the full monty"—strip all the way—hence the film's title. Despite being a comedy, the film touches on serious subjects such as unemployment, fathers' rights, impotence, body image, working class culture and suicide; the Full Monty was a major critical success upon release and an international commercial success, grossing over $250 million from a budget of only $3.5 million.
It was the highest-grossing film in the UK. It won the BAFTA Award for Best Film, was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay and Best Original Music Score, winning the last; the British Film Institute ranked The Full Monty the 25th best British film of the 20th century. The film was adapted into the 2000 musical The Full Monty, the 2013 play The Full Monty; the once-successful steel mills of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, have shut down and most of the staff have been made redundant. Former steelworkers Gary "Gaz" Schofield and Dave Horsefall have resorted to stealing scrap metal from the abandoned mills to sell. Gaz is facing trouble from his former wife Mandy and her boyfriend Barry over child support payments that he has failed to pay since losing his job. Gaz's son Nathan loves his father but wishes they could do more "normal stuff" in their time together. One day, Gaz spots a crowd of women lined up outside a local club to see a Chippendales' striptease act.
He gets the idea to form his own striptease group using local men in hopes of making enough money to pay off his child support obligations. The first to join the group is Lomper, a security guard at the steel mill where Dave and Gaz once worked. Depressed, Lomper is rescued by Dave who convinces him to join the group. Next, they recruit Gerald Cooper, their former foreman at the mill, hiding the fact that he is unemployed from his wife. Gaz and Dave see Gerald and his wife, Linda, at a dance class, recruit him to teach them some actual dance moves; the four men hold an open audition to recruit more members and settle on Horse, an older man, a good dancer, Guy, who can't dance but proves himself to be well-endowed. The six men begin to practise their act. Gaz learns that he has to pay £100 in order to secure the club for the night, he can not afford this. When they are greeted by two local women while they put up posters for the show, Gaz boasts that they are better than the real Chippendales because they go "the full monty".
Dave gets a job as a security guard at Asda. The others do a public rehearsal at the mill in front of some female relatives of Horse, but are caught mid-show by a passing policeman, Gaz and Horse are arrested for indecent exposure; this costs Gaz the right to see Nathan. Lomper and Guy manage to escape arrest, go to Lomper's house, where they look lovingly at each other, starting a relationship. Gerald meanwhile is thrown out by Linda after bailiffs arrive at their house and seize their belongings to pay Gerald's debts, resulting in him having to stay with Gaz. Gaz goes to Asda and asks Dave if he could borrow a jacket for Lomper's mother's funeral. Dave agrees and decides to quit his job and they go to the funeral together. Soon, the group find their arrest has made them famous, they agree to forgo the plan. He convinces the others to do it for one night only. Gerald is unsure as he has now got the job that Gaz and Dave earlier tried to sabotage his interview for, but agrees to do it just once.
Dave still refuses, but regains his confidence after encouragement from his wife and joins the rest of the group minutes before they go on stage. Nathan arrives with Dave, having secretly come along, tells Gaz that Mandy is there but she would not let Barry go with her. However, Gaz himself refuses to do the act because there are men in the audience, when the posters were supposed to say it was for women only; the other five are starting the act. Gaz, proud of his son, joins the others and performs in front of the audience and Mandy, who seems to see him in a new light; the film finishes with the group performing on stage in front of a packed house, stripping to Tom Jones' version of "You Can Leave Your Hat On" with astounding success. Channel 4 Films paid for the screenplay to be written but declined to invest any equity in the film; the famous "Hot Stuff" scene, in which the characters dance in the queue at the job centre, was going to be cut from the final production as it was "too unrealistic".
The cast agreed that all six of them would do the "full monty" strip at the end in front of 50 extras, provided they had to do only one take. The film was shot on location in and around Sheffield, except for a couple of locations in Shirebrook, Derbyshire; the opening sequence of the Sh
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Little Miss Sunshine
Little Miss Sunshine is a 2006 American comedy-drama road film and the directorial debut of the husband-wife team of Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris. The screenplay was written by first-time writer Michael Arndt; the film stars Greg Kinnear, Steve Carell, Toni Collette, Paul Dano, Abigail Breslin, Alan Arkin, was produced by Big Beach Films on a budget of US$8 million. Filming took place over 30 days in Arizona and Southern California; the film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 20, 2006, its distribution rights were bought by Fox Searchlight Pictures for one of the biggest deals made in the history of the festival. The film had a limited release in the United States on July 26, 2006, expanded to a wider release starting on August 18. Little Miss Sunshine was an overwhelming box office success, attaining $100.5 million. The film was nominated for 4 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, won two: Best Original Screenplay for Michael Arndt and Best Supporting Actor for Alan Arkin.
