Timeline of historical geopolitical changes
This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world. It includes dates of declarations of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, significant changes in territory such as the annexation, cession, or secession of land; the types of changes listed here include the alteration of borders, the creation and fall of states, changes of geographical names, as well as a few geographical changes caused by unusually destructive natural disasters. Through the knowledge of such dates and events, the approximate year and age of a world map could be calculated and estimated. Not all maps of the world created during a given age or period will be the same across the globe, as different mapmakers – or their employers – may have different views on the sovereignty or territorial integrity of the countries of the world or possess different levels of technological sophistication or geographical insight. Maps created by the same mapmaker around the same time can differ significantly.
The timeline below presents its information in reverse chronological order, beginning in the modern era and working backwards. Geopolitical changes are color-coded by the continent on which they occurred; this article uses the Common Calendar System, established as the new Christian Calendar by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. The Common Calendar uses the designation Common Era for years starting 1 January 1 CE, Before Common Era for years before that date; the Common Calendar follows the ordinal numbers rather than the cardinal numbers, so there was no "year zero" in this format. For the same reason, while the 2000s began on Saturday, 1 January 2000 CE, the official Third Millennium began on Monday, 1 January 2001 CE. List of sovereign states by date of formation List of former sovereign states Blank maps of the world for historical use List of administrative division name changes List of city name changes List of national border changes since World War I
Economic Freedom of the World
Economic Freedom of the World is an annual survey published by the libertarian Canadian think tank Fraser Institute. The survey attempts to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations, it has been used in peer-reviewed studies some of which have found a range of beneficial effects of more economic freedom. One of the earliest measures of economic freedom was developed by Freedom House, which has done extensive work on the measurement of political and cultural freedom; this measure incorporated a range of indicators including freedom to establish a business and freedom of union organisation. In response to dissatisfaction with the Freedom House index from advocates of a libertarian or market liberal viewpoint, Milton Friedman and Michael Walker of the Fraser Institute hosted a series of conferences on economic freedom; this resulted in a report on worldwide economic freedom, Economic Freedom of the World. The Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal created another similar index, the Index of Economic Freedom.
The participants in the conferences reached a consensus that the cornerstones of economic freedom are: personal choice rather than collective choice, voluntary exchange coordinated by markets rather than allocation via the political process, freedom to enter and compete in markets, protection of persons and their property from aggression by others. The 2005 report states "When the functions of the minimal state—protection of people and their property from the actions of aggressors, enforcement of contracts, provision of the limited set of public goods like roads, flood control projects, money of stable value—are performed well, but the government does little else, a country’s rating on the EFW summary index will be high. Correspondingly, as government expenditures increase and regulations expand, a country’s rating will decline." In practice, the index measures: size of government, security of property rights, access to sound money, freedom to trade internationally, regulation of credit and business.
The report uses 42 distinct variables, from for example the World Bank. Some examples: tax rates, degree of juridical independence, inflation rates, costs of importing, regulated prices; each of the 5 areas above is given equal weight in the final score. Economic freedom has been shown to correlate with higher average income per person, higher income of the poorest 10%, higher life expectancy, higher literacy, lower infant mortality, higher access to water sources and less corruption; the share of income in percent going to the poorest 10% is the same for both more and less economically free countries. The people living in the top one-fifth of the most free countries enjoy an average income of $23,450 and a growth rate in the 1990s of 2.56 percent per year. The poorest 10 percent of the population have an average income of just $728 in the least free countries compared with over $7,000 in the most free countries; the life expectancy of people living in the most free nations is 20 years longer than for people in the least free countries.
Higher economic freedom, as measured by both the Heritage and the Fraser indices, correlates with higher self-reported happiness and is significant in preventing wars. Economic freedom is around 54 times more effective than democracy in diminishing violent conﬂict. Regarding environmental health, studies have found a positive effect. More important may be the Kuznets curve. Most environmental health indicators, such as air pollution show an inverted U-shape. Meaning in the beginning of economic development, little weight is given to environmental concerns, raising pollution along with industrialization. After a threshold, when basic physical needs are met and a middle class is established, interest in a clean environment rises, reversing the trend. Studies show that more economic freedom is the cause of beneficial effects and that Economic Freedom of the World was used for most of the research because Index of Economic Freedom only goes back to 1995 and because it uses more subjective variables.
