The St. Louis Municipal Opera Theatre is an amphitheatre located in St. Louis, Missouri; the theatre seats 11,000 people with 1,500 free seats in the last nine rows that are available on a first come, first served basis. The Muny seasons run every year from mid-June to mid-August, it is run by a nonprofit organization. The current president and chief executive is Dennis M. Reagan; the current artistic director & executive producer is Mike Isaacson. In 1914, Luther Ely Smith began staging pageant-masques on Art Hill in Forest Park. In 1916, a grassy area between two oak trees on the present site of The Muny was chosen for a production of As You Like It produced by Margaret Anglin and starring Sydney Greenstreet with a local cast of "1,000 St. Louis folk dancers and folk singers" in connection with the tercentenary of Shakespeare's death; the audience sat in portable chairs on a gravel floor. Soon after, the Convention Board of the St. Louis Advertising Club was looking for an entertainment feature for its thirteenth annual convention, to take place June 3, 1917.
Mayor Henry Kiel, attorney Guy Golterman, Parks Commissioner Nelson Cunliff stepped in and, in forty-nine days, created the first municipally owned outdoor theatre in the United States. On June 5, 1917, the opera Aida was presented on. In 1919, the new theatre received a name: St. Louis Municipal Opera Theatre, or "The Muny" for short; the first show under the Muny banner was Robin Hood, which opened on June 16, 1919, featured Mayor Kiel as King Richard. Concerts were performed here prior to the opening of Riverport Amphitheatre in 1991. By the beginning of the 1921 season, the facility had a new permanent stage, its base was concrete to prevent damage from floods, such as one that damaged the theater's equipment on opening night in 1919. Improvements for 1922 included a new pergola, 750 permanent opera chairs, 500 parking spaces for automobiles, the addition of "comfort stations". Additions for 1923 included 1,800 permanent seats, an extra stage for rehearsals, a sound amplifier to enable people in the back of the audience to hear as well as those in the front On January 4, 1923, the Municipal Theater Association opened a free school for people who aspired to sing in the chorus for that summer's productions.
Of 420 applicants, 239 had been accepted as of the class's beginning, with 45 remaining to be examined. Classes met two nights a week until May 1. Keil stepped down from being president of the Muncipal Theater Association in 1924, saying that the enterprise should be headed by businessmen, Cunliff left his position as chairman of the group's Executive Productions Committee. H. J. Pettengill, chairman of Southwest Bell Telephone Company's board of directors, was elected the new president. Reserved seats for all paid admissions were instituted in 1925, after 2,400 numbered chairs were installed in the unreserved 25-cent section. In 1930, the stage was equipped with a turntable for performance purposes, it was reconstructed in 1997 due to dilapidation. In 1994, The Muny's Board of Directors founded the Muny Kids, a select group of performers between the ages of 7 to 13 who traveled around St. Louis performing, in the summer gave preview shows prior to the production. In 1998, the Muny Teens group was formed for the same purpose, featuring teen performers between the ages of 14 to 18.
The Chairman of the Board of the Muny in 2005-2006 was William H. T. Bush; the current Chairman of the Board is Stephen C. Jones. Jesus Christ Superstar, June 12 – 18 Disney's The Little Mermaid, June 20 – 29 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, July 5 – 11 All Shook Up, July 13 – 19 The Unsinkable Molly Brown, July 21 – 27 A Chorus Line, July 29 – August 4 Newsies, August 7 – 13 Jerome Robbins Broadway, June 11 – 27 The Wiz, June 19 – 25 Singin' in the Rain, June 27 – July 3 Jersey Boys, July 9 – 16 Annie, July 18 – 25 Gypsy, July 27 – August 2 Meet me in St. Louis, August 4 – 12 For a complete listing of all productions since the first season in 1919, see List of The Muny repertory; the Muny operates only in the summer. During the winter, a full-time staff of fewer than twenty people prepare for the next summer season. During the season itself, the summer staff expands to include more than 500 people in various positions. All shows are rehearsed within the course of eleven days, with two technical rehearsals being held in the two to three days before the show's opening.
