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Frame synchronization

In telecommunication, frame synchronization or framing is the process by which, while receiving a stream of framed data, incoming frame alignment signals are identified, permitting the data bits within the frame to be extracted for decoding or retransmission. If the transmission is temporarily interrupted, or a bit slip event occurs, the receiver must re-synchronize; the transmitter and the receiver must agree ahead of time on which frame synchronization scheme they will use. Common frame synchronization schemes are: Framing bit A common practice in telecommunications, for example in T-carrier, is to insert, in a dedicated time slot within the frame, a noninformation bit or framing bit, used for synchronization of the incoming data with the receiver. In a bit stream, framing bits indicate the end of a frame, they occur at specified positions in the frame, do not carry information, are repetitive. Syncword framing Some systems use a special syncword at the beginning of every frame. CRC-based framing Some telecommunications hardware uses CRC-based framing.

In telemetry applications, a frame synchronizer is used to frame-align a serial pulse code-modulated binary stream. The frame synchronizer follows the bit synchronizer in most telemetry applications. Without frame synchronization, decommutation is impossible; the frame synchronization pattern is a known binary pattern which repeats at a regular interval within the PCM stream. The frame synchronizer aligns the data into minor frames or sub-frames; the frame sync pattern is followed by a counter which dictates which minor or sub-frame in the series is being transmitted. This becomes important in the decommutation stage where all data is deciphered as to what attribute was sampled. Different commutations require a constant awareness of which section of the major frame is being decoded. Asynchronous start-stop Phase synchronization Self-synchronizing code Superframe This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C". J. L. Massey.

"Optimum frame synchronization ". IEEE trans. Comm. com-20:115-119, April 1972. R Scholtz. "Frame synchronization techniques", IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1980. P. Robertson. "Optimal Frame Synchronization for Continuous and Packet Data Transmission", PhD Dissertation, 1995, Fortschrittberichte VDI Reihe 10, Nr. 376 PDF

Kataiya, Nepal

Kataiya is a village development committee in the central part of Saptari in the Sagarmatha Zone of south-eastern part of Nepal. This VDC is about 5km south of Rupani bazaar, a bazaar through which the East-West Highway passes and about 15km north of Indo-Nepal border, it is about 8km north-west of the headquarter of Saptari district as well as Sagarmatha zone, Rajbiraj. The VDC comprises 9 wards, it lies in Illaka No. 11. On the basis of 2011AD. Census, there are 9,554 population living in about 1,500 individuals houses. Kataiya VDC has a tropical climate; the three main seasons, summer and winter respectively. Being located in the Plain lands of Nepal, the climate and weather of Kataiya is hot; the summer season runs from Early April to August and touches temperature ranging from 23 °C to 44 °C. Monsoons arrive in the month of July heralded by dust and thunderstorms; the winter season prevails from the month of October till the month of March. Humidity, which prevails during monsoons, diminishes at the arrival of winters.

The village observes pleasant sunny days and enjoyable cool nights with the temperature ranging from 6 °C to 30 °C. Kataiya winter season is the most pleasant time. Overall the January is the coldest month and June is the most hottest month in the year. Major religious celebrations include the major Hindu festivals Vijaya Dashami, Chhath, Ram Navmi, Janai Purnima or Rakshabandhan, Saraswati Puja or Vasant Panchami, Chauth Chandra, Vishwakarma Puja, Govardhan Puja, Bhai Tika, Chaite Dashain and so on; the Dashain, Deepawali and Holi are celebrated with full devotee and proper rules. The locals people take pride in the way these festivals are celebrated with happiness. There are many small temples including dihabar sthan, hanuman temple, dinaram bhadri temple. Dinaram Bhadri is the deity god of Musahar people; the VDC has a health post with ward volunteers. The health post provides regular vaccination program and monthly vaccination programs at different places throughout the VDC with the help of Women volunteer.

