1991 New England Patriots season
The 1991 season New England Patriots season was the team's 32nd, 22nd in the National Football League. The team finished the season with a record of six wins and ten losses, finished fourth in the AFC East Division. Though the Patriots scored twenty or more points just five times during the season, they were able to upset playoff teams such as the Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills and New York Jets, it was the last season where the Patriots were owned by Victor Kiam, forced to sell the team to St. Louis businessman James Orthwein in order to settle a debt. New England Patriots seasons
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
1970 NFL season
The 1970 NFL season was the 51st regular season of the National Football League, the first one after the AFL–NFL merger. The season concluded with Super Bowl V when the Baltimore Colts beat the Dallas Cowboys 16–13 at the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida; the Pro Bowl took place on January 24, 1971, where the NFC beat the AFC 27–6 at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The merger forced a realignment between the combined league's clubs; because there were 16 NFL teams and 10 AFL teams, three teams were transferred to balance the two new conferences at 13 teams each. In May 1969, the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, the Pittsburgh Steelers agreed to join all ten AFL teams to form the American Football Conference; the remaining NFL teams formed the National Football Conference. Replacing the old Eastern and Western conferences, the new conferences, AFC and NFC, function similar to Major League Baseball's American and National leagues, each of those two were divided into three divisions: East and West.
The two Eastern divisions had five teams. The realignment discussions for the NFC were so contentious that one final plan, out of five of them was selected from an envelope in a vase by Commissioner Pete Rozelle's secretary, Thelma Elkjer on January 16, 1970; the format agreed on was as follows: NFC East: Dallas, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Washington NFC Central: Chicago, Green Bay, Minnesota NFC West: Atlanta, Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco AFC East: Baltimore, Miami, New York AFC Central: Cincinnati, Houston, Pittsburgh AFC West: Denver, Kansas City, San DiegoThis arrangement would keep most of the pre-merger NFL teams in the NFC and the AFL teams in the AFC. Pittsburgh and Baltimore were placed in the AFC in order to balance it out, while the NFC equalized the competitive strength of its East and West divisions rather than sorting out teams just geographically. Division alignment in 1970 was intended to preserve the pre-merger setups, keeping traditional rivals in the same division.
Plans were made to add two expansion teams—the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Seattle Seahawks—but this would not take place until 1976, seven years after the merger. Prior to 1966, the NFL had two seven-team conferences: Eastern Conference: Cleveland, New York, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Washington Western Conference: Baltimore, Detroit, Green Bay, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Atlanta was placed in the Eastern Conference; every team had a bye week during the 1966 season. When New Orleans was awarded an expansion franchise for 1967, the NFL divided its teams into two eight-team conferences, with two four-team divisions in each conference as follows: Eastern Conference/Capitol Division: Dallas, New Orleans and Washington Eastern Conference/Century Division: Cleveland, New York, St. Louis Western Conference/Central Division: Chicago, Green Bay, Minnesota Western Conference/Coastal Division: Baltimore, Los Angeles, San Francisco; the Giants and Saints swapped divisions in 1968, returned to the 1967 alignment in 1969.
Meanwhile, the AFL for entire its 10-year existence had: Eastern Division: Boston, Buffalo and New York Western Division: Dallas/Kansas City, Los Angeles/San Diego, Oakland. The 26-team league began to use an eight-team playoff format, four from each conference, that included the three division winners and a wild card team, the second-place team with the best record; the season concluded with the Colts defeating the Dallas Cowboys 16–13 in Super Bowl V, the first Super Bowl played for the NFL Championship. The game was held at the Orange Bowl in Miami, was the first Super Bowl played on artificial turf. Seven teams played their home games on artificial turf in 1970; this was up from 2 teams in both the NFL and AFL in 1969. The teams were: Cincinnati, Miami, Pittsburgh and St. Louis, who joined Houston and Philadelphia, the two teams which played on turf in 1969. Cincinnati and Pittsburgh opened new stadiums: Three Rivers Stadium. To televise their games, the combined league retained the services of CBS and NBC, who were the primary broadcasters of the NFL and the AFL, respectively.
It was decided that CBS would televise all NFC teams while NBC all AFC teams. For interconference games, CBS would broadcast them if the visiting team was from the NFC and NBC would carry them when the visitors were from the AFC. At the time, all NFL games were blacked out in the home team's market, so this arrangement meant that fans in each team's home market would see all of their team's televised Sunday afternoon games on the same network; the two networks divided up the Super Bowl on a yearly rotation. Meanwhile, with the debut of Monday Night Football on ABC September 21, 1970, the league became the first professional sports league in the United States to have a regular series of nationally televised games in prime-time, the only league to have its games televised on all of the then-three major broadcast networks at the same time. Both teams that advanced to the Super Bowl, the Baltimore Colts and the Dallas Cowboys, had suffered humiliating defeats at home on Monday Night Football during the season.
