Galician-Asturian or Eonavian is a set of Romance dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends into the zone of Asturias between the Eo River and Navia River. The dialects have been variously classified as the northeastern varieties of Galician, as a linguistic group of its own, or as a Galician dialect of transition to the Astur-Leonese group; the area where the dialects are spoken includes the Asturian municipalities of Boal, Coaña, Eilao, El Franco, Grandas de Salime, Pezós, San Martín de Ozcos, Santalla de Ozcos, Santiso de Abres, Tapia de Casariego, Taramundi, A Veiga, Vilanova de Ozcos, those of Navia, Villayón, Allande. Other terms used include gallego-asturiano, the official term in Asturias, meaning "Galician-Asturian language", a fala and Galego de Asturias; the term Eonaviego was first used by the linguist Xavier Frías Conde, who translated it as Eonavian in English, Éonavien in French, Eonavienc in Catalan. In 2007, the Academy of the Asturian Language accepted the term Eonavian to refer to the Galician-Portuguese dialect.
The set of dialects was traditionally included by linguists as Galician-Portuguese or Galician, with some characteristics of the Astur-Leonese group. That was the opinion of such linguists as Menéndez Pidal, Eugenio Coseriu, Luís Lindley Cintra, Dámaso Alonso, more recent ones such as Francisco Xavier Frías Conde and Xoán Babarro. Now, there is a political-linguistic conflict on the identity of the language between those who prioritise the mixed identity and those that continue to prioritise the Galician substratum. Supporters of the former in Asturias, identify Eonavian as a dialect continuum between the Asturian and Galician languages or a third language belonging to Portuguese-Galician group spoken only in that area. Supporters of the latter in Galicia, identify it as Galician and want the same protection as Galician in Castile and Leon, which protects the dialects of El Bierzo in cooperation with the Galician government. From a philological point of view, the origin of the language is in the Galician-Portuguese language family, the dominant language in the northwest of the Iberian peninsula in the Middle Ages.
That follows from an examination of the more than six hundred parchments preserved in the monastery of Villanueva de Oscos. An examination of the documents of the monastery, written from the late 12th to early 14th centuries, show a certain identity between this language and the Galician-Portuguese language. For the early stage, there are only documented translations of copies of ancient Latin deeds that were beginning to be unintelligible to the common people, there would not be until the mid-13th century that the first original deeds were written in the Galician-Portuguese language. In the early 14th century, the oddness of this language with the rest of the galacoifonía, was noticed; the most of these developments were the result of the Castilian language advancement in the urban centres of the River Eo: Revoredo and Castropol, such influence was more significant in the writings of the bishops' notaries of Oviedo in these villages, but if the influence of Castilian was growing in the urban centres, the manuscripts of the monastery notaries still kept the original features of this language, others were added that appeared.
The cartulary of Oscos is an essential landmark for understanding the evolution of the Galician-Portuguese language, but the monastery's influence was ended with the arrival of the Castillian congregation in 1511. That started another period of great economic and social growth of the monastery around the iron industries, but the installation of the reformed order ended the written language, until its re-emergence in the late 19th century; the lateral sound ʎ: Porcia River to Navia River. The lateral sound l: Eo River to Porcia River. Here is the evolution of the language, taking into account the Monastery of Oscos parchments: The system of stressed vowels is similar to Galician since there are seven in both languages, it does not find the alterations that can be observed by effects of metaphony in other regions of Galician phonetics. Here are the vowels obtained by García García in the El Franco village and Fernández Vior in Vegadeo: • ä Open central unrounded vowel: f1 =700 y f2 =1350 hz.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain and a few adjoining areas in Portugal. In this narrow sense, Leonese is distinct from the dialects grouped under Asturian, although there is no clear linguistic division. In the past, it was spoken in a wider area, including most of the historical region; the current number of Leonese speakers is estimated at 20,000 to 50,000. The westernmost fringes of the provinces of León and Zamora are in the territory of the Galician language, although there is dialectal continuity between the linguistic areas; the Leonese and Asturian dialects have long been recognized as a single language known as Astur-Leonese or Asturian-Leonese and known as Leonese. For most of the 20th century, linguists 2008? Discussed a Leonese language descending from Latin and encompassing two groups: the Asturian dialects on one hand, dialects spoken in the provinces of León and Zamora in Spain and a related dialect in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, on the other hand.