It won the Independent Spirit Award for Best Feature and received numerous other accolades. Sheryl Hoover is an overworked mother of two living in New Mexico, her gay brother, Frank, an unemployed scholar of Proust, is temporarily living at home with the family after having attempted suicide. Sheryl's husband Richard is a Type A personality striving to build a career as a motivational speaker and life coach. Dwayne, Sheryl's son from a previous marriage, is a Nietzsche-reading teenager who has taken a vow of silence until he can accomplish his dream of becoming a test pilot. Richard's foul-mouthed father, Edwin evicted from a retirement home for snorting heroin, lives with the family. Olive, the daughter of Richard and Sheryl and the youngest of the Hoover family, is an aspiring beauty queen, coached by Edwin. Olive learns she has qualified for the "Little Miss Sunshine" beauty pageant, being held in Redondo Beach, California in two days, her parents and Edwin, coaching her, want to support her, Frank and Dwayne cannot be left alone, so the whole family goes.
Because they have little money, they go on an 800-mile road trip in their yellow Volkswagen Type 2. Family tensions play out on the highway and at stops along the way, amidst the aging VW van's mechanical problems; when the van breaks down early on, the family learns that they must push the van until it is moving at about 20 mph before it is put into gear, at which point they have to run up to the side door and jump in. On, the van's horn starts honking unceasingly by itself. Throughout the road trip, the family suffers numerous personal setbacks and discover their need for each other's support. Richard loses an important contract. Frank encounters the ex-boyfriend who, in leaving him for an academic rival, had prompted his suicide attempt. Edwin dies from a heroin overdose, resulting in the family smuggling the body out of a hospital and nearly having it discovered by the police. During the final leg of the trip, Dwayne discovers that he is color blind, which means he cannot become a pilot, a realization that prompts him to break his silence and shout his anger and disdain for his family.
Olive calms him with a hug, he apologizes. The climax takes place at the beauty pageant. After a frantic race against the clock, the family arrives at the hotel, are curtly told by a pageant organizer that they are a few minutes past the deadline. A sympathetic hired hand instead offers to register Olive on his own time; as Olive prepares for the pageant, the family sees Olive's competition: slim, hypersexualized pre-teen girls with teased hair and capped teeth, performing elaborate dance numbers with great panache. It becomes apparent that Olive is an amateur by comparison; as Olive's turn to perform in the talent portion of the pageant draws near and Dwayne recognize that Olive is certain to be humiliated, wanting to spare her feelings, run to the dressing room to talk her out of performing. Sheryl, insists that they "let Olive be Olive", Olive goes on stage. Olive's hitherto-unrevealed dance that Edwin had choreographed for her is performed to Rick James' song "Super Freak". Olive scandalizes and horrifies most of the audience and pageant judges with a burlesque performance that she joyfully performs while oblivious to their reactions.
The pageant organizers demand Sheryl and Richard remove Olive from the stage. Instead of removing her, one by one the members of the Hoover family join Olive on stage, dancing alongside her to show their support; the family is next seen outside the hotel's security office where they are given their freedom on the condition that Olive never enters a beauty pageant in the state of California again. Piling into the van with the horn still honking, they smash through the barrier of the hotel's toll booth and begin their trip home to Albuquerque; when choosing the cast for the film, directors Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris were assisted by casting directors Kim Davis and Justine Baddeley who had worked with them on previous music videos. The directors had settled on Greg Kinnear to portray Richard Hoover. However, for the character of Sheryl Hoover, they considered several actresses before deciding on Australian actress Toni Collette. Davis and Baddely traveled to "every English-speaking country" to search for the actress to portray Olive Hoover, they chose actress Abigail Breslin through an audition when she was six.
