A frame story is a literary technique. Sometimes this serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, where an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories; the frame story leads readers from a first story into smaller one within it. The frame story may be used to allow readers to understand a part of the story jump to another part that can now be understood; this is not however, to be mixed up with a narrative character personality change. Some of the earliest known frame stories are those from ancient Egypt, including one found in the Papyrus Westcar, the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, The Eloquent Peasant. Other early examples are from Indian literature, including the Sanskrit epics Mahabharata, Panchatantra, Syntipas's The Seven Wise Masters, the fable collections Hitopadesha and Vikram and The Vampire; this form spread west through the centuries and became popular, giving rise to such classic frame tale collections as the One Thousand and One Nights, The Decameron, Canterbury Tales.
This format had flexibility in that various narrators could retain the stories they liked or understood, while dropping ones they didn't and adding new ones they heard from other places. This occurred with One Thousand and One Nights, where different versions over the centuries have included different stories; the use of a frame story in which a single narrative is set in the context of the telling of a story is a technique with a long history, dating back at least to the beginning section of the Odyssey, in which the narrator Odysseus tells of his wandering in the court of King Alcinous. This literary device acts as a convenient conceit for the organization of a set of smaller narratives, which are either of the devising of the author or taken from a previous stock of popular tales altered by the author for the purpose of the longer narrative. Sometimes a story within the main narrative can be used to sum up or encapsulate some aspect of the framing story, in which case it is referred to in literary criticism by the French term mise en abyme.
A typical example of a frame story is One Thousand and One Nights, in which the character Shahrazad narrates a set of fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights. Many of Shahrazad's tales are frame stories, such as Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman, a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. Extensive use of this device is found in Ovid's Metamorphoses, where the stories nest several deep, to allow the inclusion of many different tales in one work. Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights uses this literary device to tell the story of Heathcliff and Catherine, along with the subplots, her sister Anne uses this device in her epistolary novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. The main heroine's diary is framed by the narrator's story and letters. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is another good example of a book with multiple framed narratives. In the book, Robert Walton writes letters to his sister describing the story told to him by Victor Frankenstein.
Frame stories have appeared in other media, such as comic books. Neil Gaiman's comic book series The Sandman featured a story arc called Worlds End which consisted of frame stories, sometimes featured stories within stories within stories. Frame stories are organized as a gathering of people in one place for the exchange of stories; each character tells his or her tale, the frame tale progresses in that manner. Famous frame stories include Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, about a group of pilgrims who tell stories on their journey to Canterbury. Sometimes only one storyteller exists, in this case there might be different levels of distance between the reader and author. In this mode, the frame tale can become more fuzzy. In Washington Irving's Sketch Book, which contains "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle" among others, the conceit is that the author of the book is not Irving, but a certain gentleman named Crayon. Here the frame includes the world of the imagined Crayon, his stories, the possible reader, assumed to play along and "know" who Crayon is.
Donald Westlake's short story "No Story" is a parody of frame stories, in which a series of narrators start to tell stories, each of which contains a narrator who starts to tell a story, culminating in a narrator who announces that there will be no story. It is a frame story without a story to be framed; when there is a single story, the frame story is used for other purposes – chiefly to position the reader's attitude toward the tale. One common one is to draw attention to the narrator's unreliability. By explicitly making the narrator a character within the frame story, the writer distances him or herself from the narrator. In P. G. Wodehouse's stories of Mr Mulliner, Mulliner is made a fly fisherman in order to cast doubt on the outrageous stories he tells; the movie Amadeus is framed as a story an old Antonio Salieri tells to a young priest, because the movie is based more on stories Salieri told about Mozart than on historical fact. Another use is a form of procatalepsis, where the writer puts the readers' possible reactions to the st
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
A picture frame is a decorative edging for a picture, such as a painting or photograph, intended to enhance it, make it easier to display or protect it. The frame along with its mounts protects and makes the art look better. Art work framed well will stay in good condition for a long period of time. Joan Miró once did a work to frame with a flea market frame. Many painters and photographers who work with canvas "gallery-wrap" their artwork, a practice wherein the image extends around the edges of the stretched canvas and therefore precludes use of a traditional picture frame, although a floater frame may be used; as picture frames can be expensive when purchased new, some people remove the pictures from a frame and use the frame for other pictures. Picture frames have traditionally been made of wood, still the most common material, although other materials are used including silver, bronze and plastics such as polystyrene. A picture frame may be of any color or texture, but gilding is common on older wooden frames.
