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Frame problem

In artificial intelligence, the frame problem describes an issue with using first-order logic to express facts about a robot in the world. Representing the state of a robot with traditional FOL requires the use of many axioms that imply that things in the environment do not change arbitrarily. For example, Hayes describes a "block world" with rules about stacking blocks together. In a FOL system, additional axioms are required to make inferences about the environment; the frame problem is the problem of finding adequate collections of axioms for a viable description of a robot environment. John McCarthy and Patrick J. Hayes defined this problem in their 1969 article, Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence. In this paper, many that came after, the formal mathematical problem was a starting point for more general discussions of the difficulty of knowledge representation for artificial intelligence. Issues such as how to provide rational default assumptions and what humans consider common sense in a virtual environment.

The term acquired a broader meaning in philosophy, where it is formulated as the problem of limiting the beliefs that have to be updated in response to actions. In the logical context, actions are specified by what they change, with the implicit assumption that everything else remains unchanged; the frame problem occurs in simple domains. A scenario with a door, which can be open or closed, a light, which can be on or off, is statically represented by two propositions o p e n and o n. If these conditions can change, they are better represented by two predicates o p e n and o n that depend on time. A domain in which the door is closed and the light off at time 0, the door opened at time 1, can be directly represented in logic by the following formulae: ¬ o p e n ¬ o n o p e n The first two formulae represent the initial situation. If such an action had preconditions, such as the door being unlocked, it would have been represented by ¬ l o c k e d ⟹ o p e n. In practice, one would have a predicate e x e c u t e o p e n for specifying when an action is executed and a rule ∀ t.

E x e c u t e o p e n ⟹ o p e n for specifying the effects of actions. The article on the situation calculus gives more details. While the three formulae above are a direct expression in logic of what is known, they do not suffice to draw consequences. While the following conditions are consistent with the three formulae above, they are not the only ones. Indeed, another set of conditions, consistent with the three formulae above is: The frame problem is that specifying only which conditions are changed by the actions does not entail that all other conditions are not changed; this problem can be solved by adding the so-called “frame axioms”, which explicitly specify that all conditions not affected by actions are not changed while executing that action. For example, since the action executed at time 0 is that of opening the door, a frame axiom would state that the status of the light does not change from time 0 to time 1: o n ⟺ o n The frame problem is that one such frame axiom is necessary for every pair of action and condition such that the action does not affect the condition.

In other words, the problem is that of formalizing a dynamical domain without explicitly specifying the frame axioms. The solution proposed by McCarthy to solve this problem involves assuming that a minimal amount of condition changes have occurred; the Yale shooting problem, shows that this solution is not always correct. Alternative solutions were proposed, involving predicate completion, fluent occlusion, successor state axioms, etc.. By the end of the 1980s, the frame problem as defined by McCarthy and Hayes was solved. After that, the term “frame problem” was still used, in part to refer to the same problem but under different settings (

Fort Garrison

Fort Garrison known as Oulton's Garrison, Risteau's Garrison, Olton's Garrison, is a historic fortification building located at Stevenson, Baltimore County, Maryland on Garrison Farms Court. It is a rectangular fieldstone building built about 1695; the fort was built to serve as a stronghold against attacks by Native Americans and was used during the French and Indian War. It is 48 feet long and 18 feet wide with one large stone fireplace. Modifications in the early-19th century raised the height of the fort building adding a second story loft and a wood shingle roof, it was constructed following a 1693 order from his Council. The property was acquired in 1965 by the Baltimore County Department of Parks, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. In 2019, the Maryland Historical Trust removed a sign at Fort Garrison after officials received complaints over the use of the term "hostile Indians"; the language, dating back to 1934, was removed on the basis of bias against Native Americans.