Paul Dano was cast as Dwayne two years before production began and in preparation for portraying his character, spent a few days taking hi
Black Swan (film)
Black Swan is a 2010 American psychological horror film directed by Darren Aronofsky. The screenplay was written by Mark Heyman, John McLaughlin, Andres Heinz, based on an original story by Heinz; the film stars Natalie Portman, Vincent Cassel, Mila Kunis, Barbara Hershey, Winona Ryder. The plot revolves around a production of Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake ballet by the prestigious New York City Ballet company; the production requires a ballerina to play the innocent and fragile White Swan, for which the committed dancer Nina is a perfect fit, as well as the dark and sensual Black Swan, which are qualities better embodied by the new arrival Lily. Nina is overwhelmed by a feeling of immense pressure when she finds herself competing for the part, causing her to lose her tenuous grip on reality and descend into a living nightmare. Described as a psychological horror film, Black Swan can be interpreted as a metaphor for achieving artistic perfection, with all the psychological and physical challenges one might encounter, i.e. "the film can be perceived as a poetic metaphor for the birth of an artist, that is, as a visual representation of Nina's psychic odyssey toward achieving artistic perfection and of the price to be paid for it."Aronofsky conceived the premise by connecting his viewings of a production of Swan Lake with an unrealized screenplay about understudies and the notion of being haunted by a double, similar to the folklore surrounding doppelgängers.
Aronofsky cites Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Double as another inspiration for the film. The director considered Black Swan a companion piece to his 2008 film The Wrestler, with both films involving demanding performances for different kinds of art, he and Portman first discussed the project in 2000, after a brief attachment to Universal Studios, Black Swan was produced in New York City in 2009 by Fox Searchlight Pictures. Portman and Kunis trained in ballet for several months prior to filming, notable figures from the ballet world helped with film production to shape the ballet presentation; the film premiered as the opening film for the 67th Venice International Film Festival on September 1, 2010. It had a limited release in the United States starting December 3, 2010 and opened in wide release on December 17; the film upon release was a commercial success. Critics praised Portman's performance and Aronofsky's direction, while the film grossed over $329 million worldwide, it received five nominations at the 83rd Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Cinematography, Best Film Editing and winning Best Actress.
Nina Sayers is a 28-year-old dancer in a New York City ballet company, preparing to open its new season with Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake. With prima ballerina Beth MacIntyre being forced into retirement, artistic director Thomas Leroy announces he is looking for a new dancer to portray the dual role of the innocent White Swan and the sensual Black Swan. Nina auditions for the role and gives a flawless performance as the White Swan, but fails to embody the Black Swan; the following day, Nina asks Thomas to reconsider choosing her to play the role. When he forcibly kisses her, she bites him before running out of his office; that day, Nina sees the cast list and discovers, much to her surprise and that of her overprotective mother Erica, she will be portraying the lead. At a gala celebrating the new season, an intoxicated Beth confronts Nina, accusing her of sleeping with Thomas to get the role; the following day, Nina discovers that Beth was hit by a car while walking in the street and Thomas believes she did it on purpose.
During rehearsals, Thomas tells Nina to observe new dancer Lily, whom he describes as possessing an uninhibited quality that Nina lacks. Nina falls victim to several hallucinations of a doppelgänger following her wherever she goes and finds unexplained scratch marks on her back. One night, Nina accepts Lily's invitation to dinner despite Erica's objections. Over dinner, Lily offers Nina an ecstasy capsule to help her relax. Nina turns it down, but accepts a drink laced with ecstasy powder; the two return to Nina's apartment late. After fighting with her mother, Nina has sex with Lily; the following morning, Nina realizes she is late for the dress rehearsal. Upon arriving at Lincoln Center, she finds Lily dancing as the Black Swan and confronts her about their night together; when Lily doesn't recall, Nina realizes. After learning that Thomas has made Lily her alternative, Nina's hallucinations grow stronger to the point where Erica tries to prevent her from performing on opening night. Nina forces her way out of the apartment and arrives at Lincoln Center only to discover that Lily is set to take over.
