Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
E! is an Australian pay television channel, owned by Universal Networks International. Much like its American counterpart it features entertainment-related programming, reality television and Hollywood news, it is available through the Foxtel and FetchTV in Australia and Sky Network Television in New Zealand. In 2014, it became available on Australian streaming service Foxtel Play. E! was relaunched in 2012, shortly after the American version of E! did the same rebrand, which included a revised logo. Kim Kardashian visited Australia to promote the rebranding; the channel issued a casting call for journalists to become the face of E! Australia, report on local entertainment news; the contest was won by Ksenija Lukich. On the Foxtel platform, E! moved from channel 121 to channel 125. Fashion Bloggers The Hype Burning Love The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon E!, the American version of the channel E! Australia
Foxtel Smooth is a 18-hour Australian pay television music channel available via Foxtel satellite and cable services. It launched on 3 December 2013. On 1 November 2013, Foxtel announced they were refreshing their music genre channels to allow for more diversity in their offerings. In addition to changes to the channels being offered by MTV Australia and the branding of the audio channels, it was announced that smoothfm would launch a television station that would offer easy listening adult contemporary music which will correspond to their radio network. Smooth is the first radio station in Australia to launch a television channel. Marcia Hines and Cameron Daddo are the faces of the channel. From 11 October 2017, Foxtel Smooth will become a part-day channel, will only be broadcast between midnight and 6pm; this is due to a move by Foxtel to enable Foxtel Smooth to share the same broadcast bandwidth as Foxtel Arts, which will in turn only be available between 6pm and midnight
CNN International, is an international pay television channel, operated by CNN. CNN International carries news-related programming worldwide. Unlike its sister channel, CNN, a US-only subscription service, broadcast from CNN studios in New York City and Atlanta, CNN International is carried on a variety of TV platforms across the world, broadcast from studios outside the US, in London, Hong Kong and Abu Dhabi. In some countries, it is available as a free-to-air network; the service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to BBC World, France 24, DW, RT, CGTN, NHK World or Al Jazeera. CNN International, in large part a result of Ted Turner's globalization ideals, began broadcasting on September 1, 1985, at first broadcasting to American business travelers in hotels; the first studio for CNNI was at CNN's original studio building known as Techwood, home at that time to all of Turner Broadcasting System's channels. Today, it is home to the Turner Studios complex. Other early studios in Atlanta were tucked away in various corners of the CNN Center, the newsroom lacked a digital clock.
The vast majority of the network's programming consisted of simulcasts of the two domestic CNN channels. In 1990, the amount of news programming produced by CNNI for international viewers increased significantly. A new newsroom and studio complex was built in 1994, as CNN decided to compete against BBC World Service Television's news programming. CNNI emerged as an internationally oriented news channel, with staff members of various national backgrounds though some accusations of a pro-U. S. Editorial bias persist. CNN International was awarded the Liberty Medal on July 4, 1997. Ted Turner, in accepting the medal on behalf of the network, said: "My idea was, we're just going to give people the facts... We didn't have to show liberty and democracy as good, show socialism or totalitarianism as bad. If we just showed them both the way they were... everybody's going to choose liberty and democracy." In 1995, creative director Morgan Almeida defined a progressive rebranding strategy, to target CNNI's diverse global market, making the on-air look less overtly American and with a cleaner, simpler "international" aesthetic going forward.
The word "International" in the channel's logo was replaced with a globe, the new branding featured numerous international locations filmed in time-lapse, channel idents created in CGI with Velvet Design in Munich, a news brand designed with The Attik in New York. The network undertook another major rebranding effort in 2006 overseen by Mark Wright and London agency Kemistry; the ticker was replaced by a flipper, on-screen graphics were more unified and from October 2007 until August 2008, new studios were progressively rolled out. However, on January 1, 2009, CNN International adopted the "lower-thirds" that CNN/US had introduced a month earlier which were inspired by the clean modern design of the CNNI rebrand efforts. In the U. S. CNNI North America was distributed overnight and on weekends over the CNNfn financial channel, until that channel's demise in December 2004, it is now available as a standalone, full-time channel as part of high-tier packages of subscription providers including Time Warner Cable, AT&T U-Verse, Verizon FiOS and Cox Communications.
Throughout January until September 2009, CNN International adapted more programs that became geared towards a primetime European audience with a few titled after CNN International personalities, most notably the interview program Amanpour. On September 21, 2009, the channel launched a new tagline "Go Beyond Borders", along with a new logo, consolidated its general newscasts into a single newscast entitled World Report; the slogan "Go Beyond Borders" emphasizes the international perspective that gives the information in this string and the plurality of the audiences. With this tagline, CNN refers to the various platforms to disseminate their contents; the new image was created by the creativity and marketing department, agency CNN Tooth & Nail. An important element of the rebrand was a new evening program that adds the broadcast of programs Amanpour and World One; the makeover of CNN International has subject to a lot of criticism on both the new prime time lineup and the redesigned graphics.