Unlike Asturian, the Leonese dialects of Spanish are not promoted or regulated. Menéndez Pidal used "Leonese" for the entire linguistic area, including Asturias; this designation has been replaced by Ibero-Romance scholars with "Asturian-Leonese", but "Leonese" is still used to denote Asturian-Leonese by non-speakers of Asturian or Mirandese. In Leonese, any of five vowel phonemes, /a, e, i, o, u/, may occur in stressed position and the two archiphonemes /I/, /U/ and the phoneme /a/ may occur in unstressed position. Leonesa? Leonese has two numbers; the main masculine noun and adjective endings are - u for - os for plural. Typical feminine endings are - a for - as for plural. Masculine and feminine nouns ending in -e in the singular take -es for the plural. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender; the native languages of Leon, Zamora and the Terra de Miranda in Portugal are the result of the evolution of Latin introduced by Roman conquerors in the region. Their colonization and organization led to the Conventus Astururum, with its capital at Asturica Augusta.
The city of Astorga was sacked by the Visigoths in the 5th century, never regained its former prominence. The region remained unified until the seventh-century Islamic invasion. Around the 11th century, it began to be defined as Leonese territory corresponding to the southern conventus. In medieval León, the Romance Galician, Asturian-Leonese, Castilian languages evolved and spread south; the first known text in Asturian-Leonese is the Nodizia de Kesos, written between 974 and 980 AD, an inventory of cheeses owned by a monastery written in the margin of the reverse of a document written in Latin. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Leonese reached its territorial zenith as the administrative language of the Kingdom of León, a literary language, in the Leonese court, judiciary and organization. After the 1230 union of Leon and Castile, Leonese had greater written and institutional use, although at the end of the 13th century Castilian began to replace it as a written language. Leonese became an rural language with little literary development.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it survived in oral form only in mid-western León and western Zamora provinces. Its scientific study and a nascent cultural movement began in the province of Leon in 1906. During the 1950s and 60s, the number of Leonese speakers and the area in which it was spoken decreased. Although the Astur-Leonese linguistic domain covers most of the principality of Asturias, the north and west of the province of Leon, the northeast of Zamora, both provinces in Castile and León, the region of Miranda do Douro in the east of the Portuguese district of Bragança, this article focuses on the autonomous community of Castile and León. Julio Borrego Nieto, in Manual de dialectología española. El español de España, wrote that the area in where Leonese is best preserved, defined as "area 1", consists of the regions of Babia and Laciana, part of Los Argüellos, eastern Bierzo and La Cabrera. Borrego Nieto describes another geographical circle, which he calls "area 2", where Leonese is fading: "...
It is extended to the regions between the Ribera del Órbigo. In Zamora, the region of La Carballeda – with the subregion La Requejada - and Aliste, with at least a part of its adjacent lands; this area is characterized by a blur and progressive disappearance, greater as we move to the East, of the features still seen in the previous area. The gradual and negative character of this characteristic explains how vague the limits are". A "speaker of Leonese" is defined here as a person. There is no linguistic census of the number of Leonese speakers in the provinces of Leon and Zamora, estimates vary from 5,000 to 50,000. *Refers only to the county of EL Bierzo and the valleys of Ribas de Sil, Fornela and La Cabrera. Two sociolinguistic studies, in northern Leon and the entire province analysed the prevalence of Leonese and the linguistic attitudes of its speakers. According to the latter
Galician-Portuguese known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. Alternatively, it can be considered a historical period of the Portuguese languages. Galician-Portuguese was first spoken in the area bounded in the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and by the Douro River in the south, comprising Galicia and northern Portugal, but it was extended south of the Douro by the Reconquista, it is the common ancestor of modern Portuguese, Galician and Fala varieties, all of which maintain a high level of mutual intelligibility. The term "Galician-Portuguese" designates the subdivision of the modern West Iberian group of Romance languages. Galician-Portuguese developed in the region of the former Roman province of Gallaecia, from the Vulgar Latin, introduced by Roman soldiers and magistrates during the time of the Roman Empire. Although the process may have been slower than in other regions, the centuries of contact with Vulgar Latin, after a period of bilingualism extinguished the native languages, leading to the evolution of a new variety of Latin with a few Gallaecian features.
