Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. The term referred to a drink brewed without hops; as with most beers, ale has a bittering agent to balance the malt and act as a preservative. Ale was bittered with gruit, a mixture of herbs or spices boiled in the wort before fermentation. Hops replaced gruit as the bittering agent. Ale was an important source of nutrition in the medieval world, it was one of three main sources of grains in the medieval diet, along with pottage and breads. Scholars believe grains accounted for around 80% of the calorie intake of agricultural workers and 75% for soldiers. Nobles received around 65% of their calories from grains. Small beer known as table beer or mild beer, nutritious, contained just enough alcohol to act as a preservative, provided hydration without intoxicating effects. Small beer would have been consumed daily by everyone, including children, in the medieval world, with higher-alcohol ales served for recreational purposes.
The lower cost for proprietors combined with the lower taxes levied on small beer led to the selling of beer labeled "strong beer", diluted with small beer. In medieval times, ale may have been safer to drink than most water; the alcohol and some ingredients in gruit used to preserve some ales may have contributed to their lower load of pathogens, when compared to water. However, ale was safer due to the hours of boiling required in production, not the alcoholic content of the finished beverage. Records from the Middle Ages show. In 1272 a husband and wife who retired at Selby Abbey were given 2 gallons of ale per day with two loaves of white bread and one loaf of brown bread. Monks at Westminster Abbey consumed 1 gallon of ale each day. In 1299, Henry de Lacy's household purchased an average of 85 gallons of ale daily and in 1385-6 Framlingham Castle consumed 78 gallons per day. Brewing ale in the Middle Ages was a local industry pursued by women. Brewsters, or alewives, would brew in the home for both domestic consumption and small scale commercial sale.
Brewsters provided a substantial supplemental income for families. The word ale is related to the Old English alu or ealu, it is believed to stem from Proto-Indo-European root *alu-, through Proto-Germanic *aluth-. This is a cognate of Old Saxon alo, Norwegian, Swedish and Old Norse öl/øl, Finnish olut, Estonian õlu, Old Bulgarian olu cider, Slovenian ol, Old Prussian alu, Lithuanian alus, Latvian alus. Ale is fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24 °C. At temperatures above 24 °C the yeast can produce significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, the result is a beer with "fruity" compounds resembling those found in fruits such as, but not limited to: apple, pineapple, plum, cherry, or prune. Brown ales tend to be hopped, mildly flavoured with a nutty taste. In the south of England they are dark brown, around quite sweet and palatable. English brown ales first appeared in the early 1901s, with Manns Brown Ale and Newcastle Brown Ale as the best-known examples.
The style became popular with homebrewers in North America in the early 1980s. Pale ale was a term used for beers made from malt dried with coke. Coke had been first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn't until around 1703 that the term pale ale was first used. By 1784 advertisements were appearing in the Calcutta Gazette for "excellent" pale ale. By 1830 onward the expressions bitter and pale ale were synonymous. Breweries would tend to designate beers as pale ale, though customers would refer to the same beers as bitter, it is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porter and mild. By the mid to late 20th century, while brewers were still labelling bottled beers as pale ale, they had begun identifying cask beers as bitter, except those from Burton on Trent, which are called pale ales regardless of the method of dispatch. In the nineteenth century, the Bow Brewery in England exported beer to India, including a pale ale that benefited from the duration of the voyage and was regarded among consumers in India.