It provides medicines to the poor people. It provides birth control device like condoms and pills at zero cost. In severe case, patients are referred to Gajendra Narayan Singh Sagarmatha Zonal Hospital located in Rajbiraj, only a few kilometres away. There are few secondary schools in this area including Madhyamik Vidhyalaya Kataiya Hardia. Lower secondary schools and primary schools like Oriental English Boarding School, Shree Luvkush E. B. S. Etc providing education facilities to the children. Telecommunications services include Nepal Telecom, Ncell and UTL. Subisu is providing internet services in place. To promote local culture and news, the number of nearby FM radio stations like: Bhorukuwa FM Chhinnamasta FM Apan FM C FM Chandrama FM Jai Madhesh FM Radio Sakhi, etc. and other FM radio stations like: Kantipur FM Image FM Saptakoshi FM Radio Nepal Ujyalo Network, etc. are providing linkage to worldwide media access. Manish Kr. Mandal MKM Manish Kumar Mandal

Jack Whelbourne

Jack Whelbourne was a British short track speed skater. Whelbourne was born in 1991 in Nottingham and he learnt to skate at the age of six and within eight years he was representing his country, he competed in the short track events at the 2010 Winter Olympics for Great Britain. He qualified for the semi finals of the 1500 m after a crash in his heat took out two of his competitors, allowing him to finish in the final qualifying position; however he was eliminated at the semi final stage. He took part in the 5000 m Relay team, he was a bronze medallist in the 2010 World Junior Championships and is a former European Junior champion. Whelbourne's coach is Nicky Gooch. Whelbourne was chosen to compete at three distances at the Sochi Olympics in 2014, he was the first British athlete to make a 1500m final on 10 February but he collided with a dislodged rubber bollard and fell. The 1500 metre final was won by Charles Hamelin. Jack Whelbourne at the International Olympic Committee Jack Whelbourne at Olympics at

Kachin Independence Army

The Kachin Independence Army is a non-state armed group and the military wing of the Kachin Independence Organisation, a political group of ethnic Kachins in Northern Myanmar. The Kachins are a coalition of six tribes whose homeland encompasses territory in Yunnan, Northeast India and Kachin State in Myanmar; the Kachin Independence Army is funded by the KIO, which raises money through regional taxes and trade in jade and gold. Its rifles are a combination of home-made rifles and some artillery. Kachin Independence Army headquarters are in Laiza, in southern Kachin State near the Chinese border. In 2009, Thomas Fuller of the New York Times estimated the number of active KIA soldiers at about 4,000, they are divided into one mobile brigade. Most are stationed in KIO-held strips of territory. In October 2010, KIA commanders said that they had "10,000 regular troops and 10,000 reservists". In May 2012, the group had about 8,000 troops; the Kachin Independence Army members are militants. The KIA is designated as a terrorist group by the Myanmar government.

The greatest number of Kachin live in Myanmar but some 150,000 live in China where they are known as the Jingpo. The Jingpo people in China face identity crisis. Family problems, drug abuse and school drop-out rates in China are other driving problems. In 1949 Naw Seng, a Kachin, was a captain in Kachin Battalion 1, he joined the Karen National Defense Organization. He was active in northern Shan State as a KNDO agent in 1950. At that time, Zau Seng was attending the government high school in Lashio, he contacted Naw Seng, followed him underground. Naw Seng took refuge in China in 1951, Zau Seng remained in the KNDO in Than-daung and Baw-ga-li. In 1959 Gyi Loveland, assigned as a counselor, was sent to organise residents to carry out underground operations in northern Shan State. Zau Seng and Gyi Loveland began their mission. Zau Tu joined Zau Seng underground. Lance Corporal Lamung Tu Jai, studying in Theinni after he was dismissed from Kachin Battalion 4, Lama La Ring contacted Zau Seng and formed the Kachin Independence Organisation in 1960.

Zau Seng became the head of the unit. They provided the KIO with ammunition to form a private army with 27 members; the KIO raided a bank on 5 February 1960. When armed attacks began, Kachin youths went underground. With a force of 100, the KIA and the Kachin Independence Council were formed in Loi Tauk, Sin Li on 5 February 1961. Zau Seng became commander-in-chief, Capt. Zau Bawk became a major. Base Camp 1 was built about 10 miles east of the village of Sin Li, near Kutkai in northern Shan State, a basic military course was taught on 16 March 1961. Battalion 1 was established in Mammaw. Villager defense forces, equipped with percussion lock firearms, were ordered to disrupt Tatmadaw forces. Buddhism became the state religion on 26 August 1961, with the right to practice other religions protected by Act 17, 1962, but non-Buddhists believed that they had lost this right and protested; the KIO expanded beyond its original 27 members. Demonstrations protested the announcement of the inclusion of the Phimaw and Kanphan regions into China in the Burma–China border treaty.