Gallaecian and Lusitanian influences were absorbed into the local Vulgar Latin dialect, which can be detected in some Galician-Portuguese words as well as in placenames of Celtic and Iberian origin. In general, the more cultivated variety of Latin spoken by the Hispano-Roman elites in Roman Hispania had a peculiar regional accent, referred to as Hispano ore and agrestius pronuntians; the more cultivated variety of Latin coexisted with the popular variety. It is assumed that the Pre-Roman languages spoken by the native people, each used in a different region of Roman Hispania, contributed to the development of several different dialects of Vulgar Latin and that these diverged over time evolving into the early Romance Languages of Iberia, it is believed. An early form of Galician-Portuguese was spoken in the Kingdom of the Suebi and by the year 800 Galician-Portuguese had become the vernacular of northwestern Iberia; the first known phonetic changes in Vulgar Latin, which began the evolution to Galician-Portuguese, took place during the rule of the Germanic groups, the Suebi and Visigoths.
And the Galician-Portuguese "inflected infinitive" and the nasal vowels may have evolved under the influence of local Celtic languages. The nasal vowels would thus be a phonologic characteristic of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Roman Gallaecia, but they are not attested in writing until after the 6th and 7th centuries; the oldest known document to contain Galician-Portuguese words found in northern Portugal is called the Doação à Igreja de Sozello and dated to 870 but otherwise composed in Late/Medieval Latin. Another document, from 882 containing some Galician-Portuguese words is the Carta de dotação e fundação da Igreja de S. Miguel de Lardosa. In fact, many Latin documents written in Portuguese territory contain Romance forms; the Notícia de fiadores, written in 1175, is thought by some to be the oldest known document written in Galician-Portuguese. The Pacto dos irmãos Pais discovered, has been said to be older, but despite the enthusiasm of some scholars, it has been shown that the documents are not written in Galician-Portuguese but are in fact a mixture of Late Latin and Galician-Portuguese phonology and syntax.
The Noticia de Torto, of uncertain date, the Testamento de D. Afonso II are most Galician-Portuguese; the earliest poetic texts date from c. 1195 to c. 1225. Thus, by the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th there are documents in prose and verse written in the local Romance vernacular. In Galicia the oldest document showing traces of the underlying Romance language is a royal charter by king Silo of Asturias, dated in 775: it uses substrate words as arrogio and lagena, now arroio and laxe, presents the elision of unstressed vowels and the lenition of plosive consonants; as for the oldest document written in Galician-Portuguese in Galicia, it is a document from the monastery of Melón dated in 1231, since the 1228-dated Charter of the Boo Burgo of Castro Caldelas is a latter translation of a Latin original. Galician-Portuguese had a special cultural role in the literature of the Christian kingdoms of Crown of Castile comparable to the Catalan Language of the Crown of Aragon, or that of Occitan in France and Italy during the same historical period.
The main extant sources of Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry are these: The four extant manuscripts of the Cantigas de Santa Maria Cancioneiro da Ajuda Cancioneiro da Vaticana Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti known as Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional Cancioneiro dun Grande de Espanha Pergaminho Vindel Pergaminho Sharrer Os 5 lais de Bretanha Tenzón entre Afonso S
Spanish dialects and varieties
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another in pronunciation and vocabulary, less so in grammar. While all Spanish dialects adhere to the same written standard, all spoken varieties differ from the written variety, to different degrees. There are differences between European Spanish and the Spanish of the Americas, as well as many different dialect areas both within Spain and within Latin America. Prominent differences of pronunciation among dialects of Spanish include: the maintenance or lack of distinction between the phonemes /θ/ and /s/. Among grammatical features, the most prominent variation among dialects is in the use of the second-person pronouns. In Hispanic America the only second-person plural pronoun, for both formal and informal treatment, is ustedes, while in most of Spain the informal second-person plural pronoun is vosotros with ustedes used only in the formal treatment. For the second-person singular familiar pronoun, some Latin America dialects use tú, while others use either vos or both tú and vos.