Fort Garrison - Baltimore County Historic Sites Fort Garrison, Baltimore County, including photo from 1975, at Maryland Historical Trust

Charles Bally

Charles Bally was a Swiss linguist from the Geneva School. He lived from 1865 to 1947 and was, like Ferdinand de Saussure, from Switzerland, his parents were Jean Gabriel, a teacher, Henriette, the owner of a cloth store. Bally was married three times: first to Valentine Leirens, followed by Irma Baptistine Doutre, sent into a mental institution in 1915, with Alice Bellicot. In addition to his edition of de Saussure's lectures, Course in General Linguistics, Charles Bally played an important role in linguistics. From 1883 to 1885 he studied classical languages and literature in Geneva, he continued his studies from 1886 to 1889 in Berlin where he was awarded a Ph. D. After his studies he worked as a private teacher for the royal family of Greece from 1889 to 1893. Bally returned to Geneva and taught at a business school from 1893 on and moved to the Progymnasium, a grammar school, from 1913 to 1939, he worked as PD at the university from 1893 to 1913. From 1913 to 1939 he had a professorship for general linguistic and comparative Indo-European studies which he took over from Ferdinand de Saussure.

Besides his works about subjecthood in the French language he wrote about the crisis in French language and language classes. He was active in interlinguistics, serving as a consultant to the research association that presented Interlingua in 1951. Today Charles Bally is regarded as the founding-father of linguistic theories of style and much honored for his theories of phraseology. In terms of modern stylistics he dealt with the expressive function of signs. Structuralism Leonard Bloomfield Roman Jakobson Michael Silverstein Ferdinand de Saussure Traité de stylistique française Le Langage et la Vie La pensée et la langue, Bulletin de la société linguistique de Paris 22-23 La Crise du français, notre langue maternelle à l'école Linguistique générale et linguistique française L’arbitraire du signe. Valeur et signification Le langage et la vie Amacker, René, "Geneva School, after Saussure", in Koerner, E. F. K. & Asher, R. E. Concise History of the Language Sciences, Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 239–243.

Esterhill, F. Interlingua Institute: A history, Interlingua Institute. G. Redard, Bibliographie chronologique des publications de Charles Bally, in Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure 36, 1982, 25-41 W. Hellmann, Charles Bally, 1988 S. Durrer, Introduction à la linguistique de Charles Bally, 1998 "Charles Bally Papers". Odyssée. Geneva: Bibliothèque de Genève - Département des manuscrits et des archives privées. Retrieved 23 August 2015

Willie Tonga

Villiami Sione "Willie" Tonga known by the nickname of "Little Willie", is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who last played for the Leigh Centurions in the Super League. An Australia international and Queensland State of Origin representative centre, he played for the Paramatta Eels, the Bulldogs, with whom he won the 2004 NRL Premiership, the North Queensland Cowboys, he joined French club the Catalans Dragons in 2015 and signed a contract with the Centurions for 2016. Born in the former Woden Valley Hospital on 8 August 1983, he is of Indigenous Australian and Tongan descent, his full name is Viliami Sione Tonga, known as Willie. He was Wiradjuri woman, Maria Naden. Esi Tonga a professional rugby league footballer, is his younger brother. Showing a talent at a young age while living in Peak Hill, New South Wales, Tonga soon adopted rugby league and played for the Cootamundra side while his parents attended the Bimbadeen Bible College. After leaving Cootamundra, Tonga's parents and their five children moved to La Perouse in Sydney, Tonga played rugby union for the Matraville Sports High School First XV.

His parents continued to move around working for the Aboriginal Inland Missionaries and the family settled in Cherbourg, Queensland, an Aboriginal community in Queensland. Scouted by Arthur Beetson, Tonga moved into the Parramatta area, he played 8 games over two seasons. He signed with the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs. Making small but sure career moves, his best-known achievements were yet to be acknowledged when he moved on to the Bulldogs in 2004, his career catapulted in that one year, earning State of Origin selection, allowing him to become the 145th player to be chosen for the Queensland side since 1980. Winning the Dally M Centre of the Year award, Tonga played there for the Bulldogs in their 2004 NRL Grand Final victory over cross-city rivals, the Sydney Roosters. Tonga was selected in the Australian team to go and compete in the end of season 2004 Rugby League Tri-Nations tournament. In the final against Great Britain he played at centre and scored two tries in the Kangaroos' 44–4 victory.