These changes and the federal policy of the Shan Monarchy gave the KIO an opportunity to attack, declaring their aim to establish an independent Kachin republic. Local peace talks were held in Rangoon and the regions, with a meeting with the Rakhine Kway Zan Shwee's communist party held in Ngapali. 300 troops were in the Lashio-Kutkai region and about 380 in Mamaw-Myitkyina in 1962. By early 1963 the KIA had one brigade, six battalions and its numbers had increased to over 1,000; the army grew after it occupied the Mamaw-Sein Lung and Mamaw-Man Wing roads, advancing to the west bank of the Irrawaddy and the northeastern Myitkyina and Hu Gawng valleys. When the revolutionary council announced a local peace offer on 11 June 1963, the KIA was invited to Mamaw. Delegate Zau Dan went from Mamaw to Mandalay on 31 August. Divisional authorities met with him again on behalf of the revolutionary council on 1 September, after tentative talks with the Brigade 7 officer. Zau Dan demanded: autonomy for ethnic groups self-determination, the revolution's primary aim a treaty after secession, based on: a mutual agreement to restore territory and sovereignty peace non-intervention in local affairs reciprocity co-existenceThe demands for independence were denied.

KIA leader Zau Tu occupied nearly all the villages in Bamaw during the talks. After the talks failed, the KIA amassed insurgents and ammunition; the KIA could have formed one brigade and six battalions with 1,000 insurgents before the peace talks. During the talks, Zau Dan's group extorted money. Zau Tu invaded Kamaing, a gemstone-mining region. Most villages in Kamaing were controlled by the KIA, which grew by the end of 1963. In 1964, KIA formed Brigade 2. Zau Seng commanded Brigade 1, which consisted of Battalions 1, 2 and 5. Brigade 1 was based in the


The T-80 is a third-generation main battle tank designed and manufactured in the Soviet Union. When it entered service in 1976, it was the first MBT in the world to feature a powerful multifuel turbine engine as its main propulsion engine; the T-80U was last produced in a factory in Omsk, while the T-80UD and further-developed T-84 continue to be produced in Ukraine. The T-80 and its variants are in service in Belarus, Egypt, Pakistan, South Korea, Ukraine; the chief designer of the T-80 was the Soviet engineer Nikolay Popov. The project to build the first Soviet turbine powered tank began in 1949, its designer was A. Ch. Starostienko, who worked at the Leningrad Kirov Plant; the tank was never built because available turbine engines were of poor quality. In 1955, two prototype 1,000 hp turbine engines were built at the same plant under the guidance of G. A. Ogloblin. Two years a team led by Josef Kotin constructed two prototypes of the Ob'yekt 278 tank. Both were hybrids of the IS-7 and the T-10 heavy tanks, powered by the GTD-1 turbine engine, weighing 53.5 tonnes and armed with an M65 130 mm tank gun.

The turbine engine allowed the tank to reach a maximum speed of 57.3 km/h, however with only 1,950 liters of fuel on board, their range was limited to only 300 km. The two tanks were considered experimental vehicles and work on them ceased. In 1963, the Morozov Design Bureau designed the T-64T tanks, they used GTD-3TL turbine engines. The tank was tested until 1965. At the same time, at Uralvagonzavod, a design team under the guidance of L. N. Kartsev created the Ob'yekt 167T tank, it used the GTD-3T turbine engine. In 1966, the Kirov factory built the experimental Ob'yekt 288 “rocket tank,” powered by two aerial GTD-350 turbine engines with a combined power of 691 hp. Trials indicated that twin propulsion was no better than the turbine engine, in development since 1968 at KB-3 of the Kirov Plant and at WNII Transmash; the tank from LKZ equipped with this turbine engine was designed by Nikolay Popov. It was constructed in 1969 and designated Ob'yekt 219 SP1, it was renamed the T-64T, was powered by a GTD-1000T multi-fuel gas turbine engine producing up to 1,000 hp.