Adding ABC to the list gave the newly merged NFL television coverage on all of the Big Three television networks. Before the season, the league had demanded that
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most used in arenas for sports that were or are played on grass. However, it is now being used on residential lawns and commercial applications as well; the main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to heavy use, such as in sports, requires no irrigation or trimming. Domed and covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting grass enough sunlight to stay healthy. Artificial turf does have its downside, however: limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, heightened health and safety concerns. Artificial turf first gained substantial attention 53 years ago in 1966, when it was installed in the year-old Astrodome; the specific product used was "ChemGrass", rebranded as AstroTurf. AstroTurf is no longer owned by Monsanto; the first generation turf systems of the 1960s have been replaced by the second generation and third generation turf systems.
Second generation synthetic turf systems feature longer fibers and sand infills, third generation systems, which are most used today, offer infills that are mixtures of sand and granules of recycled rubber aka "rubber crumb". David Chany, who moved to Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1960 and served as Dean of the North Carolina State University College of Textiles, headed the team of Research Triangle Park researchers who created the first notable artificial turf; that accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man "responsible for indoor major league baseball and millions of welcome mats." Artificial turf was first installed in 1964 on a recreation area at the Moses Brown School in Providence, Rhode Island. The material came to public prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas; the state-of-the-art indoor stadium had attempted to use natural grass during its initial season in 1965, but this failed miserably and the field conditions were grossly inadequate during the second half of the season, with the dead grass painted green.
Due to a limited supply of the new artificial grass, only the infield was installed before the Houston Astros' home opener in April 1966. The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the U. S. and Canada in the early 1970s, installed in both indoor and outdoor stadiums used for baseball and football. More than 11,000 artificial turf playing fields have been installed nationally. More than 1,200 were installed in the U. S. in 2013 alone, according to the industry group the Synthetic Turf Council. Maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Teams who chose to play on artificial surfaces outdoors did so because of the reduced maintenance cost in colder climates with urban multi-purpose "cookie cutter" stadiums such as Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium, Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium and Philadelphia's Veterans Stadium. Artificial turf was first used in Major League Baseball in the Houston Astrodome in 1966, replacing the grass field used when the stadium opened a year earlier.
Though the grass was bred for indoor use, the dome's semi-transparent Lucite ceiling panels, painted white to cut down on glare that bothered the players, did not pass enough sunlight to support the grass. For most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on dead grass; the solution was to install a new type of artificial grass on the field, ChemGrass, which became known as AstroTurf. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available for the first home game. There was not enough for the entire outfield, but there was enough to cover the traditional grass portion of the infield; the outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Break. The team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, on July 19, 1966, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed; the Chicago White Sox became the first team to install artificial turf in an outdoor stadium, as they used it in the infield and adjacent foul territory at Comiskey Park from 1969 through 1975.
Artificial turf was installed in other new multi-purpose stadiums such as Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium, Philadelphia's Veterans Stadium, Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium. Early AstroTurf baseball fields used the traditional all-dirt path, but in the early 1970s, teams began using the "base cutout" layout on the diamond, with the only dirt being on the pitcher's mound, batter's circle, in a "sliding box" around each base. With this layout, a painted arc would indicate where the edge of the outfield grass would be, to assist fielders in positioning themselves properly; the last stadium in MLB to use this configuration was Rogers Centre in Toronto, when they switched to an all-dirt infield after the 2015 season. The Arizona Diamondbacks plan to convert Chase Field to artificial turf for the 2019 season; the stadium has had grass since its opening in 1998, but the difficulty of maintaining of grass in the stadium, which has a retractable roof and is located in a desert city, has been cited as the reason for the switch.
The biggest difference in play on artificial turf was that the ball bounced higher than on real grass and traveled faster, causing infielders to play farther back than they would so that
Patriot Place is an open-air shopping center owned by The Kraft Group. It is located in Foxborough, built around Gillette Stadium, the home of the New England Patriots and New England Revolution; the first phase opened in fall 2007. The second phase is built on what were parking lots for Gillette Stadium, which in turn were the site of the now-demolished Foxboro Stadium. Phase two of Patriot Place is home to one of the first locations for Showcase Cinemas' Cinema de Lux brand. Bass Pro Shops built their first New England location at the Patriot Place, it includes an animatronic shooting range and overlooks a small swamp, once part of a larger one that the store was built over with land reclamation. Many events are held there as well. Patriot Place has various restaurants, such as CBS Scene. Around the complex are over 125 HD televisions showing games by the Patriots, as well as classic programs once shown on CBS; every booth in the restaurant is accompanied by a television and can control the music playing from a small speaker above the table.
