Frame rate

Frame rate is the frequency at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display. The term applies to film and video cameras, computer graphics, motion capture systems. Frame rate may be called the frame frequency, be expressed in hertz; the temporal sensitivity and resolution of human vision varies depending on the type and characteristics of visual stimulus, it differs between individuals. The human visual system can process 10 to 12 images per second and perceive them individually, while higher rates are perceived as motion. Modulated light is perceived as stable by the majority of participants in studies when the rate is higher than 50 Hz; this perception of modulated light as steady is known as the flicker fusion threshold. However, when the modulated light is non-uniform and contains an image, the flicker fusion threshold can be much higher, in the hundreds of hertz. With regard to image recognition, people have been found to recognize a specific image in an unbroken series of different images, each of which lasts as little as 13 milliseconds.

Persistence of vision sometimes accounts for short single-millisecond visual stimulus having a perceived duration of between 100 ms and 400 ms. Multiple stimuli that are short are sometimes perceived as a single stimulus, such as a 10 ms green flash of light followed by a 10 ms red flash of light perceived as a single yellow flash of light. Early silent films had stated frame rates anywhere from 16 to 24 frames per second, but since the cameras were hand-cranked, the rate changed during the scene to fit the mood. Projectionists could change the frame rate in the theater by adjusting a rheostat controlling the voltage powering the film-carrying mechanism in the projector. Film companies intended that theaters show their silent films at higher frame rates than they were filmed at; these frame rates were enough for the sense of motion. To minimize the perceived flicker, projectors employed dual- and triple-blade shutters, so each frame was displayed two or three times, increasing the flicker rate to 48 or 72 Hertz and reducing eye strain.

Thomas Edison said that 46 frames per second was the minimum needed for the eye to perceive motion: "Anything less will strain the eye." In the mid to late 1920s, the frame rate for silent films increased to between 20 and 26 FPS. When sound film was introduced in 1926, variations in film speed were no longer tolerated, as the human ear is more sensitive to changes in audio frequency. Many theaters had shown silent films at 22 to 26 FPS—which is why the industry chose 24 FPS for sound films as a compromise. From 1927 to 1930, as various studios updated equipment, the rate of 24 FPS became standard for 35 mm sound film. At 24 FPS, the film travels through the projector at a rate of 456 millimetres per second; this allowed for simple two-blade shutters to give a projected series of images at 48 per second, satisfying Edison's recommendation. Many modern 35 mm film projectors use three-blade shutters to give 72 images per second—each frame is flashed on screen three times. In drawn animation, moving characters are shot "on twos", to say, one drawing is shown for every two frames of film, meaning there are only 12 drawings per second.

Though the image update rate is low, the fluidity is satisfactory for most subjects. However, when a character is required to perform a quick movement, it is necessary to revert to animating "on ones", as "twos" are too slow to convey the motion adequately. A blend of the two techniques keeps the eye fooled without unnecessary production cost. Animation for most "Saturday morning cartoons" was produced as cheaply as possible, was most shot on "threes", or "fours", i.e. three or four frames per drawing. This translates to only 6 drawings per second, respectively. Anime is usually drawn on threes. Due to the mains frequency of electric grids, analog television broadcast was developed with frame rates of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Hydroelectric generators, due to their massive size, developed enough centrifugal force to make the power mains frequency stable, so circuits were developed for television cameras to lock onto that frequency as their primary reference; the introduction of color television technology made it necessary to lower that 60 FPS frequency by.1% to avoid "dot crawl", an annoying display artifact appearing on legacy black-and-white displays, showing up on highly-color-saturated surfaces.

It was found. Today, video transmission standards in North America and South Korea are still based on 60÷1.001 or ≈59.94 images per second. Two sizes of images are used: 1920×540 and 1280×720. Confusingly, interlaced formats are customarily stated at 1/2 their image rate, 29.97 FPS, double their image height, but these statements are purely custom. 1080i produces 59.94 1920×540 images, each squashed to half-height in the photographic process, stretched back to fill the screen on playback in a television set. The 720p format produces 59.94 1280×720 images, not squeezed, so that no expansion or squeezing of the image is necessary. This confusion was industry-wide in the early days of digital video software, with much software being written incorrectly, the coders believing that only 29.97 images were expected each second, incorrect. While it was true that each picture element was polled and sent only 29.97 times per second, the pixel location below th