There are significant differences in vocabulary among regional varieties of Spanish in the domains of food products, everyday objects, clothes. In a broad sense, Latin American Spanish can be grouped into: Mexican Central American Caribbean. Andean-Pacific. Rioplatense Chilean Old World varieties are: Northern Peninsular Central-Southern Peninsular Southern Peninsular Canarian the ebbing Philippine Spanish The non-native Spanish in Equatorial Guinea and Western Sahara has been influenced by varieties from Spain; the Spanish spoken in Gibraltar is not different from the neighboring areas in Spain, except for code-switching with English. It is blended with English as a sort of Spanglish known as Llanito. Judaeo-Spanish, a "Jewish language", encompasses a number of linguistic varieties based on 15th-century Spanish; as Jews have migrated since their expulsion from Iberia, the language has picked up several loan words from other languages and developed unique forms of spelling and syntax. It can be considered either a divergent dialect of Spanish, or a separate language.
The distinction between /s/ and /θ/ is maintained in northern Spain and in south-central Spain, while the two phonemes are not distinguished in Latin America, the Canary Islands, much of Andalusia. The maintenance of phonemic contrast is called distinción in Spanish. In areas that do not distinguish them, they are realized as, though in parts of southern Andalusia the realization is closer to. In dialects with seseo the words casa and caza are pronounced as homophones, whereas in dialects with distinción they are pronounced differently; the symbol stands for a voiceless sibilant like the s of English sick, while represents a voiceless interdental fricative like the th of English think. In some cases where the phonemic merger would render words homophonic in Latin America, one member of the pair is replaced by a synonym or derived form—e.g. Caza replaced by cocer, homophonic with coser, replaced by cocinar. For more on seseo, see González-Bueno. Traditionally Spanish had a phonemic distinction between /ʎ/ and /ʝ/.
But for most speakers in Spain and the Americas, these two phonemes have been merged in the phoneme /ʝ/. This merger results in the words calló and cayó being pronounced the same, whereas they remain distinct in dialects that have not undergone the merger; the use of the merged phoneme is called "yeísmo". In Spain, the distinction is preserved in some rural areas and smaller cities of the north, while in South America the contrast is characteristic of bilingual areas where Quechua languages and other indigenous languages that have the /ʎ/ sound in their inventories are spoken, in Paraguay; the phoneme / ʝ / can be pronounced depending on the dialect. In most of the area where yeísmo is present, the merged phoneme /ʎ ~ ʝ/ is pronounced as the fricative or approximant or as the glide, in word-initial positions, affricates and. In the area around
Bernese Jura is the name for the French-speaking area of the Swiss canton of Bern, from 2010 one of ten administrative divisions of the canton. Comprising the three French-speaking districts in the northern part of the canton, it contains 40 municipalities with an area of 541.71 km2 and a population of 53,768. More than 90% of the population of the three districts speak French; the Bernese Jura of today comprises only three out of a total of seven districts which were known as the Bernese Jura during the period of 1815–1979. Of the remaining four, three seceded as the canton of Jura in 1979, while the fourth, the Laufen district, joined the canton of Basel-Landschaft in 1994. Most of the territory of the Bernese Jura was passed from the County of Burgundy to the Bishopric of Basel in AD 999, it was annexed by France during the Napoleonic period, 1798-1814. In 1814, the Congress of Vienna accorded it to the canton of Bern to compensate for the loss of the new canton of Vaud. From 1815 to 1979, the term Bernese Jura included the territory now forming the canton of Jura, which seceded following a national popular vote on 24 September 1978.