She confronts Thomas. During the end of the play's second act, Nina becomes distracted by a hallucination, causing her partner to drop her, she finds Lily preparing to play the Black Swan. When Lily transforms into Nina's doppelgänger, the two engage in a fight that ends with Nina stabbing the doppelgänger with a shard of glass, only to reveal that it had been Lily, stabbed, she hides the corpse and returns to the stage, where she loses herself and gives a flawless performance as the Black Swan. Nina receives a standing ovation from the audience and, after surprising Thomas with a passionate kiss, returns to her dressing room. While changing, Nina hears a knock at the door and opens it to find Lily alive and congratulating her. Realizing the fight never occurred, yet the mirror is still broken, that she had stabbed herself, Nina quiet
The Descendants is a 2011 American comedy-drama film directed by Alexander Payne. The screenplay by Payne, Nat Faxon and Jim Rash is based on the 2007 novel of the same name by Kaui Hart Hemmings; the film stars George Clooney, Shailene Woodley, Amara Miller, Beau Bridges, Judy Greer, Matthew Lillard, Robert Forster, was released by Fox Searchlight Pictures in the United States on November 18, 2011 after being screened at the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival. Tracing the journey of land baron Matt King who struggles with unexpected occurrences in his monotonous life, The Descendants won an Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay, two Golden Globe Awards for Best Picture – Drama and Best Actor – Drama for Clooney. Matthew "Matt" King is a Honolulu-based attorney and the sole trustee of a family trust of 25,000 pristine acres on Kauai; the land has great monetary value, but is a family legacy. While Matt has always ably managed his own finances, most of his cousins have squandered their inheritances.
With the trust expiring in seven years due to the rule against perpetuities, the King clan is pressuring Matt to sell the land for hundreds of millions of dollars. Amidst these discussions, a boating accident has rendered Matt's wife, comatose. With Elizabeth hospitalized, Matt is forced to cope with his two troubled daughters, 10-year-old Scottie who seeks attention by bullying other children, 17-year-old Alex who has a history of substance abuse and is away at a private boarding school on the Big Island. Doctors determine that Elizabeth's coma is irreversible and her living will directs all life support to be discontinued; when Matt tells Alex, she reveals that she caught Elizabeth having an affair before the accident, causing a major rift between mother and daughter. Two close family friends tell Matt that Elizabeth was unhappy and wanted to leave him for her lover, Brian Speer, a real estate agent. After Matt arranges for friends to bid Elizabeth goodbye, he decides Speer should have an opportunity.
He and the girls, Alex's slacker boyfriend Sid, travel to Kauai to find Brian. While there, Matt's cousin Hugh mentions that Brian is brother-in-law to Don Hollitzer, the developer to whom the family wants to sell the land. Brian stands to make a small fortune from the sales commission. Matt confronts Brian and informs him Elizabeth is dying and offers him an opportunity to see her one last time. Brian declines, admitting that although Elizabeth was in love with him, it was only a fling to him and that he loves his wife Julie and their children apologizes to Matt for the pain he caused; when Elizabeth is disconnected from life support, her father Scott admonishes Matt for not being a more generous and loving husband. Choosing not to disclose the details of her affair to Scott, Matt agrees, but Sid and Alex both unexpectedly defend Matt. At the King family meeting, Matt overrules the majority of his cousins who favor selling to Hollitzer. Matt decides to keep the land and look for a different solution to the problem posed by the rule against perpetuities.
Shocked, Hugh tells Matt that he and the other cousins will take legal action if Matt refuses to sell, but Matt is undeterred. After learning of Brian's affair with Elizabeth and realizing that he will not visit, Julie comes to the hospital, she tearfully admits to Elizabeth that she wants to hate her for "trying to destroy" her family, but that she forgives her. Matt comes to terms with his wife's betrayal and her impending death, he kisses her goodbye, followed by Alex and Scottie, they scatter Elizabeth's ashes in the ocean off Waikiki. The three are at home sitting together sharing ice cream and watching television, all wrapped in the Hawaiian quilt Elizabeth had been lying in; the film began its on-location shoot in Hawaii on March 15, 2010. Most of the film was shot around Hanalei Bay; the location used. For the scene where the King family drives up to a ridge to look over their land, the film used a 3,000-acre private cattle ranch on the south shore of Kauai, Kipu Ranch. Kaui Hart Hemmings, the author of the novel on which the movie was based, had a cameo as Matt King's secretary.
The private boarding school attended by Alex King was depicted as Mid-Pacific Institute, in Honolulu, Oʻahu. This contradicts the scene in the movie where Matt and Scottie travel by plane to the Big Island to pick up Alex. Kaui Hart Hemmings stated that Hawaii Preparatory Academy, located in Kamuela, Hawaiʻi, was the inspiration for the private boarding school. Post-production began on June 14, continued into February 2011, it screened at the Telluride and New York film festivals and was scheduled to have a limited release on December 16, 2011, but was moved to November 23, 2011 and November 18, 2011. The soundtrack uses Hawaiian music, featuring artists including Gabby Pahinui, Ray Kane, Keola Beamer, Lena Machado, Sonny Chillingworth, Jeff Peterson, Reverend Dennis Kamakahi. and Danny Carvalho. The Descendants opened in North America on November 16, 2011 in a limited release in 29 theaters and grossed $1,190,096 averaging $41,038 per theater and ranking 10th at the box office; the film had its wide release on December 9 in 876 theaters and grossed $4,380,138 averaging $5,000 per theater and ranking 7th at the box office.