On January 11, 2009, in a bid to compete directly with Al Jazeera's English-language international channel, the network launched a new production center: CNN Abu Dhabi, based in the United Arab Emirates. CNN International adapted half-hour shows in its schedule with a new evening prime program for Middle East viewers, Prism. In 2010, CNN International launched new programs for its evening lineup in order to improve its schedule. In 2011, programs from CNN U. S. were added to the CNN International schedule, including the talk program Piers Morgan Live, cancelled and replaced with CNN Tonight hosted by Don Lemon. "This is CNN" represents CNN International's rebrand with new sets and output in full 16:9 high definition. The "This is CNN" slogan is used on its sister network CNN in USA; the current managing director of CNN International is Tony Maddox. There are six variants of CNN International: CNN International Asia Pacific, based in Hong Kong SAR, CNN International Europe/Middle East/Africa, based in London, United Kingdom CNN International Latin America, based in Atlanta, Georgia, U.
S. CNN International Middle East, based in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates CNN International North America, based in Atlanta, Georgia
Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
Sky News Australia
Sky News Australia is an Australian 24-hour cable and satellite news channel available on the Foxtel and Optus Television subscription platforms. It is available in New Zealand on Sky Television and Vodafone. Sky News Australia launched at 5pm on 19 February 1996, as the first Australian-produced television news channel. Sky News was added to Austar on 1 April 2000. In 2004, Sky News began broadcasting its on-demand interactive TV news service. In 2008, Sky News launched the Sky News Business Channel, on 20 January 2009, Sky News launched Australian Public Affairs Channel, it began widescreen broadcasting on 17 May 2009. Sky News Australia began broadcasting in high definition on 1 December 2015. A fourth spin-off channel, Sky News Election Channel, was launched on 1 May 2016. In July 2017, Sky News became provider of Fox Sports News with a mix of presenters and reporters from both organisations combining for 20 hours of live content per day on channel 500. While sports updates on Sky News programs are introduced as "Fox Sports News Updates."
In May 2018, Sky News Live moved to channel 600 and added a simulcast on channel 103, while its multiview service closed and moved some of its overflow channels to an online portal. The flagship British Sky News channel launched on Foxtel as Sky News UK and A-PAC rebranded as Sky News Extra. Sky News Channel's parent company, Australian News Channel, was owned by British Sky Broadcasting, Seven Media Group and Nine Entertainment Co. each with a 33% stake in the company from its founding until December 2016, when it was acquired by News Corp Australia. The carriage deal between Australian News Channel and Foxtel is due to expire in 2017, reported as either February or December. In 2013, Sky News Australia was granted A$20 million in funding from its parent company to be used over three years; until 2015, Sky News was responsible for producing New Zealand's Prime News - First at 5:30 from Sydney, hosted by Eric Young with filming taking place in Prime's Albany studios. It lost the contract to MediaWorks and subsequently ceased broadcasting a local New Zealand bulletin.
In February 2018, Sky News Australia launched a digital-first brand and content platform called 2600. The online political newsletter is sent out daily with breaking news from Canberra. Sky News programming consists of a mix of live news bulletins, live broadcasts from events, original commentary panel programs and simulcasts of international sister station Sky News UK. Sky News has broadcast every sitting of Question time from the House of Representatives since its launch in 1996. Sky News Australia increased its primetime programming offerings its political themed shows in 2013, ahead of the 2013 federal election, moving away from rolling news or formal news bulletins in primetime. Sky News Australia rebranded on 19 January 2015 as "Sky News Live", dropping the "Sky News National" branding. On weekdays, throughout most of the day, rolling news coverage is presented from one of Sky News Australia's studios. From 4pm, commentary programs begin, continue through primetime until 11pm AEST/AEDT.
Most of these programs are presesented by commentators discussing the news of the day with a panel of other commentators, feature a news update at the beginning of the program. Rolling news continues from 11pm AEST/AEDT before coverage switches to an overnight simulcast of Sky News UK at 1am AEST/AEDT. In 2007, Sky News aired local breakaway programming for New Zealand viewers in primetime, filmed at Prime NZ's Auckland studios. One of these programs, Prime News - First at 5:30, was simulcast to Australian viewers; the debut of Sky News NZ Evening News was panned by critics. As of 2015, no local New Zealand programs are produced or broadcast following the loss of a production contract with Prime NZ; however the channel debuted New Zealand Agenda on 16 June 2018, hosted by New Zealand bureau chief James O'Doherty from Wellington, New Zealand, focusing on NZ politics. Brooke Corte Susanne Latimore Elizabeth Tilley — substitute host Brisbane bureau chief Jacinta Tynan Caroline Marcus Jaynie Seal Ahron Young — Weekend Live host Melbourne bureau chief Charlotte Mortlock, Danica De Giorgio, Stela Todorovic and Caroline Marcus - Sydney Ahron Young and Patrick Murrell - Melbourne Annelise Nielsen, Tom Connell and James O'Doherty - Canberra Kristy Coulcher and Brendan Smith - Brisbane Emily Burley and Emily Evans - Perth Anna Rawlings - Gold Coast Matt Cunningham - Darwin Andrea Crothers - Hobart Stacey Lee - Adelaide Julia Bradley - Townsville Jackson Williams - Wellington, NZ.