Some picture frames have elaborate molding. Complicated older frames are made of moulded and gilded plaster over a plain wood base. Picture frames come in a variety of profiles, but the lengths of moulding feature a "lip" and rabbet, the function of, to allow a space to hold in the materials in the frame; the lip extends about 1⁄4 inch past the edge of the rabbet. The picture frame may contain a pane of picture framing glass or an acrylic glass substitute such as acrylite or plexiglas to protect the picture. In some instances where the art in the frame is dispensable or durable, no protection may be necessary. Glass is common over watercolors and other artwork on paper, but rare over oil paintings, except valuable ones in some museums. Picture framing glass may be treated with anti-reflective coatings to make the glass invisible under certain lighting conditions; when a picture frame is expected to be exposed to direct sunlight, or harsh lighting conditions such as fluorescent lights, UV filtering may be added to slow down the photocatalytic degradation of organic materials behind picture framing glass.
For pieces to be framed under glass, except for the most disposable and inexpensive posters or temporary displays, the glass must be raised off the surface of the paper. This is done by means of matting, a lining of plastic "spacers", stacking two mouldings with the glass in between, similar methods. If the paper were to touch the glass directly, any condensation inside the glass would absorb directly into the art, having no room to evaporate; this is harmful to any medium. It causes art sticking to the glass, mildew or mold spore growth, other ill effects. Raising the glass is necessary when a piece is done in a loose media such as charcoal or pastel, to prevent smudging. Care should be taken with these works however, if acrylic glass is used, as a static charge can build up which will attract the pigment particles off the paper. Using real glass helps to prevent this. Certain kinds of pieces do not need glass when framed, including paintings done in acrylic or oil paint, stained glass or tiles, laminated posters.
These kinds of pieces are still sometimes put under glass though, if for example they are framed using mats, or they are kept in a climate-controlled environment. The treatment of the back of the framed artwork varies from nothing in the case of oils, to the frequent use of foam-core boards and other backing boards to provide support, or backing paper or "dust covers" to keep dust and insects out. While these are invariably functional, there are some examples of works in which they have been decorated, with this being considered part of the artwork; the use of backing boards is common with watermedia and other art on paper. Paper dust covers will be inexpensive craft paper or heavy duty archival papers. Plique-à-jour picture frames, made of enamel by Bulushoff, are among the most expensive frames in the world. Picture frames are square or rectangular, though circular and oval frames are not uncommon. Frames in more unusual shapes such as football shapes, hearts can be hand carved by a professional wood carver or carpenter.
There are picture frames designed to go around corners. A popular design is an indent in the frame adding depth. One of the earliest frames was a discovery made in an Egyptian tomb dating back to 2nd century A. D. in which a fayum mummy portrait was discovered at Hawara still within its wooden frame. This finding suggests the mummy portraits may have been hung in the owners' homes prior to inclusion within the funerary equipment; the portrait and its frame were most preserved by the desert climate, according to frame historian and installation expert Marilyn Murdoch explained in a historical talk to museum docents. Although framing borders in ancient art were used to divide scenes and ornamentation by ancient Egyptian and Greek artists in pottery and wallpaintings, the first carved wooden frames as we know them today appeared on small panel paintings in twelfth and thirteenth century Europe. According to a historical series published in Picture Frame Magazine, these early "framed panel paintings were made from one piece.