Hundreds of peer-reviewed articles have used the index and it has been used in economic research, political science, environmental research. The Economic Freedom of the World index has been more used than any other measure of economic freedom, because of its coverage of a longer time period. In 2016 the report was cited in 412 independent research journals. In 2016 and 2017 Free Malaysia Today and National Review quoted the report; the correlation between economic freedom and growth has been criticized by studies. De Haan and Siermann find. Heckelman and Stroup argue that the weighting procedure used in the construction of the index is arbitrary, they examine the components of the index individually and find that many—including a low top marginal tax rate—are negatively, rather than positively correlated with economic growth. A frequent criticism is that China, other developing nations, have high growth rates but low economic freedom. Developing nations can have higher growth rates than developed nations, as they have cheap labor and can import investment and organizational skills from rich countries.
When examining the subcomponents of the index, any positive effect that a low level of taxes might have is more disputed than the importance of rule of law, lack of political corruption, low inflation, functioning property rights. Many north European nation, such as Iceland, Denmark and Sweden, have extensive
The National Interest
The National Interest is an American bimonthly international affairs magazine published by the Center for the National Interest. It is associated with the realist school of foreign policy thought, it was founded in 1985 until 2001 was edited by Owen Harries. The National Interest is not restricted in content to "foreign policy" in the narrow, technical sense but attempts to pay attention to broad ideas and the way in which cultural and social differences, technological innovations and religion affect the behavior of states. TNI has an international readership, excerpts from its articles have been published in The New York Times, the Financial Times, The Australian, International Herald Tribune, Shin Dong-A, The Spectator, Austria's Europäische Rundschau, as well as on online sites such as the Russian InoSMI.ru. In 2006, the magazine adopted a new, glossier cover format, based around a central image and tagline, making it look more like the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs or Foreign Policy as opposed to the staid, text-only covers of Foreign Affairs or Commentary.
The magazine added daily online content to its website. In July 2015, the magazine published an article by Maria Butina advocating improved relations between the Russian Federation and a future US Republican Presidential administration. In 2018, Butina was arrested by the FBI and charged with conspiring to act as an unregistered Russian agent. Since July 2013, the magazine's editor has been Jacob Heilbrunn; the advisory council was chaired by James Schlesinger until his death in 2014, has since been chaired by Charles G. Boyd; the magazine's honorary chairman is Henry Kissinger. Dimitri K. Simes is the publisher. Among the members of the magazine's advisory council are Morton Abramowitz, Graham Allison, John Mearsheimer, Dov Zakheim; the contributing editors are Andrew J. Bacevich, Ian Bremmer, Ted Galen Carpenter, Bruce Hoffman, Andrew Kohut, Paul R. Pillar, Milton Ezrati, Kenneth M. Pollack. Anatol Lieven and former editor Nikolas Gvosdev serve as senior editors; the American Interest, founded in 2005 by former members of the TNI editorial board National Affairs Coalition for a Realistic Foreign Policy Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections Official website
Lists of countries and territories
This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries and fictional countries. A country or territory in the sense of nation or state. List of countries by name The characteristics of the human population: Population and poverty List of countries and dependencies by population List of countries by population List of countries and territories by population density List of countries by real population density List of countries by past population Lists of countries by population in: 1900 1907 2000 2010 List of countries by past and future population List of countries by past and future population List of countries by population growth rate List of countries by net migration rate List of countries by sex ratio List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty Life and health List of countries by birth rate List of countries by death rate List of countries and territories by fertility rate List of countries by foreign-born population List of countries by happiness List of countries by HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate List of countries by homicide rate List of countries by infant mortality rate List of countries by life expectancy List of countries by median age List of countries by suicide rate List of countries by percentage of population suffering from undernourishment List of countries by Human Development Index List of countries by literacy rate Education Index Life Expectancy Index Religion List of countries by Christian population List of countries by Muslim population List of countries by Hindu population List of countries by Buddhist population List of countries by Jewish population List of countries by Sikh population List of countries by Ahmadiyya population List of countries by irreligious population Language List of countries by spoken languages List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where Arabic is an official language List of countries where English is an official language List of countries where French is an official language List of countries where Portuguese is an official language List of countries where Russian is an official language List of countries where Spanish is an official language Urbanization by country The production and consumption of goods and services: Ease of Doing Business Index Rankings List of countries by central bank interest rates List of countries by current account balance List of countries by distribution of wealth List of countries by economic freedom List of countries by employment rate List of countries by exports List of countries by external debt List of countries by foreign exchange reserves List of countries by freshwater withdrawal List of countries by imports List of countries by income equality List of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptions List of countries by number of Internet hosts List of countries by number of Internet users List of countries by Official Development Assistance received List of countries by public debt List of countries by research and development spending List of countries by unemployment rate List of