To avoid spoilage and other brewers added extra hops as a natural preservative. This beer was the first of a style of export ale that became known as India Pale Ale or IPA. Developed in hope of winning the younger people away from drinking lager in favour of cask ales, it is quite similar to pale ale yet there are some notable differences—it is paler, brewed with lager or low temperature ale malts and it is served at colder temperatures; the strength of golden ales varies from 3.5% to 5.3%. While the full range of ales are produced in Scotland, the term Scotch ale is used internationally to denote a malty, strong ale, amber-to-dark red in colour; the malt may be caramelised to impart toffee notes. The classic styles are Light and Export referred to as 60/-, 70/- and 80/- dating bac
A quadrupel is a type of beer, with an alcohol by volume of 10% or more. There is little agreement on the status of Quadrupel as a beer style. Writer Tim Webb notes. Quadrupel is the brand name of a strong seasonal beer La Trappe Quadrupel brewed by De Koningshoeven Brewery in the Netherlands, one of the eleven Trappist beers. In other countries the United States, quadrupel or quad has become a generic trademark; the term may refer to an strong style of dark ale with a spicy, ripe fruit flavor. Dubbel Tripel Trappist beer Beer in Belgium
Brasserie-Brouwerij Cantillon is a small Belgian traditional family brewery based in Anderlecht, Brussels. Cantillon, founded in 1900 brews lambic beers; the brewery was founded in 1900 by Paul Cantillon, whose father was a brewer as well, his wife, Marie Troch. As of 2011, the owner is fourth-generation brewer at Cantillon. Since its foundation the only major change has been a shift to organic ingredients in 1999. Cantillon was one of more than one hundred operating breweries in Brussels at its foundation, was the only one to remain operational through the 2000s. In 2014, van Roy announced that the brewery would be acquiring more maturation space doubling production by 2016-17. Cantillon produces 400,000 bottles of beer a year. In the traditional lambic style, with a mash bill of 2/3 malted barley and 1/3 unmalted wheat, are spontaneously fermented in open topped attic mounted vats, aged in oak or chestnut, blended and bottle conditioned for a year. Half of the brewery's production is gueuze. For fruit-flavored beers, empty casks are filled with various fruits and macerated for three months to dissolve the fruits.
Blåbær - bilberry Cuvée Saint Gilloise - This is not a traditional ’gueuze, in that it is made from only two-year-old lambic, not from a blend of old and young beers. It is dry-hopped in the cask for three weeks with fresh Styrian Golding hops. Re-fermentation in the bottle is achieved with the addition of a small amount of candy sugar. Fou' Foune - apricot Grand Cru Bruocsella - unblended lambic aged for three years, refermented with liqueur d'expedition Gueuze Iris - 100% pale barley malt beer with half fresh hops aged for two years and dry-hopped with Hallertau hops Kriek - lambic made with cherries Lou Pepe Gueuze - blended from beers of the same age, thus not a authentic gueuze Lou Pepe Kriek - with more fruit Lou Pepe Framboise - with more fruit Mamouche - elderflower Nath - brewed with rhubarb Rosé de Gambrinus - framboise Saint Lamvinus - Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes Soleil de Minuit - cloudberry Vigneronne - Muscat grapes The brewery houses the Gueuze Museum. Patricia Schultz listed its museum in 1,000 Places to See Before You Die.
Prunus cerasus is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus, native to much of Europe and southwest Asia. It is related to the sweet cherry, but has a fruit, more acidic; the tree is smaller than the sweet cherry, has twiggy branches, its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks. There are several varieties of the sour cherry: the dark-red morello cherry and the lighter-red varieties including the amarelle cherry, the popular Montmorency cherry; the Montmorency cherry is the most popular type of sour cherry in America. The reason for its popularity is its use in recipe creation. Including cherry pies, cherry desserts and other cherry-based recipes. Prunus cerasus, a tetraploid with 2n=32 chromosomes, is thought to have originated as a natural hybrid between Prunus avium and Prunus fruticosa in the Iranian Plateau or Eastern Europe where the two species come into contact. Prunus fruticosa is believed to have provided its smaller size and sour tasting fruit; the hybrids stabilised and interbred to form a new, distinct species.
Cultivated sour cherries were selected from wild specimens of Prunus cerasus and the doubtfully distinct P. acida from around the Caspian and Black Seas, were known to the Greeks in 300 BC. They were extremely popular with Persians and the Romans who introduced them into Britain long before the 1st century AD; the fruit remains popular in modern-day Iran. In England, their cultivation was popularised in the 16th century in the time of Henry VIII, they became a popular crop amongst Kentish growers, by 1640 over two dozen named cultivars were recorded. In the Americas, Massachusetts colonists planted the first sour cherry,'Kentish Red', when they arrived. Before the Second World War there were more than fifty cultivars of sour cherry in cultivation in England; this is a late-flowering variety, thus misses more frosts than its sweet counterpart and is therefore a more reliable cropper. The Morello cherry ripens in mid toward the end of August in southern England, it is self-fertile, would be a good pollenizer for other varieties if it did not flower so late in the season.