Shows run from Monday to Sunday, although there have been exceptions to this in recent years, when each season has had at least one production with an extended run. The Muny website claims it is the "nation's oldest and largest outdoor musical theatre." There are numerous amphitheatres/outdoor theatres. There is no lawn seating inside The Muny. In addition, The Muny is the largest to host only Broadway-style musical theatre; the next largest seat capacity theatre in the United States is the San Manuel Amphitheater in California, housing 10,900 seats. For a list of other amphitheatres see: List of contemporary amphitheatres. Since its beginning, The Muny has featured hundreds of big names in theatre and film on its stage, drawing huge crowds. A history of the celebrities who have performed at The Muny, including a cast listing, can be found on The Muny's website. During one of the last productions each summer season, survey forms are handed out to audience members. On this survey, audience members are asked to select thei
Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in 1990 in Seattle, Washington. Since its inception, the band's line-up has included Eddie Vedder, Mike McCready, Stone Gossard, Jeff Ament. Since 1998, the band has included drummer Matt Cameron. Boom Gaspar has been a session/touring member with the band since 2002. Drummers Jack Irons, Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain, Dave Abbruzzese are former members of the band. Formed after the demise of Gossard and Ament's previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. One of the key bands in the grunge movement of the early 1990s, its members shunned popular music industry practices such as making music videos or giving interviews; the band sued Ticketmaster, claiming it had monopolized the concert-ticket market. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame."The band had sold nearly 32 million albums in the United States by 2012, by 2018, they had sold more than 85 million albums worldwide.
Pearl Jam outsold many of its contemporary alternative rock bands from the early 1990s, is considered one of the most influential bands of the decade. AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine referred to Pearl Jam as "the most popular American rock & roll band of the'90s". Pearl Jam was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017, in its first year of eligibility, they were ranked at number 8 in a reader poll by Rolling Stone magazine in its Top ten live acts of all time issue. Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament were members of pioneering grunge band Green River during the mid-1980s. Green River toured and recorded to moderate success but disbanded in 1987 due to a stylistic division between the pair and bandmates Mark Arm and Steve Turner. In late 1987, Gossard and Ament began playing with Malfunkshun vocalist Andrew Wood organizing the band Mother Love Bone. In 1988 and 1989, the band recorded and toured to increasing interest and found the support of the PolyGram record label, which signed the band in early 1989.
Mother Love Bone's debut album, was released in July 1990, four months after Wood died of a heroin overdose. Ament and Gossard were devastated by the resulting demise of Mother Love Bone. Gossard spent his time afterwards writing material, harder-edged than what he had been doing previously. After a few months, Gossard started practicing with fellow Seattle guitarist Mike McCready, whose band, had broken up. After practicing for a while, the trio sent out a five-song demo tape in order to find a singer and a drummer, they gave former Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer Jack Irons the demo to see if he would be interested in joining the band and to distribute the demo to anyone he felt might fit the lead vocal position. Irons passed on the invitation but gave the demo to his basketball friend, San Diego, California singer Eddie Vedder. Vedder was the lead vocalist for a San Diego band, Bad Radio, worked part-time at a gas station, he listened to the tape shortly before going surfing. He recorded the vocals to three of the songs in what he described as a "mini-opera" entitled Momma-Son.
Vedder sent the tape with his vocals back to the three Seattle musicians, who were impressed enough to fly Vedder up to Seattle for an audition. Within a week, Vedder had joined the band. With the addition of Dave Krusen on drums, the band took the name Mookie Blaylock, in reference to the then-active basketball player Mookie Blaylock; the band played its first official show at the Off Ramp Café in Seattle on October 22, 1990. They opened for Alice in Chains at the Moore Theatre in Seattle on December 22, 1990, served as the opening act for the band's Facelift tour in 1991. Mookie Blaylock soon renamed themselves Pearl Jam. In an early promotional interview, Vedder said that the name "Pearl Jam" was a reference to his great-grandmother Pearl, married to a Native American and had a special recipe for peyote-laced jam. In a 2006 Rolling Stone cover story however, Vedder admitted that this story was "total bullshit" though he indeed had a great-grandma named Pearl. Ament and McCready explained that Ament came up with "pearl", that the band settled on "Pearl Jam" after attending a concert by Neil Young, in which he extended his songs as improvisations of 15–20 minutes in length.