The film was in cinemas for 156 days and its widest release in the United States was 2,038 theaters. The film ended up earning $82,584,160 domestically and $94,659,025 internationally for a total of $177,243,185. On Rotten Tomatoes, The Descendants received a rating of 89%, based on 249 reviews, with an average rating of 8.1/10. The website's critica
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
90th Academy Awards
The 90th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 2017, took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was held on March 4, 2018, rather than its usual late-February date to avoid conflicting with the 2018 Winter Olympics. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories; the ceremony was televised in the United States by American Broadcasting Company, produced by Michael De Luca and Jennifer Todd and directed by Glenn Weiss. Comedian Jimmy Kimmel hosted for the second consecutive year. In related events, the Academy held its 9th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 11, 2017. On February 10, 2018, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, the Academy Scientific and Technical Awards were presented by host actor Sir Patrick Stewart; the Shape of Water won a leading four awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Guillermo del Toro.
Dunkirk won three awards. Frances McDormand and Sam Rockwell won Best Actress and Best Supporting Actor awards for Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri while Gary Oldman won Best Actor for Darkest Hour. Allison Janney won Best Supporting Actress honor for Tonya. With a U. S. viewership of 26.5 million, it was the least-watched show in Oscar history. The nominees for the 90th Academy Awards were announced on January 2018, at 5:22 a.m.. PST, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, via global live stream, from the Academy and by actors Tiffany Haddish and Andy Serkis; the Shape of Water led all nominees with thirteen nominations. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger; the Academy held its 9th annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 11, 2017, during which the following awards were presented: Academy Honorary Awards Agnès Varda – French film director, writer and producer Charles Burnett – American director, producer and cinematographer Donald Sutherland – Canadian actor Owen Roizman – American cinematographerSpecial Achievement Academy Award Alejandro González Iñárritu for his virtual reality project Carne y Arena The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers.
Despite the mixed reception received from the preceding year's ceremony, the Academy rehired Michael De Luca and Jennifer Todd as producers for the second consecutive year. In May 2017, it was announced. Kimmel expressed that he was thrilled to be selected to MC the gala again, commenting, "Hosting the Oscars was a highlight of my career and I am grateful to Cheryl and the Academy for asking me to return to work with two of my favorite people, Mike De Luca and Jennifer Todd. If you think we screwed up the ending this year, wait until you see what we have planned for the 90th anniversary show!" Jimmy extensively campaigned for the ceremony, shooting several promos and discussions on his talk show. ABC scheduled a "sneak peak" of its new Sunday night talk show The Alec Baldwin Show after the ceremony. On December 4, 2017, it was announced that the timing of the ceremony and its pre-show had been changed and both would be scheduled to broadcast a half-hour earlier than prior telecasts. In the first half of the nominations announcement, pre-taped category introductions were included that featured actresses Priyanka Chopra, Rosario Dawson, Gal Gadot, Salma Hayek, Michelle Rodriguez, Zoe Saldana, Molly Shannon, Rebel Wilson and Michelle Yeoh.
As per the tradition of the Academy, the previous year's Best Actor winner presents the Best Actress award for the next year's ceremony. The Best Actor award was presented by Helen Mirren. Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway returned to present the Best Picture Award for the second year in the row, after last year's announcement error. Sixth-year in a row Derek McLane designed the stage with forty-five million Swarovski crystals. At the time of the nominations announcement on January 23, 2018, the combined gross of the nine Best Picture nominees at the North American box offices was $568.2 million, with an average of $63.1 million per film. When the nominations were announced, Dunkirk was the highest-grossing film among the Best Picture nominees with $188 million in domestic box office receipts. Get Out was the second-highest-grossing film with $175.6 million, followed by The Post, Darkest Hour, Lady Bird, Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, The Shape of Water, Call Me by Your Name, Phantom Thread. From the date of announcements to the time of the ceremony on March 4, 2018, the total made by the Best Picture nominees at the North American box offices was $126.7 million, with an average of $14.1 million per film.
The Post and The Shape of Water had the highest grossed during that frame, followed by Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Darkest Hour, Phantom Thread, Lady Bird, C