As 2004 NRL premiers, the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs faced Super League IX champions, Leeds in the 2005 World Club Challenge. Tonga played at centre in the club's 32–39 loss, he was picked for the Australian side for the 2005 Tri-Nations series, making his first full year in the NRL a success. On 1 April 2008, it was announced that Tonga had signed a four-year deal with the North Queensland Cowboys, commencing in 2009. Tonga's final year at Canterbury-Bankstown saw him play only seven games as the club finished last on the table. In April 2009, he was named in the preliminary 25 man squad to represent Queensland in the opening State of Origin match for 2009. In June, Willie Tonga played in Game II of the 2009 State of Origin Series to replace Justin Hodges. Tonga was retained for the third match. In 2010 Tonga played. At the end of the season he represented Australia again for the first time in five years in the 2010 Four Nations tournament. After a number of long-term injuries, Tonga announced in 2011 that he would be re-joining the Parramatta Eels.

This decision was welcomed by the fans and senior members of the Parramatta team who he had played with as young player. Tonga's return to the club he debuted with was one of long term injuries, he struggled to get a game, only playing 12 in 2012 as the club finished last for the first time since 1972. In the 2013 preseason, during a trial match, Tonga was ruled out indefinitely. In June 2013, Tonga was one of 12 Parramatta players that were told that their futures at the club were uncertain by coach, Ricky Stuart. Tonga returned towards the end of the 2013 NRL season making four appearances as Parramatta finished last for a second consecutive year. Tonga re-signed with Parramatta until the end of the 2015 NRL season. In the 2014 NRL season, Tonga played 16 games as Parramatta narrowly missed the finals under new head coach Brad Arthur. In late 2013 it was revealed that Tonga's best friend Reni Maitua had been suffering from severe depression. In mid 2013, Maitua suffered a breakdown after a game in Brisbane, days attempted suicide.

Tonga was awake at 1:00am when he received a call from Maitua's sister, who had received a text message which scared her greatly. Tonga chose to drive to Maitua's unit, found Maitua attempting to take his own life. Tonga believes that had he arrived 10 seconds Maitua would not have survived. Tonga and Maitua told their story on the NRL Footy Show in June 2014 as an attempt to help remove the stigma around mental illness in league. On 9 July 2014, it was confirmed that Tonga had signed a contract to play for the Super League club the Catalans Dragons in 2015, he made his Super League début in round 1 against St. Helens, he scored his first Super League try against the Warrington Wolves in round 3. 2017 Leigh Centurions profile 2016 Leigh Centurions profile State of Origin Official website Rugby League Player Stats

List of law enforcement agencies in South Carolina

This is a list of law enforcement agencies in the state of South Carolina. According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics' 2022'Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, the state had 272 law enforcement agencies employing 11,674 sworn police officers, about 259 for each 100,000 residents. South Carolina Department of Corrections South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Law Enforcement Division South Carolina Department of Public Safety South Carolina Highway Patrol South Carolina State Transport Police Division South Carolina Bureau of Protective Services South Carolina Law Enforcement Division South Carolina State Constable's Office South Carolina State Ports Authority Port Police South Carolina Department of Probation and Pardon Services South Carolina Department of Mental Health Public Safety South Carolina State Forestry Commission Law Enforcement South Carolina Employment Securities Commission Police Department South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice Charleston International Airport Police Department Greenville Spartanburg International Airport Police Department University of South Carolina Police Department Winthrop University Police Department Columbia Metro Airport Police Greenville Health System Police Clemson University Police Department Medical University of South Carolina Public Safety Bob Jones University Dept of Public Safety University of South Carolina at Beaufort Police Department Tri County Technical College Campus Police Trident Technical College Police Department College of Charlestons Police Department Furman University Police Department York Tech College Public Safety Department Denmark Technical College Department of Public Safety Florence Regional Airport Police Department Francis Marion University Campus Police Department Erskine College Police Department

Araneta family

The Araneta family is an influential Filipino family that originated from Guipúzcoa, the Basque region of northern Spain. The name is derived from the Basque word "aran" meaning valley, with the suffix "eta" meaning abundance of, but a locative term denoting "place" - in this case, the Araneta name meaning the family that comes from the valley. In 1723, during the Galleon Trade, two brothers named Baltazar de Araneta and Don Jose de Araneta arrived in Manila aboard the Spanish Fleet,"La Sacra Familia", they came from the Basque region of Spain by way of Mexico. However, this was not conclusive as some members of the family disputed that the two are not brothers. Don Jose de Araneta must have been born in Gipuzkoa, but not Baltazar de Araneta, he was born in Mexico. Baltazar served as a regidor of the cabildo and secretary of the Charitable Fraternity of the Misericordia in Manila, he was married to Manuela de Aguirre and he died in Manila in 1750. One line of the Araneta family is descended from him.