largest consumer markets List of minimum wages by country List of most charitable countries The value of goods and services produced within a country: List of countries by cement production List of countries by motor vehicle production List of shipbuilders and shipyards List of countries by steel production Fishing industry by country International wheat production statistics Land use statistics by country List of countries by apple production List of countries by dietary calorie intake List of countries by irrigated land area List of countries by tomato production List of wine-producing countries The physical and biotic factors that act upon an ecosystem: List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita List of countries by energy consumption per capita List of countries by electrification rate List of countries by electricity consumption List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources List of countries by energy consumption and production List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita List of countries by ratio of GDP to carbon dioxide emissions List of countries with the most hydro-electric capacity List of countries by installed wind power capacity The Earth and its features: List of countries and dependencies by area List of countries by forest area List of countries by length of coastline List of countries by total renewable water resources List of countries without rivers List of countries and territories by continent List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent List of countries by highest point List of countries by lowest point List of countries by northernmost point List of countries by southernmost point List of countries by easternmost point List of countries by westernmost point List of countries by Exclusive Economic Zone List of island countries List of countries that border only one other country List of countries and territories by land borders List of landlocked countries Freedom of religion by country Freedom of speech by country Blasphemy law by country Censorship by country Internet censorship and surveillance by country Human rights by country Laws against Holocaust denial by country LGBT rights by country or territory List of countries by United Nations geoscheme List of ISO 3166 country codes Global Peace Index rankings List of countries by military expenditures List of countries by number of troops List of countries without armed forces List of aircraft carriers by country List of states with nuclear weapons List of submarine oper
Fund for Peace
The Fund for Peace is a US non-profit, non-governmental research and educational institution. Founded in 1957, FFP "works to prevent violent conflict and promote sustainable security." The Fund for Peace works towards sustainable security and development in failed states by focusing on conflict assessment and early warning, transnational threats and security and human rights. The Fund for Peace maintains programs in Nigeria, Uganda and works with private business in conflict zones to better secure the interests of businesses, local populations, their governments. FFP publishes the annual Fragile States Index, used by researchers and governments across the world; the Fund for Peace was founded in 1957 by Randolph Compton. The organization was created in the memory of Randolph Compton's youngest son, John Parker Compton, killed in World War II. At a young age, John Parker wrote an essay, discussing the effects of war and the need for human civilization to embrace other methods of conflict resolution.
After John Parker's death, Compton created the Fund for Peace, an organization based on the ideals of justice, environment and population. The Fragile States Index assesses the pressures experienced by nations based on social and political indicators such as demographic pressures, refugee flows, uneven economic development or severe economic decline, human rights, among others; the "Failed States Index" debuted in 2005 with a limited assessment of 75 countries. South Sudan was added to the assessment in 2011. In 2014, The Fund for Peace announced that the ranking would be renamed "Fragile States Index", claiming that the controversial term'failed' had " a distraction away from the point of the Index, to encourage discussions that support an increase in human security and improved livelihoods."The Fragile States Index uses color-coded maps, a four level-ranking system to determine the current conditions and negative potential in the future. All four nations on high "Alert" are a part of the African continent: Somalia, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
At the "Warning" level were many Latin American or former Soviet nations, including Moldova, Belarus, Colombia and Mexico. At "Moderate" were the United States and several European states, such as Latvia, Poland and Spain. Only a few nations, such as the Scandinavian countries, Ireland, Canada and New Zealand were rated as "Sustainable."The Fragile States Index is subject to criticism, in part, because it takes institutions and data to draw its conclusions, as opposed to the Human Development Index or other more telling signs. The FSI is checked against human analysis. Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei called Egypt's low-rank on the FSI "a disaster" U. S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton cites FSI research in State Department report to congress U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates uses FSI research in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review UNLocK links global information technologies with local social networks for the benefits of stakeholders. FFP conducts workshops in the conflict-affected countries of Liberia and Nigeria, training local participants in the Conflict Assessment System Tool.
They train others at the community level. Data collected from field reports by the participants are analyzed for signs of early-warning conflict; the aggregate data is disseminated back to the participants and used to resolve disputes, identify priority issues at the community level, as a way to obtain more immediate early warning and conflict prevention information. While the recent elections in Nigeria were recognized as a major step forward in the difficult journey toward democracy, UNLocK Nigeria provided a ground-level view of challenges that remained, including incidents of ballot box snatching, vote-buying and violence; this report focuses on the Niger Delta Region, with a particular emphasis on the Akwa Ibom and Rivers states. The Center for the Study of Threat Convergence explores the linkages between fragile states, the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, terrorism; the center aims to:raise the profile of the challenges in vulnerable and ungoverned regions on the nonproliferation agenda.