In 1974 a plebiscite voted to remain part of Bern by a margin of only 70 votes. This led to acts of vandalism on 16 March 1974 and on 7 September 1975 an armed standoff at the Hôtel de la Gare in Moutier, broken up by an elite team of Bernese police on the following day. Two other plebiscites came down on the side of remaining in the Canton of Bern, including one in 1998 which passed with a thin majority of 41 votes. In 2013 a third plebiscite ended with the majority of residents choosing to remain in Bern, though a majority of residents of Moutier wanted to join Jura. On 18 June 2017 the municipality of Moutier voted to join the Canton of Jura by a small margin of 51.7%. Its administrative capital was Biel/Bienne from 1815 to 2009. Since 2010, Biel/Bienne has been made the administrative capital of a separate district, the administrative capital of the remaining Bernese Jura is now Courtelary. According to the canton's constitution, one of the seven members of the Executive Council of Bern has to be a French-speaking citizen of this area.
Of the 160 seats in the Grand Council of Bern, 12 seats are reserved for the Bernese Jura and an additional three seats are guaranteed for the French-speaking population of the bilingual district of Biel/Bienne. The region was divided into three districts: District of Courtelary District of La Neuveville District of Moutier In 2010 the three districts were dissolved and merged to form the Arrondissement administratif Jura bernois. On 1 January 2014 the former municipalities of Diesse, Lamboing and Prêles merged into the new municipality of Plateau de Diesse and Plagne and Vauffelin merged into the municipality of Sauge. On 1 January 2015 the former municipalities of Péry and La Heutte merged to form the new municipality of Péry-La Heutte; the former municipalities of Bévilard and Pontenet merged to form Valbirse. Châtelat, Monible and Souboz merged to form Petit-Val. Radio Bernese Jura Italian Graubünden Bernese Jura in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Bernese Jura Tourism Watch Valley
Peninsular Spanish known as Spanish of Spain European Spanish and Iberian Spanish, sometimes inaccurately referred to as Castilian Spanish refers to the varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, as opposed to the Spanish spoken in the Americas and in the Canary Islands. The related term Castilian Spanish is applied to formal varieties of Spanish as spoken in Spain. According to folk tradition, the "purest" form of Peninsular Spanish is spoken in the Castilian province of Valladolid, although the concept of "pure" language has been questioned by modern linguists. In phonology, the most prominent distinguishing element of Peninsular Spanish varieties, except for the southernmost ones, is the preservation of a distinction between the phonemes /s/ and /θ/, represented with the letters ⟨s⟩ on one hand and ⟨z⟩, or ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e / i⟩, on the other; this is called distinción in Spanish, while the lack of distinction between the two is called seseo or ceceo, depending on the phonetic outcome.
On one hand, in the Spanish of the Americas and in parts of southern Spain, words spelled with ⟨z⟩, with ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, or with ⟨s⟩ are all pronounced with a sound similar to the English /s/. However, many Andalusian dialects and the Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands do not use distinción as a general rule, but rather use either seseo or ceceo. In morphology, the most notable distinguishing feature of Peninsular Spanish is the use of the pronoun vosotros and its corresponding verb forms for the second person plural familiar. In all other varieties of Modern Spanish, for the second person plural, the familiar and the formal are merged in ustedes, with its verb forms. Again, the use of vosotros is uncommon in the Canary Islands and only introduced in Western Andalusia. Andalusian Spanish Canarian Spanish Castilian Spanish Castrapo Castúo Linguistic features of Spanish language spoken by Catalan-speakers Murcian Spanish Constraint interaction in Spanish /s/-aspiration: three Peninsular varieties, Richard E. Morris Coda obstruents and local constraint conjunction in north-central Peninsular Spanish, Richard E. Morris Jergas de habla hispana Spanish dictionary specializing in slang and colloquial expressions, featuring all Spanish-speaking countries
Canton of Jura
The Republic and Canton of the Jura known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland. The capital is Delémont, it shares borders with the canton of Basel-Landschaft, the canton of Bern, the canton of Neuchatel, the canton of Solothurn, the French régions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and Grand Est. The King of Burgundy donated much of the land that today makes up canton Jura to the Bishop of Basel in 999; the area was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 800 years. After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the Jura had close ties with the Swiss Confederation. At the Congress of Vienna, the Jura region became part of the canton of Bern; this act caused dissention. The Jura was French-speaking and Roman Catholic, whereas the canton of Bern was German-speaking and Protestant. After World War II, a separatist movement campaigned for a secession of Jura from the canton of Bern. After a long and militant struggle, which included some arson attacks by a youth organisation Les Béliers, a constitution was accepted in 1977.