In 1725, Don Jose joined the first Spanish expedition forces to Mindanao. A passage quoted from the book, by Benito Francia and Julian Gonzales Parrado, translated in Chabacano dialect by Datu Michael Mastura, establishes two facts: First, Don Jose de Araneta served the Spanish Politico-Military Government of Mindanao based at Zamboanga City. Second, he served as interpreter between the Spanish colonial government and the Sultan of Maguindanao, together with Placido Alberto de Saavedra. Another passage in the document revealed that in 1746, Don Jose Araneta was executed in Sulugan, nowadays known as Anuling in Cotabato, Philippines. However, there are conflicting information drawn from translations of various documents pertaining to him. In 1823, Buenaventura Araneta son of Mathias Araneta became the Gobernadorcillo in Iloilo, he married Isabel Theresa Estrella. They had four children: Hermenegildo, Antonio and Aniceta. Hermenegildo married Petrona Estanislao y Locsin of Iloilo, they had nine children, one of them was Felix who married Paz Soriano y Ditching and they had seventeen children, namely Leopoldo, Isabel, Marciano, Anastacio, Filomena, Lina, Concepcion, Encarnacion and Remedios.

Buenaventura Araneta was the first member of the family to enter political life when he became the Gobernadorcillo of Iloilo. In the latter part of the century, a kinsman of his on the Negros side; this would lead to the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros. He would serve as Secretary of War of the short-lived government, absorbed into the American-controlled military government of the Philippines. A statue of him stands in the Bago City public plaza. Marciano Soriano Araneta and Anastacio Soriano Araneta participated in combat against the Imperial Spanish forces in Negros and captured the Spanish Garrison in Mangkas Other members of the family were involved in the revolution elsewhere. Pablo Soriano Araneta was the Commanding General of the Panay Revolutionary Forces and Chief of the expeditionary forces of the Federal Republic of the Visayas; the eminent Gregorio Soriano Araneta, legal luminary, businessman and patriot, served his country and people under three regimes. He was elected a member of the National Assembly representing Iloilo.

In 1898, he was appointed by General Emilio Aguinaldo as Secretary General and delegate to the Malolos Republic. Gregorio Araneta became the Secretary of Justice of the Philippine Republic on September 26, 1898. Gregorio became a successful and prosperous lawyer in Manila and married Dona Carmen Zaragoza y Roxas, of the prominent Spanish mestizo Zaragoza and Roxas clans of Manila, established the Araneta name in Manila Society for the first time. After the end of the revolution and the creation of the Philippine commonwealth, members of the clan expanded their business and political interests. Juan Araneta went on to establish the Ma-ao Sugar Central in his hometown of Bago City. Industrialist Jorge Araneta would expand it, the barangay where the Central stood was named after him. Jorge was a close friend of commonwealth Philippine President Manuel Quezon, it was Jorge's son-in-law and distant relation, J. Amado Araneta, who made the family into a household name, he established the real estate empire of commercial Cubao.

His most prominent achievement is building the Araneta Center. It's landmark structure, the Araneta Coliseum, was the world's largest indoor stadium, it still remains one of the largest in Asia. In politics Salvador Araneta, son of Gregorio Araneta become a Cabinet Secretary in the Philippine government, he was the founder of FEATI University. His nephew Greggy Araneta married Irene Marcos, the daughter of Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Other members of the clan involved with Marcos was Rafael M. Salas, the son of Ernesto Araneta Salas of Bago City, he served as Marcos' Executive Secretary, due to political differences he left this position and become Under-Secretary General of the United Nations, head of UNFPA. He would serve in this capacity for 17 years. Many other members of the clan serve in various political positions; the most well known example is Senator Mar Roxas, a grandson of J Amado Araneta. The most prominent is Philippine former First Gentleman Jose