Sour cherries require similar cultivation conditions to pears, that is, they prefer a rich, well-drained, moist soil, although they demand more nitrogen and water than sweet cherries. Trees will do badly if waterlogged, but have greater tolerance of poor drainage than sweet varieties; as with sweet cherries, Morellos are traditionally cultivated by budding onto strong growing rootstocks, which produce trees too large for most gardens, although newer dwarfing rootstocks such as Colt and Gisella are now available. During spring, flowers should be protected, trees weeded and sprayed with natural seaweed solution; this is the time when any required pruning should be carried out. Morello cherry trees fruit on younger wood than sweet varieties, thus can be pruned harder, they are grown as standards, but can be fan trained, cropping well on cold walls, or grown as low bushes. Sour cherries suffer fewer pests and diseases than sweet cherries, although they are prone to heavy fruit losses from birds. In summer, fruit should be protected with netting.
When harvesting fruit, they should be cut from the tree rather than risking damage by pulling the stalks. Unlike most sweet cherry varieties, sour cherries are self pollenizing. Two implications of this are that seeds run true to the cultivar, that much smaller pollinator populations are needed because pollen only has to be moved within individual flowers. In areas where pollinators are scarce, growers find that stocking beehives in orchards improves yields; some cultivars of sour cherry trees, such as Montmorency and North Star, have been documented to perform better than other cherry trees in Colorado's Front Range region. Dried sour cherries are used in cooking including soups, pork dishes, cakes and pies. Sour cherries or sour cherry syrup are used in drinks. In Iran, Turkey and Cyprus, sour cherries are prized for making spoon sweets by boiling pitted sour cherries and sugar. A particular use of sour cherries is in the production of kriek lambic, a cherry-flavored variety of a fermented beer made in Belgium.
Fruit trees Fruit tree forms Fruit tree propagation Ginjinha, a Portuguese liqueur made from Sour Cherry Griotte de Kleparow Kirsch Kriek, a traditional Belgian beer made with sour cherries Marasca cherry Amarena cherry North Star cherry, a dwarf variety Pruning fruit trees Sour cherry soup Syzygium corynanthum, an Australian rainforest tree known as the Sour cherry Vişinată, a Romanian liqueur made with sour cherries Vişne, Vişne Receli is a sour cherry preserve and Vişne Suyu is a popular fruit juice in Turkey
Lambic is a type of beer brewed in the Pajottenland region of Belgium southwest of Brussels and in Brussels itself at the Cantillon Brewery. Lambic beers include kriek lambic. Lambic differs from most other beers in that it is fermented through exposure to wild yeasts and bacteria native to the Zenne valley, as opposed to exposure to cultivated strains of brewer's yeast; this process gives the beer its distinctive flavour: dry and cidery with a sour aftertaste. Lambic is first mentioned in 1794 as'allambique'; the initial'a' was dropped early on, so that in an 1811 advert it was called'lambicq', though it was sometimes referred to as'alambic' as late as 1817 or 1829. The name therefore stems from the alembic, a still used for producing jenever; the beer was considered to have characteristics akin to spirits. Because of the original form'allambique' other explanations, such as that it was derived from Lembeek, a municipality near Halle, seem less likely; the beer is brewed from a grist containing 60–70% barley malt and 30–40% unmalted wheat.
The wort is cooled overnight in a shallow, flat metal pan called a coolship where it is left exposed to the open air so more than 120 different types of microorganisms may inoculate the wort. This cooling process requires night-time temperatures between -8C and 8 C. While this cooling method of open air exposure is a critical feature of the style, the key yeasts and bacteria that perform the fermentation reside within the breweries' timber fermenting vessels. Over eighty microorganisms have been identified in lambic beer, the most significant being Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Brettanomyces bruxellensis; the process is only possible between October and May as in the summer months there are too many unfavourable organisms in the air that could spoil the beer. In Brussels dialect, lambic produced after this traditional brewing season is referred to as bezomerd, meaning that it has had "too much summer". Climate change is further shortening this limited brewing window: in the early 1900s, lambic brewers enjoyed 165 days a year in the ideal temperature range, whereas by 2018 that number has shrunk to 140.