The area to be painted was carved out, leaving a raised framing border around the outside edge, like a tray. The whole piece was gessoed and gilded. Painting the image on the flat panel was the last thing
Framing (visual arts)
In visual arts and cinematography, framing is the presentation of visual elements in an image the placement of the subject in relation to other objects. Framing can make an image more aesthetically pleasing and keep the viewer's focus on the framed object, it can be used as a repoussoir, to direct attention back into the scene. It can add depth to an image, can add interest to the picture when the frame is thematically related to the object being framed; the goal is to focus the viewer’s attention upon the subject, but the ends and means are at the discretion of the artist. It is accomplished by manipulating the viewpoint of the image, rather than the object within. Framing in the photographic arts, is concerned with the position and perspective of the viewer; the position of the observer has tremendous impact on their perception of the main subject, both in terms of aesthetics and in their interpretation of its meaning. For example, if the viewer was placed far away from a lone subject in an image, the viewer will gather more information about the subjects’ surroundings and bearing, but little in terms of his emotions.
If the setting was in the middle of flat plain, the viewer might perceive a sense of loneliness or that the subject is lost, because the viewer himself cannot find any visual cues to orient the location of the subject. If some foreground elements are put in front of the viewer obscuring the subject, the viewer would take the position of an unseen observer. If the artist chooses to hint malicious intent, a member of the audience might feel uncomfortable looking through the eyes of a stalker. Repoussoir - Foreground elements placed along the sides of the frame to lead the viewer’s eye onto the subject. Can be used to create a more closed and stable space in the frame. Depth of field - The distance between the nearest and furthest points in which an object will be in focus. A longer distance means the DoF is deeper, a shorter distance means the DoF is shallower; this selective focus technique allows the artist to directly control which areas of the frame the viewer should be focused on. White space - Negative space used in framing to increase aesthetic appeal.
This principle of design allows a balance in the frame to positive space. The empty area can form contrasting silhouettes with the subject and thus become a meaningful aspect of the frame. Vignetting - A occurring optical phenomenon where the brightness or saturation is reduced at the periphery of an image. Can be produced mechanically or digitally to bring focus to the well-lit and saturated areas of the image, known as the “hotspot” effect. Perspective distortion - An optical technique where lenses of different focal lengths are used to affect the perceived distance between the foreground and background. Wider lenses extend the distance and show more of the background, which can be used to reveal a detailed view of the subject and his immediate surroundings in the same frame. Longer lenses compress the distance, because it can minimize the perception of space within the frame, it can be used on buildings and cars to create a scene of congestion. Color and lighting
In telecommunication, frame synchronization or framing is the process by which, while receiving a stream of framed data, incoming frame alignment signals are identified, permitting the data bits within the frame to be extracted for decoding or retransmission. If the transmission is temporarily interrupted, or a bit slip event occurs, the receiver must re-synchronize; the transmitter and the receiver must agree ahead of time on which frame synchronization scheme they will use. Common frame synchronization schemes are: Framing bit A common practice in telecommunications, for example in T-carrier, is to insert, in a dedicated time slot within the frame, a noninformation bit or framing bit, used for synchronization of the incoming data with the receiver. In a bit stream, framing bits indicate the end of a frame, they occur at specified positions in the frame, do not carry information, are repetitive. Syncword framing Some systems use a special syncword at the beginning of every frame. CRC-based framing Some telecommunications hardware uses CRC-based framing.
In telemetry applications, a frame synchronizer is used to frame-align a serial pulse code-modulated binary stream. The frame synchronizer follows the bit synchronizer in most telemetry applications. Without frame synchronization, decommutation is impossible; the frame synchronization pattern is a known binary pattern which repeats at a regular interval within the PCM stream. The frame synchronizer aligns the data into minor frames or sub-frames; the frame sync pattern is followed by a counter which dictates which minor or sub-frame in the series is being transmitted. This becomes important in the decommutation stage where all data is deciphered as to what attribute was sampled. Different commutations require a constant awareness of which section of the major frame is being decoded. Asynchronous start-stop Phase synchronization Self-synchronizing code Superframe This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C". J. L. Massey.