Bronwyn Bishop Stephen Conroy Bruce Hawker Michael Kroger Sky News Australia has a bureau in every capital city in Australia, completing this with the opening of its Hobart studio in 2013. In 2016, it opened a bureau in Cairns. In 2017, a Gold Coast bureau was opened marking the third non-capital city studio after Cairns and Geelong; the base of Sky News Australia is in the Sydney suburb of Macquarie Park, where the majority of its news and programming is broadcast from. Its Melbourne studio was upgraded in 2014. Hinch Live became the first regular program to be broadcast from Melbourne. Ahron Young is the Melbourne Bureau Chief; the third major bureau is in Parliament House, opened in 2000. Lyndal Curtis became Bureau Chief of in October 2015. Additionally, Sky News has a small office in the Channel Seven building in Martin
Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association
The Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association is the peak industry body representing the subscription media industry in Australia. ASTRA’s main activities are to represent the industry with government and the media, advocate policy reforms that promote industry growth and reward industry achievement, report television ratings and assist the industry to develop. ASTRA was formed in September 1997. ASTRA is managed by a representative board of directors; the board is chaired by a former president of the Business Council of Australia. On the ASTRA Board are Ian Davis, Patrick Delany, Jacqui Feeney, Anthony Fitzgerald, Angelos Frangoupoulos, Richard Freudenstein, Lynette Ireland, Bruce Meagher, Mandy Pattinson, Jon Penn, Ben Richardson and Robi Stanton. ASTRA’s chief executive officer, Andrew Maiden, is an ex-officio member of the board. ASTRA members are subscription-based television viewing platforms, independent content providers and communications companies, organisations from the industries that support subscription media in Australia.
Members include platforms Foxtel and Telstra, more than 20 independent content providers including the major international channel groups Fox Sports, BBC Worldwide, ESPN, The Walt Disney Company, Fox International Channels, Discovery Communications, Turner Broadcasting Systems, NBC Universal, as well a number of technology companies and service providers. Membership is open to all organisations and individuals wishing to support the development of the Australian subscription media industry. ASTRA was formed soon after the arrival of subscription television in Australia to politically organise the industry and give it a voice in public debates about the regulation of media. ASTRA’s stated policy priorities are to: support the development of the subscription media industry; the organisation’s most high profile campaign is for the reform of anti-siphoning rules, a provision of the Broadcasting Services Act which regulates the manner in which certain sports broadcast rights may be purchased. The anti-siphoning list provides free-to-air television broadcasters with the exclusive opportunity to purchase the right to broadcast more than 1000 sporting events.
ASTRA manages codes of practice that regulate program content and classification, privacy, subscriber service obligations and complaints procedures. The ASTRA Codes do not cover issues the subject of licence conditions for subscription television licensees, including in relation to the broadcast of political material and election advertisements, advertisements relating to medicines and tobacco products, the broadcast of events on the anti-siphoning list, captioning levels and captioning quality, restrictions on the broadcast of content classified above MA 15+. ASTRA conducts an annual survey of the subscription media industry’s investment in local screen production and contribution to Gross Domestic Product. In 2014–15 the survey revealed that the industry invested more than $796 million in local content production, created 8370 jobs, added $2.083 billion to GDP. Between 2002 and 2015, ASTRA managed the annual ASTRA Awards for excellence in subscription television; the awards, which were judged by members of the creative industries, were issued for ten content genres, six individuals, two channel groups.
Past hosts and presenters included Australian television personalities Guiliana Rancic, Jennifer Hawkins, Molly Meldrum, Rove McManus, Deborah Hutton, David Speers, Anthony Callea, Charlotte Dawson, Claudia Karvan, Osher Gunsberg, Alex Perry, Sarah Murdoch, Ruby Rose and Lisa Wilkinson, as well as international personalities Joe Mangoniello and Kristian Alfonso. In November 2015, ASTRA announced it would no longer hold the ASTRAs, folding the awards into the annual AACTA Awards. ASTRA manages an annual conference, an annual breakfast for women in television, along with networking events for women in the industry, awards for industry excellence, a graduate program in partnership with AFTRS, a leadership program. See Subscription television in Australia Television in Australia Anti-siphoning laws in Australia Sports broadcasting contracts in Australia Subscription television in Australia ASTRA Website Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, archived from the original on 8 January 2016 ASTRA, Submission to the National Commission of Audit: ASTRA’s general approach to regulatory reform, Australian Government, archived from the original on 18 March 2015 Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association, EaMMA, archived from the original on 8 January 2016 2014 ASTRA Graduate Program for 2015 Internship, AFTRS, archived from the original on 8 January 2016 Ai Media