Since at least the 11th century, earlier, hops have been used in beer for their natural preservative qualities as well as for the pleasant bitterness and aroma they impart. Since the method of inoculation and long fermentation time of lambic beers increases the risk of spoilage, lambic brewers use large amounts of hops for their antibacterial properties. Lambic in the early 19th century was a hopped beer, using 8–9 g/l of the locally grown Aalst or Poperinge varieties. Modern lambic brewers, try to avoid making the beer hop forward and utilise aged, dry hops which have lost much of their bitterness and flavour. Lambics have a strong, cheese-like, "old hop" aroma, in contrast to the resiny, earthy hop bitterness found in other styles; the favourite hop used for lambic in the nineteenth century was a variety called Coigneau, cultivated in the Aalst-Asse area in Belgium. After the fermentation process starts, the lambic is siphoned into old port wine or sherry barrels from Portugal or Spain; some brewers prefer used wine barrels.
The lambic is left to mature for one or several years. It forms a velo de flor of yeast that gives some protection from oxidation, in a similar way to vin jaune and sherry. Lambic is a blend of at least two different beers. A gueuze may have occupied space in several different cellars over six years or more. While those outside Belgium are to find bottled gueuze and fruited versions, a wider variety of styles is available to local drinkers. Beers are blended again or sweetened with sugar or flavoured syrups before drinking as some can be tart. Most, if not all, of the varieties listed below have Traditional Speciality Guaranteed status; this status does not specify. Unblended lambic is a cloudy, bracingly sour beverage, available on tap. Draught releases are regarded as either jonge or oude, depending on age and discretion of the brewer. Bottled offerings from Cantillon and De Cam can be found outside Belgium. A mixture of young and old lambics that have been bottled; because the young lambics are not yet fermented, it undergoes secondary fermentation in the bottle and produces carbon dioxide.
A gueuze can be kept for 10 -- 20 years. Mars traditionally referred to a weaker beer made from the second runnings of a lambic brewing, it is no longer commercially produced. In the 1990s, Boon Brewery made a modern Mars beer called Lembeek's 2%, but its production has since been discontinued. A low-alcohol, sweetened beer made from a blend of lambic and a much lighter, freshly brewed beer to which brown sugar was added; the fresh beer was referred to as meertsbier, was not a lambic. Sometimes herbs were added as well; the use of meertsbier and of substandard lambic in the blend made this a cheap, sweet drink for everyday consumption. The 19th century French poet Charles Baudelaire commented on faro's disagreeable aftertaste, "It's be
3 Fonteinen is a Belgian brewery, specialized in geuze and kriek. The brewery is situated in Beersel, near Brussels and produces classic versions of both kriek and geuze. 3 Fonteinen was founded in 1887 as a café and geuzestekerij, a place where geuze is produced by blending old and new lambics, acquired from other breweries. The enterprise was bought by Gaston De Belder in 1953, who expanded it with a restaurant and left it to his sons Armand and Guido in 1982. In 1998, a brewery installation was bought. Apart from using its own lambic, 3 Fonteinen uses lambic made by Boon and Lindemans for its geuze. 3 Fonteinen is one of the few remaining geuzestekerijen. The Mijol Club, a literary club, founded by Herman Teirlinck, used to convene in the café. In May 2009, a faulty thermostat caused 3000 bottles to explode; the remaining overheated geuze was made into an eau de vie called "Armand's Spirit", the sales of which enough allowed the brewery to continue operations. In March 2013, after four years of interruption, Brewery 3 Fonteinen inaugurated its new brewing installation and is brewing its own lambic again.
During the four year without its own installation 3 Fonteinen managed to keep its head above water by blending lambic that they bought from nearby lambic breweries like Boon and Girardin. Official website
Berliner Weisse is a cloudy, sour beer of around 3% alcohol by volume. It is a regional variation of the wheat beer style from Northern Germany, dating back to at least the 16th century, it can be made from combinations of malted barley and wheat, with the stipulation that the malts are kilned at low temperatures to minimise colour formation. The fermentation takes place with a mixture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria, a prerequisite that creates the lactic acid taste, a distinguishing feature of Berlin Weisse. By the late 19th century, Berliner Weisse was the most popular alcoholic drink in Berlin, with up to fifty breweries producing it. By the late 20th century, there were only two breweries left in Berlin producing the beer. Although, there are many of American and Canadian brewers who make a beer of similar style and give their product the Berliner Weisse label. Most beer authorities trace the origins of Berliner Weisse to an unknown beer being produced in Hamburg, copied and developed by the 16th century brewer Cord Broihan.