"Optimum frame synchronization ". IEEE trans. Comm. com-20:115-119, April 1972. R Scholtz. "Frame synchronization techniques", IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1980. P. Robertson. "Optimal Frame Synchronization for Continuous and Packet Data Transmission", PhD Dissertation, 1995, Fortschrittberichte VDI Reihe 10, Nr. 376 PDF
Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are wood, engineered wood, or structural steel; the alternative to framed construction is called mass wall construction, where horizontal layers of stacked materials such as log building, rammed earth, etc. are used without framing. Building framing is divided into two broad categories, heavy-frame construction if the vertical supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing, pole building framing, or steel framing. Light-frame construction using standardized dimensional lumber has become the dominant construction method in North America and Australia due to the economy of the method. Modern light-frame structures gain strength from rigid panels, but until carpenters employed various forms of diagonal bracing to stabilize walls. Diagonal bracing remains a vital interior part of many roof systems, in-wall wind braces are required by building codes in many municipalities or by individual state laws in the United States.
Special framed shear walls are becoming more common to help buildings meet the requirements of earthquake engineering and wind engineering. People fitted shaped wooden poles together as framework and began using joints to connect the timbers, a method today called traditional timber framing' or log framing. In the United states, timber framing was superseded by balloon framing beginning in the 1830s. Balloon framing makes use of many lightweight wall members called studs rather than fewer, heavier supports called posts; the studs in a balloon frame extend two stories from sill to plate. Platform framing is the standard wooden framing method today; the name comes from each floor level being framed as platform. Framed construction was used in Scandinavia before the 20th century because of the abundant availability of wood, an abundance of cheap labour, the superiority of the thermal insulation of logs. Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions, both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls.
These stick members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels, serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall. The platforms may be the boxed structure of a ceiling and roof, or the ceiling and floor joists of the story above. In the building trades, the technique is variously referred to as stick and frame and platform, or stick and box, as the sticks give the structure its vertical support, the box-shaped floor sections with joists contained within length-long post and lintels, support the weight of whatever is above, including the next wall up and the roof above the top story; the platform provides the lateral support against wind and holds the stick walls true and square. Any lower platform supports the weight of the platforms and walls above the level of its component headers and joists. Framing lumber is subject to regulated standards that require a grade-stamp, a moisture content not exceeding 19%.
There are three common methods of framing a house. Post and beam, now used predominantly in barn construction. Balloon framing using a technique suspending floors from the walls was common until the late 1940s, but since that time, platform framing has become the predominant form of house construction. Platform framing forms wall sections horizontally on the sub-floor prior to erection, easing positioning of studs and increasing accuracy while cutting the necessary manpower; the top and bottom plates are end-nailed to each stud with two nails at least 3.25 in in length. Studs are at least doubled at openings, the jack stud being cut to receive the lintels that are placed and end-nailed through the outer studs. Wall sheathing a plywood or other laminate, is applied to the framing prior to erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold, again increasing speed and cutting manpower needs and expenses; some types of exterior sheathing, such as asphalt-impregnated fiberboard, oriented strand board and waferboard, will provide adequate bracing to resist lateral loads and keep the wall square.
Others, such as rigid glass-fiber, asphalt-coated fiberboard, polystyrene or polyurethane board, will not. In this latter case, the wall should be reinforced with a diagonal wood or metal bracing inset into the studs. In jurisdictions subject to strong wind storms local codes or state law will require both the diagonal wind braces and the stiff exterior sheathing regardless of the type and kind of outer weather resistant coverings. A multiple-stud post made up of at least three studs, or the equivalent, is used at exterior corners and