2009 Individual Speedway Polish Championship

The 2009 Individual Speedway Polish Championship was the 2009 version of Individual Speedway Polish Championship organized by the Polish Motor Union. The defending Champion esd Adam Skórnicki; the Final took place on 25 July 2009 at MotoArena Toruń in Toruń. The Final was won by Tomasz Gollob, who beat Janusz Kołodziej, it was eight title for Gollob. 2009 Speedway Grand Prix permanent riders and the top 8 riders from 2008 Individual Polish Championship Final are expected to participate in the Semi-Finals: Tomasz Gollob Rune Holta Grzegorz Walasek Sebastian Ułamek Adam Skórnicki Jarosław Hampel Damian Baliński Krzysztof Kasprzak Piotr Protasiewicz Robert Kościecha The Final 25 July 2009 Toruń, MotoArena Toruń Referee: Jerzy Najwer Attendance: 12,500 Beat time: 58,06 - Wiesław Jaguś in Heat 6 Jeleniewski, Jabłoński, Miedziński, Ząbik Gomólski, Baliński, Jaguś Gollob, Kołodziej, Walasek Skórnicki, Kuciapa, Świderski Skórnicki, Jabłoński, Gomólski Jaguś, Gollob, Ząbik Miedziński, Kołodziej, Baliński Kasprzak, Szczepaniak, Świderski Jaguś, Kołodziej, Świderski, Jabłoński Kasprzak, Ząbik, Gomólski, Kuciapa Walasek, Miedziński, Szczepaniak Gollob, Skórnicki, Baliński, Jeleniewski Kasprzak, Jabłoński, Baliński, Protasiewicz Kołodziej, Skórnicki, Szczepaniak, Ząbik Gollob, Miedziński, Świderski, Gomólski Walasek, Jaguś, Jeleniewski Gollob, Jabłoński, Kuciapa Walasek, Świderski, Musielak, Ząbik Miedziński, Jaguś, Kasprzak, Skórnicki Protasiewicz, Kołodziej, Gomólski, Jeleniewski Silver-bronze medal Run-Off: Kasprzak, Kołodziej 2009 Team Speedway Polish Championship 2009 Individual Speedway Junior Polish Championship 2009 Golden Helmet

Mowden, County Durham

Mowden is a large housing estate situated on the northern edge of the West End of Darlington. Houses here date back to the 1960s. In addition to housing, the Mowden estate itself contains an infant and junior school, a small shopping precinct known locally as "Mowden Shops" and two local pubs - the Mowden and the Model T. Mowden was previously home to Darlington Mowden Park Rugby Club. In late 2012, the Club sold their ground at Yiewsley Drive to a housing developer and relocated to The Darlington Arena, a 25,000 all-seater stadium, owned by Darlington Football Club. Mowden is home to Mowden Hall, a Victorian family home designed by Alfred Waterhouse for the Pease family and is located on Staindrop Road, it was one of several homes commissioned by notable Quaker families in Darlington, another example being Polam Hall. John Beaumont Pease bought the farmland in the 1840s on which Mowden Hall stands and demolished it in 1862, he tried to ensure it was a private site by diverting an ancient footpath to High Coniscliffe out of his sight.

After his death, his son Edwin Lucas Pease continued angering the locals. He had promised to unblock the path but did not and diverted another footpath. In 1875, a protest was held at the Mechanics Institute, which resulted in councillors, mayors and ramblers forming the Darlington Footpaths Preservation Society; this resulted in a protracted court battle, which went all the way to the Queen's Bench in London, between Edwin Pease and the Society over the legality of his actions. The court ruled in favour of Pease, who used the monetary award to extend Mowden Hall to the present-day mansion; the Pease family owned the property until the 1920s. Edwin's son William Edwin Pease never married and Mowden Hall was inherited by a cousin Ernest Pease, who sold it in 1927 and moved south to the Isle of Wight due to ill health. Mowden Hall School was founded there in 1935 but the pupils were forced to evacuate during World War II moving permanently to its present site in Stocksfield, Northumberland; the property switched hands several times before being sold to the government in 1966.

The main tenant has been the Teachers' Pensions Agency. The DfE moved out to its new premises in 2015; the building is now home to Marchbank Free School, a special needs school for children with socio-emotional and behavioural problems. Nearby areas include Hummersknott to the south, Branksome to the north and Cockerton to the north-east. Darlington Mowden Park Rugby Club Mowden Junior School