During the trials it became clear that the increased weight and dynamic characteristics required a complete redesign of the vehicle's caterpillar track system. The second prototype, designated Ob'yekt 219 SP2, received bigger drive sprockets and return rollers; the number of wheels was increased from five to six. The construction of the turret was altered to use the same compartment, 125 mm 2A46 tank gun, auto loader and placement of ammunition as the T-64A; some additional equipment was borrowed from the T-64A. The LKZ plant built a series of prototypes based on Ob'yekt 219 SP2. After seven years of upgrades, the tank became the T-80; the T-80 is similar in layout to the T-64. Overall, its shape is very similar to the T-64; the original T-80 design uses a 1,000 horsepower gas turbine instead of a 750-horsepower diesel engine, although some variants of the T-80 reverted to diesel engine usage. The gearbox is different, with five forward and one reverse gear, instead of seven forward and one reverse.

Suspension reverts from pneumatic to torsion bar, with six forged steel-aluminium rubber-tyred road wheels on each side, with the tracks driven by rear sprockets. The glacis is of laminate armour and the turret is armoured steel; the turret houses the same 125 mm 2A46 smoothbore gun as the T-72, which can fire anti-tank guided missiles as well as regular ordnance. The tracks are wider and longer than on the T-64 giving lower ground pressure; the main gun is fed by the Korzina automatic loader. This holds up to 28 rounds of two-part ammunition in a carousel located under the turret floor. Additional ammunition is stored within the turret; the ammunition comprises the two-part missile. The autoloader is an effective, combat tested system, in use since the mid-1960s; the propellant charge is held inside a semi-combustible cartridge case made of a flammable material – this is consumed in the breech during firing, except for a small metal baseplate. A disadvantage highlighted during combat in Chechnya was the vulnerability of the T-80BV to catastrophic explosion.

The reason given by US and Russian experts is the vulnerability of stored semi-combustible propellant charges and missiles when contacted by the molten metal jet from the penetration of a HEAT warhead, causing the entire ammunition load to explode. This vulnerability may be addressed in models; when Western tank designs changed from non-combustible propellant cartridges to semi-combustible, they tended to separate ammunition stowage from the crew compartment with armoured blast doors, provided'blow-out' panels to redirect the force and fire of exploding ammunition away from the crew compartment. The autoloader takes between 7.1 and 19.5 seconds to load the main weapon, depending on the initial position of autoloader carousel. The T-80's armour is composite on the turret and hull, while rubber flaps and sideskirts protect the sides and lower hull; the T-80 models use explosive reactive armour and stronger armour, like the T-80U and T-80UM1. Other protection systems include the Shtora-1 and Arena APS, as well as the discontinued Drozd APS.



Tangimoana is a community in the Manawatū-Whanganui Region of the North Island of New Zealand. It had a population of 198 permanent residents in 2013, it is located 15 kilometres southwest of Bulls, 30 kilometres west of Palmerston North. The New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage gives a translation of "weeping sea" for Tangimoana; the settlement lies on the southern bank of the Rangitikei River near the mouth. It was developed in the 1920s as a holiday place for people from Palmerston North and other inland towns. Tangimoana was among the most affected communities in the 2004 flooding; the Boating Club has a licensed facility for their guests. A small corner store is open daily, it sells basic supplies as well as takeaway food. Tangimoana is well known for its laid back attitude and is popular with those seeking an alternative lifestyle. Many residents are artists and on labour weekend an Art Festival is held showcasing their works. Tangimoana has limited facilities and few employment opportunities.

Most residents travel to Palmerston Feilding or Levin for employment. The main attraction is the beach which are both peaceful and natural, it is a popular beach for dogs. A four-wheel drive vehicle is needed to drive directly to the ocean. Tangimoana had a population of 198 at the 2013 New Zealand census, a decrease of 36 people since the 2006 census. There were 102 females. 88.9% were European/Pākehā, 12.7% were Māori, 0.0% were Pacific peoples and 0.0% were Asian. Tangimoana School is a coeducational full primary school with a roll of 20 as of March 2019. A bus service takes secondary school students into Palmerston North on week days; the New Zealand Government Communications Security Bureau operates what it describes as a radio communications intereception facility in the area. Tangimoana settlement and history Aerial view of Defence Communications Unit Secret Power - New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network Secret Power, New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network.