Pearl Jam entered Seattle's London Bridge Studios in March 1991 to record Ten. McCready said that "Ten was Stone and Jeff. Krusen left the band in May 1991 after checking himself into rehabilitation. After playing only a handful of shows, one of, filmed for the "Alive" video, Chamberlain left to join the Saturday Night Live band. Chamberlain suggested Dave Abbruzzese as his replacement. Abbruzzese played the rest of Pearl Jam's live shows supporting Ten. Released on August 27, 1991, Ten contained eleven tracks dealing with dark subjects like depression, suicide and murder. Ten's musical style, influenced by classic rock, combined an "expansive harmonic vocabulary" with an anthemic sound; the album was slow to sell, but by the second half of 1992 it became a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the Billboard charts. Ten produced the hit singles "Alive", "Even Flow", "Jeremy". Interpreted as a
Midtown St. Louis
Midtown is a neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri, it is located 3 miles west of the city riverfront at the intersection of Grand and Lindell Boulevards. It is home to the campus of the Grand Center Arts District; the Midtown Historic District of St. Louis was placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior in 1979. A remarkable collection of eclectic structures built between 1874 and 1930 range from Midtown's oldest building, a classic Second Empire style townhouse at 3534 Washington Ave. built during the first phase of Midtown development to flamboyant early Twentieth Century commercial buildings like the Art Deco Continental-Life Building, 3615 Olive Street and the "Siamese Byzantine" Fox Theatre, 527 N. Grand Blvd. Buildings in the district were designed by notable architects including Henry Hobson Richardson and Young, William B. Ittner, Preston J. Bradshaw, C. Howard Crane, Brad Cloepfil and Tadao Ando. From a distance the Midtown skyline asserts a strong node like St. Louis's "second downtown".
Most of Midtown's surviving historic structures have been adapted for new uses. A once dilapidated movie palace, Powell Hall, 718 N. Grand Blvd. is the sumptuous, Neo-classical acoustically vibrant home of the St. Louis Symphony and another is a thriving live performance venue. Buildings designed for worship are performing arts centers; the Continental-Life Building and the University Club Building that housed offices are now apartment buildings. Single family residences have been converted into elegant professional offices. Former clubhouse buildings serve as art centers: The St. Louis Club Building, 3663 Lindell Blvd. is now the Saint Louis University Museum of Art and The Knights of Columbus Building, 3547 Olive Street, is the Centene Center for the Arts, housing the St. Louis Arts and Education Council and numerous arts agencies; as Midtown revived, new art museums including the Pulitzer Arts Foundation and the Contemporary Art Museum Saint Louis and were built in 2001 and 2003 and the 1998 Dana Brown Communications Center, home of KETC has become a focal point for public broadcasting and new media.
The only American Civil War battle in St. Louis, the Camp Jackson Affair, took place on May 10, 1861 when Union military forces clashed with civilians after capturing the Confederate Missouri Volunteer Militia commanded by General Daniel M. Frost; the Militia had been dispatched to St. Louis by Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson to seize the St. Louis Arsenal, secure 40,000 rifles and muskets for the Confederacy, it camped outside St. Louis at Lindell's Grove, renamed "Camp Jackson" by the militiamen; the site of Camp Jackson is on the campus of St. Louis University commemorated by a historical marker near the university's Busch Student Center. United States Army Captain General, Nathaniel Lyon marched from the Arsenal on the St. Louis riverfront to the rural site of Camp Jackson with a mixed force of 6,000 Regular Army troops and Home Guard volunteers. Frost surrendered to Lyon without a fight. However, after capturing Camp Jackson, Union Forces clashed with civilian bystanders resulting in the deaths of at least 28 people including Captain Constantin Blandowski, the first Union officer killed in the Civil War.