There is a terrace overlooking the stadium, a nightclub open on Thursdays. Other restaurants include Bar Louie, Five Guys, Red Robin. Cinema de Lux was launched by Showcase Cinemas with a location at the complex, it is aimed more upmarket with an American-style restaurant and a live music venture known as Showcase Live. The theater has 14 screens. There is a bar and restaurant inside called Studio 3; the Brigham and Women's/Mass General Health Care Center is a four-story outpatient health care center and a joint venture between Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, both located in Boston. Renaissance Hotel is a four-star hotel that includes a Spa Epoché, a restaurant, Twenty8 Food & Spirits. Opened in September 2008, The Patriots Hall of Fame is a museum that includes the New England Patriots Hall of Fame and displays the history of the New England Patriots – including historical wins and losses, the uniforms of famous players such as John Hannah, Mike Haynes, Ben Coates, Super Bowl trophies.
The Hall is sponsored by Raytheon. On the first floor is the official Patriots Pro Shop, a large store selling various apparel and memorabilia themed to the New England Patriots. American Dream Meadowlands Titletown District Official Patriot Place website CBS Scene website
1994 FIFA World Cup
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States, from 17 June to 17 July 1994. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on 4 July 1988. Despite the host nation's lack of soccer tradition, the tournament was the most financially successful in World Cup history; the total attendance of nearly 3.6 million for the final tournament remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams, first introduced at the 1998 World Cup and is the current format. Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shoot-out at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time, it was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. There were four new entrants in the tournament: Greece, Saudi Arabia, as well as two countries that were formed at the end of the Cold War: Russia, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, for the first time since 1938, a newly reunified Germany took part in the tournament, following Germany reunification in October 1990, a few months after West Germany's victory in the 1990 World Cup.
Three teams, one African, one Asian, one European, made their debuts at the 1994 tournament. Nigeria qualified from the African zone alongside Cameroon and Morocco as CAF was granted three spots as a result of the strong performances by African teams in 1990. In the Asian zone, Saudi Arabia qualified for the first time by topping the final round group ahead of South Korea as both edged out Japan, who were close to making their own World Cup debut, but were denied by Iraq in what became known as the "Agony of Doha"; the Japanese would not have to wait long though. In the European zone, Greece made their first World Cup appearance after topping a group from which Russia qualified, competing independently for the first time after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the defending champions West Germany were united with their East German counterparts, representing the unified Germany for the first time since the 1938 World Cup. Norway qualified for the first time since 1938, Bolivia for the first time since 1950, Switzerland for the first time since 1966.
Norway's 56-year gap between appearances in the final tournament equaled Egypt's record in the previous tournament as the longest. Mexico had its first successful qualification campaign since 1978, failing to qualify in 1982, qualifying as hosts in 1986 and being banned for the Cachirules scandal in 1990; the qualification campaigns of both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were affected by political events. The nation of Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, completing its qualifying group under the name "Representation of Czechs and Slovaks", but failed to qualify for the finals, having been edged out by Romania and Belgium in Group 4. Yugoslavia was suspended from international competition in 1992 as part of United Nations sanctions against the country as a result of the Yugoslav Wars; the sanctions were not lifted until 1994, by which time it was no longer possible for the team to qualify. Chile's suspension from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, following the forced interruption of their qualification game against Brazil, extended to the 1994 qualifiers as well.
This was the second World Cup for which neither England, Northern Ireland nor Wales qualified, with England missing out after having finished fourth in the 1990 tournament, Scotland failing to qualify for the first time since 1970. France, designated as hosts of the 1998 tournament missed out following surprise home losses to Israel and Bulgaria; this was the second World Cup in a row for which France had failed to qualify, the last one to date to not feature England and Japan. Other notable absentees were 1990 Round of 16 participants Uruguay, UEFA Euro 1992 champions Denmark, Poland and Hungary; the following 24 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournamentː Three nations bid for host duties: United States and Morocco. The vote was held in Zurich on 4 July 1988, only took one round with the United States bid receiving a little over half of the votes by the Exco members. FIFA hoped that by staging the world's most prestigious tournament there, it would lead to a growth of interest in the sport.
One condition FIFA imposed was the creation of a professional football league – Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 and began operating in 1996. There was some initial controversy about awarding the World Cup to a country where football was not a nationally popular sport, at the time, in 1988, the U. S. did not have a professional league of its own anymore. Success of the 1984 Summer Olympics the soccer tournament contributed to FIFA's decision. Despite the controversy, the U. S. staged a hugely successful tournament, with average attendance of nearly 70,000 breaking a record that surpassed the 1966 FIFA World Cup average attendance of 51,000, thanks to the large seating capacities the stadiums in the United States provided for the spectators in comparison to the smaller venues of Europe and Latin America. To this day, the total attendance for