In 1978 the split was made official when the Swiss people voted in favour, in 1979 the Jura joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member. The canton celebrated its independence from the canton of Bern on 23 June. However, the southern part of the region, predominantly French-speaking but has a Protestant majority, opted not to join the newly formed canton, instead remaining part of the canton of Bern. Although this decision may be considered strange linguistically, the choice may have been influenced by the fact that the canton of Bern is financially richer and is at the heart of federal power in Switzerland; the area is now known as Bernese Jura. The word Jura, may refer either to canton Jura, or to the combined territory of canton Jura and the Bernese Jura. Switzerland as a whole presents the latter from a touristic standpoint with documentation available in French or German. On creation, the canton adopted the title canton of the Jura. Other cantons in Switzerland using the title "Republic and Canton" are Ticino, the canton of Geneva, the canton of Neuchâtel.
In each case, the title refers to the autonomy of the canton and its nominal sovereignty within the Swiss Confederation. Since 1994, the question of the Jura region has again been controversial. In 2004, a federal commission proposed that the French-speaking southern Jura be reunited with the canton of Jura, as the language question now seems to be more important than the denominational one. A possible solution would be to create two half-cantons, as reunification with the creation of only a single canton would mean a complete restructuring of the Jura's current political system, with the cantonal capital being transferred from Delémont to Moutier. On 18 June, the town of Moutier voted to quit Bern and join the canton of Jura. On 17 September, 2017, the nearby municipalities of Belprahon and Sorvilier conversely voted to remain in the canton of Bern; the vote in Moutier has since been declared invalid. Canton Jura lies in the northwest of Switzerland, it consists of parts of the Jura mountains in the Jura plateau in the north.
The Jura plateau is hilly and entirely limestone. The districts of Ajoie and Franches-Montagnes lie in this region; the term "Jurassic" is derived from strata of which date to that era. To the north and the west of the canton lies France; the canton of Solothurn and Basel-Landschaft are to east of the canton, while the canton of Bern bounds the Jura to the south. The rivers Doubs and the Birs drain the lands; the Doubs joins the Saône and the Rhône, whereas the Birs is a tributary to the Rhine. Jura is divided into 3 districts: Delémont - capital: Delémont Porrentruy - capital: Porrentruy Franches-Montagnes - capital: Saignelégier There are 64 municipalities in the canton. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the canton of Bern The population is entirely French-speaking. Just one municipality is German-speaking: Ederswiler; the majority of the population is Roman Catholic with a small Protestant minority. The population of the canton is 73,290; as of 2007, the population included about 11.8 % of the total population.
The historical population is given in the following chart: Agriculture is important in canton Jura. Cattle breeding is significant, but there is horse breeding; the main industries are watches and tobacco. There is a growing number of medium-sized businesses. In 2001, there were 3,578 people. 14,109 people were employed in the secondary sector and 16,513 people were employed in the tertiary sector. In 2001, the canton produced 0.9% of the entire Swiss national income while it had 0.9% of the total population. In 2005, the average share of the national income per resident of the canton was 38,070 CHF, while the national average was 54,031 CHF, or about 70% of the national income per person. Between 2003 and 2005, the average income grew at a rate of 6.4%, larger than the national rate of 5.3%. The average taxes in the canton are higher than in most cantons, in 2006, the tax index in the canton was 126.6. In 2006, the canton had the highest final tax rate on high wage earners (15.26% on a married couple wit