Residential and commercial development of Midtown followed the Civil War as St. Louis expanded west in the 1870s. By the 1920s Midtown was a bustling district akin to New York City’s Times Square. Midtown deteriorated after World War II. However, in the 1970s, Father Paul C. Reinert, President of Saint Louis University inspired the urban renewal effort to rehabilitate the neighborhood and make use of its surviving buildings that continues in the Twenty First Century. In 2010 Midtown's racial makeup was 61.9% White, 25.8% Black, 0.2% American Indian, 9.2% Asian, 2.0% Two or More Races, 0.9% Some Other Race. 2.8 % of the people were of Latino origin. Grand Center Saint Louis University Architecture of St. Louis Neighborhoods of St. Louis National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis "National Register of Historic Places - Nomination Form". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2008-05-30. "The St. Louis Arts and Education Council"
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Keith Richards is an English musician and songwriter, best known as the co-founder, secondary vocalist, co-principal songwriter of the Rolling Stones. Rolling Stone magazine called Richards the creator of "rock's greatest single body of riffs" on guitar and ranked him fourth on its list of 100 best guitarists in 2011, the magazine lists fourteen songs that Richards wrote with the Rolling Stones' lead vocalist Mick Jagger on its "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time" list. Richards plays both lead and rhythm guitar parts in the same song, as the Stones are known for their guitar interplay of rhythm and lead between Richards and the other guitarist in the band – Brian Jones, Mick Taylor, Ronnie Wood. In the recording studio Richards sometimes plays all of the guitar parts, notably on the songs "Paint It Black", "Ruby Tuesday", "Sympathy for the Devil", " Satisfaction", "Gimme Shelter", he is a vocalist, singing backing vocals on many Rolling Stones songs as well as occasional lead vocals, such as on the Rolling Stones' 1972 single "Happy", as well as with his side project, the X-Pensive Winos.
Richards was born on 18 December 1943 at Livingston Hospital, in Dartford, England. He is the only child of Herbert William Richards, his father was a factory worker, wounded in the Second World War during the Normandy invasion. Richards' paternal grandparents and Eliza Richards, were socialists and civic leaders, whom he credited as "more or less creat the Walthamstow Labour Party", whilst Eliza became mayor of the Municipal Borough of Walthamstow in London in 1941, his great-grandfather's family originated from Wales. His maternal grandfather, Augustus Theodore "Gus" Dupree, who toured Britain with a jazz big band, Gus Dupree and his Boys, fostered Richards' interest in the guitar. Richards has said, his grandfather'teased' the young Richards with a guitar, on a shelf that Richards couldn't reach at the time. Dupree told Richards that if Richards could reach the guitar, he could have it. Richards devised all manner of ways of reaching the guitar, including putting books and cushions on a chair, until getting hold of the instrument, after which his grandfather taught him the rudiments of Richards' first tune, "Malagueña".
He worked on the number'like mad', his grandfather let him keep the guitar, which he called'the prize of the century'. Richards played at home, listening to recordings by Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, others, his father, on the other hand, disparaged his son's musical enthusiasm. One of Richards' first guitar heroes was Elvis's guitarist Scotty Moore, he attended Wentworth Primary School with Mick Jagger and was his neighbour until 1954 when the Richards family moved. From 1955 to 1959, Richards attended Dartford Technical High School for Boys. Recruited by Dartford Tech's choirmaster, R. W. "Jake" Clare, he sang in a trio of boy sopranos at, among other occasions, Westminster Abbey for Queen Elizabeth II. In 1959, Richards was expelled from Dartford Tech for truancy and transferred to Sidcup Art College, where he met Dick Taylor. At Sidcup, he was diverted from his studies proper and devoted more time to playing guitar with other students in the boys' room. At this point, Richards had learned most of Chuck Berry's solos.
Richards met Jagger on a train. The mail-order rhythm & blues albums from Chess Records by Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters that Jagger was carrying revealed a mutual interest and led to a renewal of their friendship. Along with mutual friend Dick Taylor, Jagger was singing in an amateur band, Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys, which Richards soon joined; the Blues Boys folded when Brian Jones, after sharing thoughts on their joint interest in the blues music, invited Mick and Keith to the Bricklayers Arms pub, where they met Ian Stewart. By mid-1962 Richards had left Sidcup Art College to devote himself to music and moved into a London flat with Jagger and Jones, his parents divorced about the same time, resulting in his staying close to his mother and remaining estranged from his father until 1982. After the Rolling Stones signed to Decca Records in 1963, their band manager, Andrew Loog Oldham, dropped the s from Richards' surname, believing that "Keith Richard", in his words, "looked more pop".
During the late 1970s, Richards re-established the s in his surname. Ian Stewart once stated. Bill Wyman and Ronnie Wood have been quoted as stating that the Stones do not follow the band's long-time drummer, Charlie Watts, but rather follow Richards, as there was "no way of'not' following" him. Chris Spedding calls Richards' guitar playing "direct and unpretentious". Richards says he focuses on chords and rhythms, avoiding flamboyant and competitive virtuosity and trying not to be the "fastest gun in the west". Richards prefers teaming with at least one other guitarist and has never toured without one. Chuck Berry has been an inspiration for Richards, with Jagger, he introduced Berry's songs to the Rolling Stones' early repertoire. In the late 1960s Jones' declining contributions led Richards to record all guitar parts on many tracks, including slide guitar. Jones' replacement, Mick Taylor, played guitar with the Rolling Stones from 1969 to 1974. Taylor's virtuosity on lead guitar led to a pronounced separation between lead and rhythm guitar roles, most notably onstage.
In 1975 Taylor was replaced by Wood, whose arrival
A theatre organ is a distinct type of pipe organ developed to provide music and sound effects to accompany silent films during the first 3 decades of the 20th century. Theatre organs are identified by the distinctive horseshoe-shaped arrangement of stop tabs above and around the instrument's keyboards on their consoles. Given their prominent placement in houses of popular entertainment, theatre organ consoles were decorated in gaudy ways, with brightly colored stop tabs, painted bright red and black, or solid gold, or ivory with gold trim, with built-in console lighting. In organs installed in the UK, a common feature was large translucent surrounds extending from both sides of the console, with internal colored lighting. A spectacular original example is the so-called Rhinestone Barton, installed in 1928 in the former RKO Iowa Theatre; the console of this 3 manual 14 rank Wangerin-built Barton is covered in black felt fabric embedded with glass glitter in swirling patterns, with all edges trimmed with bands of rhinestones.
Another original example is the 3/13 Barton from Ann Arbor's historic Michigan Theatre. The organ was installed in 1927 and is played five nights during a week before most film screenings; as the concept of the theatre organ was embraced, theatre organs began to be installed in other types of venues, such as civic auditoriums, sports arenas, private residences, churches. One of the largest theatre organs built was the 6 manual 52 rank Barton installed in the massive Chicago Stadium. There were over 7,000 such organs installed in America and elsewhere from 1915 to 1933, but fewer than 40 instruments remain in their original venues. Though there are few original instruments in their original homes, hundreds of theatre pipe organs are installed in public venues throughout the world today, while many more exist in private residences. Many organ builders supplied instruments to theatres; the Rudolph Wurlitzer company, to whom Robert Hope-Jones licensed his name and patents, was the most prolific and well-known manufacturer, the phrase Mighty Wurlitzer became an generic term for the theatre organ.
Many of the design elements of the theatre organ allowed it to do its job better than anything else could. Although not all of these ideas originated with Robert Hope-Jones, he was the first to employ and combine many of these innovations within a single organ aesthetic; as described on the website of the American Theatre Organ Society, these design elements include: This uses low-voltage electricity to transmit the action of the organ keys to the pipes. Earlier church instruments used a mechanical linkage of rods and wires to connect the keys to the pipes. With the new system, the console could be placed at any distance from the organ's pipes and could be somewhat portable, as just an electrical cable and flexible wind line connected the console with other parts of the instrument; this allowed the console to achieve its ubiquitous place—on an elevator platform in front of the stage, low in the orchestra pit for accompanying the film, rising majestically to stage height for organ solos. Each rank of pipes could be played on only one manual at one pitch level.
In other words, there was one pipe for each key on the keyboard. With the advent of unification, ranks were extended by adding more pipes and made playable at different pitch levels, on different manuals. Thus, fewer ranks could be used in a wide variety of combinations and pitches, on different manuals simultaneously. To turn the pipe ranks on and off, the traditional organ console used drawknobs placed on panels on both sides of the manuals. Using electricity, Robert Hope-Jones substituted tongue-shaped tabs arranged on a curved panel around and above the manuals; these stop tabs could be and flipped up or down to select or deactivate any ranks of pipes. Real musical instruments, not associated with the pipe organ, were installed in the pipe chambers to be pneumatically operated at will by the organist; such instruments as piano, cymbals, marimba, orchestra bells, castanets, wood blocks, tuned sleigh bells could be played from the organ keyboards. Sound effects such as train and boat whistles, car horns, bird whistles, an imitation of ocean surf could be used to great effect at appropriate times during a silent film.
Higher wind pressures increased the speaking volume of theatre organ pipes, they were placed in chambers high in the auditorium. The fronts of these chambers were covered with a set of swell shades which opened and closed like venetian blinds; when closed, the sound of the organ was reduced to a whisper. With a foot pedal, the organist could open the shutters to produce louder and louder sounds from the same pipes. Although this type of swell chamber was not new, theatre organ developments permitted a much broader dynamic range than before. Tremulants are devices that create a vibrato effect by mechanically shaking the wind source or by other means. Although the organ tremulant had existed for centuries, it was refined and changed in the theatre organ, was used in new ways. Traditional organs used tremulants only on solo stops. The
Grand Boulevard (St. Louis)
Grand Boulevard is a major, seven to five-lane wide, north-south thoroughfare that runs through the center of St. Louis, Missouri, it runs north through Carondelet Park in the south portion of the city to the Mississippi River north of the McKinley Bridge, about midway between Forest Park and the Mississippi River. Neighborhoods that it runs through include Dutchtown, Tower Grove East, Tower Grove South, Compton Heights, Midtown, Jef-Vander-Lou and College Hill. Grand Boulevard connects with the St. Louis Metrolink light rail service at Grand Station; the station was closed in spring 2011 due to demolition and replacement of the viaduct on Grand spanning the Metrolink tracks, industrial train tracks, an industrial park. The project is expected to take 18-24 months and will include the replacement of the Grand Avenue station; as of August 20, 2012, the new larger metro and bus station and viaduct with wider pedestrian sidewalks is open. Grand Blvd has the 70 Grand MetroBus, the busiest bus route in the St. Louis area.
The route number comes from a streetcar line that operated on track in the center lane of Grand Boulevard with that number. Sportsman's Park Fairground Park Divoli Branch library St. Alphonse's Liguori Catholic Church Saint Louis University Fox Theatre Grand Center Compton Hill Reservoir Park, site of the landmark Compton Hill Water Tower Carpenter Branch library Tower Grove Park, site of the annual Festival of Nations Saint Louis University School of Medicine Saint Louis University Hospital SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital Carondelet Park St. Mary's High School Pevely Dairy Company Plant Pius XII Memorial Library Powell Hall Cupples House Ted Drewes, the Grand location of the locally famous Frozen custard stands Edward Adelbert Doisy Research Center KDHX 88.1 FM community radio, located directly off of Grand Boulevard Missouri School for the Blind, located off of Grand Blvd, the first school to adopt the Braille alphabet in America, a teacher invented the first Braille printing press Grand Avenue Water Tower, the older Corinthian water tower in North St. Louis