Broihan's beer, Halberstädter Broihan, became popular, a version was being brewed in Berlin by the Berlin doctor J. S. Elsholz in the 1640s. An alternative possibility, given by Protz among others, is that migrating Huguenots developed the beer from the local red and brown ales as they moved through Flanders into Northern Germany; some sources, such as Dornbusch, give the date 1572 as being the earliest record of the beer being brewed in Berlin. Frederick Wilhelm encouraged the spread of the beer through Prussia, declaring it as "best for our climate", having his son, Frederick the Great, trained to brew it. A popular story is that Napoleon's troops dubbed it "The Champagne of the North" in 1809. A typical modern strength for Berliner Weisse is around 3% abv, though strength may have varied at times. Traditionally, beers brewed in March were brewed stronger and allowed to mature over the summer months, there is a report that this may have happened with Berliner Weisse — the bottles being buried in sand or warm earth.
Modern brewing methods use a low proportion of wheat ranging from 25% to 50%, deliberately create a sourness either by a secondary fermentation in the bottle, or by adding Lactobacillus. Records from the early 19th century indicate that the beer was brewed from five parts wheat to one part barley, drunk young, with little indication of creating sourness with either a secondary fermentation or by adding Lactobacillus. At the height of Berliner Weisse production in the 19th century, it was the most popular alcoholic drink in Berlin, 700 breweries produced it. By the end of the 20th century there were only two breweries left in Berlin, a handful in the rest of Germany; the two Berlin breweries, Berliner Kindl and Schultheiss, are both now owned by the Oetker Group and one of the few brands still produced in Berlin is Berliner Kindl Weisse. More with the growth of German craft brewing, Berlin-based breweries like Schneeeule and BrewBaker have begun producing Berliner Weisse. Exile Brewing Company in Des Moines, Iowa introduced a year-round Berliner Weisse named "Beatnik Sour" in 2014.
Round Guys Brewery in Lansdale, Pennsylvania is making Berliner Weisse, served with either woodruff or raspberry syrup. Saint Arnold Brewing Company in Houston, Texas is now making a Berliner Weisse called "Boiler Room". Firestone Walker Barrelworks in Buellton, CA offers "Bretta Weisse", which undergoes secondary fermentation in French oak foeders for 8 months; the Bruery in Placentia, California manufactures a Berliner Weisse-style beer called "Hottenroth". TrimTab Brewing Co. in Birmingham, Alabama brews a raspberry-fermented Berliner Weisse called "Paradise Now", the second fastest growing seasonal craft beer brand in the United States in 2016. Creature Comforts Brewing Co. in Athens, Georgia brews a Berliner Weisse beer called "Athena."Nickel Brook Brewing Co, in Burlington, Ontario produces a traditional Berliner Weisse named Uber, several fruit-infused variations including Raspberry, Peach and Sour Cherry Ubers. The Raspberry version was awarded Gold at the 2016 Canadian Brewing Awards.
The Good Liquid Brewing Co, in Bradenton, Florida brews a Berliner Weisse with Florida grown star fruit purée known as a Florida Weisse. Sweet Water Brewing Company in Atlanta, brews a 4.5% Berliner Weiss with mango, passion fruit, guava. Berliner Weisse is served in a bowl-shaped glass with flavoured syrups, such as raspberry, or artificial woodruff flavouring; the beer may be mixed with other drinks, such as pale lager, in order to balance the sourness. The World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson, Mitchell Beazley, 1977, page 56 - "Berlner Weisse", ISBN 0-85533-126-7 Die Biere Deutschlands, 1988, by Dietrich Höllhuber and Wolfgang Kaul, page 340, ISBN 3-418-00329-X Berliner Weisse germanbeerinstitute.com