Published Reports: North Korean WMD Trading Relationships Proliferation of Conventional Weapons Threat Convergence in PakistanCSTC performs ground research in the Black Sea/South Caucasus region, the Tri-border area of Latin American and the Horn of Africa, Southeast Asia. It partners with regional and sub regional organizations like NATO, the EU, the African Union; the Center for the Study of Threat Convergence is funded by the MacArthur Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Ploughshares Fund. Created in 1997, the Human Rights and Business Roundtable brings together businesses and human rights organizations to ensure compliance with international standards in regard to the conduct of security forces in and around industrial operations, it recognizes the challenges faced in the extractive industries, in balancing human rights and security. FFP works with various private companies in the oil, agribusiness, renewable energy, infrastructure sectors in both stable and conflict zones around the world.
The Sustainable Development & Security program supports companies in their development of human rights and security policies, confli
Violent non-state actor
In international relations violent non-state actors are individuals and groups that are wholly or independent of state governments and which threaten or use violence to achieve their goals. VNSAs vary in their goals and methods, they may include narcotics cartels, popular liberation movements and ideological organizations, self-defence militia, paramilitary groups established by state governments to further their interests. While some VNSAs oppose governments, others are allied to them; some VNSAs are organized as paramilitary groups, adopting methods and structure similar to those of state armed forces. Others may be informally structured and use violence in other ways, such as kidnapping, using improvised explosive devices, or hacking into computer systems. Thomas and Casebeer asserted in 2005 that "VNSA play a prominent destabilizing role in nearly every humanitarian and political crisis faced by the international community"; as a new type of actor in international relations, VNSAs represent a departure from the traditional Westphalian sovereignty system of states in two ways: by providing an alternative to state governance.
Phil Williams stated in 2008 that in the 21st century, they "have become a pervasive challenge to nation-states". Williams argues that VNSAs develop out of poor state governance but contribute to the further undermining of governance by the state, he explains that when weak states are "unable to create or maintain the loyalty and allegiance of their populations", "individuals and groups revert to or develop alternative patterns of affiliation". This causes the family, clan or other group to become "the main reference points for political action in opposition to the state". According to Williams, globalization has "not only... challenged individual state capacity to manage economic affairs, it has provided facilitators and force multipliers for VNSAs". Transnational flows of arms, for example, are no longer under the exclusive surveillance of states. Globalization helps VNSAs develop transnational social capital and alliances as well as funding opportunities; the term has been used in several papers published by the US military.
Some common and influential types of VNSAs include: Criminal organizations. Drug cartels, for example, may carry out assassinations, thefts, extortions. People's sections of them that have chosen guerrilla tactics to pursue their aims. An example is the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency in central India. Private military companies, corporations that either have their own, or hire, private military services. An example is floating armouries in the Indian Ocean. Religious or ideological groups, such as Boko Haram in and around Nigeria, that espouse armed violence as a moral or sacred duty. Citizen militia, which may form to protect a locality from attack, such as the anti-balaka movement in the Central African Republic. Paramilitary groups, which make use of military methods and structures to pursue their agenda, such as the now-decommissioned Irish Republican Army. Warlords, who are leaders using armed violence to exercise military and political control over territory within a sovereign state. Warlords have a long history in Afghanistan, for example.
Phil Williams, in an overview article, identifies five types of VNSAs: Warlords Militias Insurgencies Terrorist organizations Criminal organizations and gangs There is no accepted definition of "terrorism", the term is used as a political tactic to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists is disputed. An attempt at a global definition appears in the working draft of Comprehensive Convention Against International Terrorism, which defines terrorism as a type of act, rather than as a type of group. "terrorism" in the draft refers to the threatened or actual intentional injury to others, serious damage to property resulting in major economic loss:when the purpose of the conduct, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a Government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act. Since the definition encompasses the actions of some violent non-state actors and not others, disagreements remain and the treaty has yet to be agreed, as of 2015.
For example, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has called for acts of terrorism to be distinguished from:the legitimate struggle of peoples under foreign occupation and colonial or alien domination in the exercise of their right to self-determination in accordance with the principles of international law". Violent non-state actors have drawn international condemnation for relying on children under the age of 18 as combatants, porters, informants, in other roles. In 2017, for example, the United Nations identified 14 countries where children were used by armed groups: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Nigeria, The Philippines, South Sudan, Sudan and Yemen. Not all armed groups use children, 60 that used to do so have entered agreements to reduce or end the practice since 1999. For example, by 2017 the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines had released nearly 2,000 children from its ranks, the FARC-EP guerilla movement in Colombia agreed in 2016 to stop recruiting children.
In other situations, t
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap