Soup is a liquid food served warm or hot, made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, or water. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth. In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups; the established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch. Other ingredients used to thicken soups and broths include egg, lentils and grains. Soups are similar to stews, in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two. Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers. Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this. To boil the water hot rocks were used.
This method was used to cook acorns and other plants. The word soup comes from French soupe, which comes through Vulgar Latin suppa from a Germanic source, from which comes the word "sop", a piece of bread used to soak up soup or a thick stew; the word restaurant was first used in France in the 16th century, to refer to a concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors, advertised as an antidote to physical exhaustion. In 1765, a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups; this prompted the use of the modern word restaurant for the eating establishments. In the US, the first colonial cookbook was published by William Parks in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's The Compleat Housewife. A 1772 cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking. In particular, German immigrants living in Pennsylvania were famous for their potato soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Payplat dis Julien, a refugee from the French Revolution, opened an eating establishment in Boston called "The Restorator", became known as the "Prince of Soups".
The first American cooking pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: Soups and Soup Making. Portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time. Commercial soup became popular with the invention of canning in the 19th century, today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market. Canned soup can be prepared by heating in a pan, rather than cooking anything, it can be made in the microwave. Such soups can be used as a base for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, cream or pasta. Doctor John T. Dorrance, a chemist with the Campbell Soup Company, invented condensed soup in 1897. Canned soup can be condensed, in which case it is prepared by adding water, or it can be "ready-to-eat", meaning that no additional liquid is needed before eating. Condensing soup allows soup to be packaged into a smaller can and sold at a lower price than other canned soups.
The soup is doubled in volume by adding a "can full" of water or milk, about 10 US fluid ounces. Since the 1990s, the canned soup market has burgeoned, with non-condensed soups marketed as "ready-to-eat", so they require no additional liquid to prepare. Microwaveable bowls have expanded the "ready-to-eat" canned soup market more, offering convenience, making for popular lunch items. In response to concerns over the negative health effects of excessive salt intake, some soup manufacturers have introduced reduced-salt versions of popular soups. Today, Campbell's Tomato, Cream of Mushroom, Chicken Noodle are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year. Other popular brands of soup include Progresso. Dry soup mixes are sold by many manufacturers, are reconstituted with hot water; the first dried soup was bouillon cubes. East Asian-style instant noodle soups include ramen and seasonings, are marketed as a convenient and inexpensive instant meal, requiring only hot water for preparation.
Western-style dried soups include vegetable, chicken base, potato and cheese flavors. In French cuisine, soup is served before other dishes in a meal. In 1970, Richard Olney gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad and dessert, that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration". Chè, a Vietnamese cold dessert soup containing sugar and coconut milk, with many different varieties of other ingredient
A sandwich is a food consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type. The sandwich began as a portable finger food in the Western world, though over time it has become prevalent worldwide. Sandwiches are a popular type of lunch food, taken to work, school, or picnics to be eaten as part of a packed lunch; the bread can be either plain, or coated with condiments such as mayonnaise or mustard, to enhance its flavour and texture. As well as being homemade, sandwiches are widely sold in restaurants and can be served hot or cold. There are both savoury sandwiches, such as deli meat sandwiches, sweet sandwiches, such as a peanut butter and jelly sandwich; the sandwich is named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The Wall Street Journal has described it as Britain's "biggest contribution to gastronomy"; the modern concept of a sandwich using slices of bread as found within the West can arguably be traced to 18th-century Europe.
However, the use of some kind of bread or bread-like substance to lie under some other food, or used to scoop up and enclose or wrap some other type of food, long predates the eighteenth century, is found in numerous much older cultures worldwide. The ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder is said to have wrapped meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs in a soft matzah—flat, unleavened bread—during Passover in the manner of a modern wrap made with flatbread. Flat breads of only varying kinds have long been used to scoop or wrap small amounts of food en route from platter to mouth throughout Western Asia and northern Africa. From Morocco to Ethiopia to India, bread is baked in flat rounds, contrasting with the European loaf tradition. During the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and stale bread, called "trenchers", were used as plates. After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to a dog or to beggars at the tables of the wealthy, eaten by diners in more modest circumstances.
The immediate culinary precursor with a direct connection to the English sandwich was to be found in the Netherlands of the seventeenth century, where the naturalist John Ray observed that in the taverns beef hung from the rafters "which they cut into thin slices and eat with bread and butter laying the slices upon the butter"— explanatory specifications that reveal the Dutch belegde broodje, open-faced sandwich, was as yet unfamiliar in England. Perceived as food that men shared while gaming and drinking at night, the sandwich began appearing in polite society as a late-night meal among the aristocracy; the sandwich's popularity in Spain and England increased during the nineteenth century, when the rise of industrial society and the working classes made fast and inexpensive meals essential. In London, for example, at least seventy street vendors were selling ham sandwiches by 1850. In the United States, the sandwich was first promoted as an elaborate meal at supper. By the early twentieth century, as bread became a staple of the American diet, the sandwich became the same kind of popular, quick meal as was widespread in the Mediterranean.
The first written usage of the English word appeared in Edward Gibbon's journal, in longhand, referring to "bits of cold meat" as a "Sandwich". It was named after 4th Earl of Sandwich, an eighteenth-century English aristocrat, it is said that he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!" It is said that Lord Sandwich was fond of this form of food because it allowed him to continue playing cards cribbage, while eating, without using a fork, without getting his cards greasy from eating meat with his bare hands. The rumour in its familiar form appeared in Pierre-Jean Grosley's Londres, translated as A Tour to London in 1772; the sober alternative is provided by Sandwich's biographer, N. A. M. Rodger, who suggests Sandwich's commitments to the navy, to politics and the arts, mean the first sandwich was more to have been consumed at his desk. Before being known as sandwiches, this food combination seems to have been known as "bread and meat" or "bread and cheese".
These two phrases are found throughout English drama from the seventeenth centuries. In the United States, a court in Boston, Massachusetts ruled in 2006 that a sandwich includes at least two slices of bread and "under this definition, this court finds that the term'sandwich' is not understood to include burritos and quesadillas, which are made with a single tortilla and stuffed with a choice filling of meat and beans." The issue stemmed from the question of whether a restaurant that sold burritos could move into a shopping centre where another restaurant had a no-compete clause in its lease prohibiting other "sandwich" shops. In Spain, where the word sandwich is borrowed from the English language, it refers to a food item made with English sandwich bread, it is otherwise known as a bocadillo. Similar usage applies in other Spanish-speaking cultures, such as Mexico, where the word torta is used for a popular variety of roll-type sandwiches. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term sandwich is more narrowly defined than in the United States: it refers only to an item which uses sliced bread from a loaf.
An item with similar fillings, but using an entire bread roll cut
Sony Centre for the Performing Arts
The Sony Centre for the Performing Arts is a major performing arts venue in Toronto, Canada, it is the country's largest soft-seat theatre. The building opened as the O’Keefe Centre on October 1, 1960, it has hosted a variety of international attractions and stars; the theatre, designated a heritage building by the City of Toronto, underwent renovations to restore its iconic features such as the marquee canopy and York Wilson’s lobby mural, The Seven Lively Arts. Restoration of the wood and marble that were hallmarks of the original facility was undertaken, along with audience seating, flooring upgrades, new washrooms and reconfigured lobby spaces. Following two years of renovations and restoration work, the Sony Centre reopened its doors on October 1, 2010, fifty years to the date of the first opening night performance. In January 2019, TO Live announced a new sponsorship deal with Meridian Credit Union, which will see the theatre rebranded Meridian Hall in September; the Centre was built on land occupied by a series of commercial buildings, including the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Company, it was the site of the Great Western Railway Terminal.
The idea for a performing arts centre that could serve the needs of an dynamic city predates the building's opening by 20 years. In the mid-1940s, Nathan Phillips issued a challenge to Toronto industrialists to underwrite the cost of a multipurpose centre for theatre and dance. Response to Phillips' challenge was not immediate. E. P. Taylor, the racehorse-loving head of the O'Keefe Brewing Company and Argus Corporation, was one of the city's most generous philanthropists, in 1954, he offered to build a performing arts centre that would not only serve the needs of local institutions but increase the diversity of entertainment options available in Toronto. Taylor assigned one of his key executives, Hugh Walker, to oversee building what was to be known as the O'Keefe Centre during its first 36 years; the O'Keefe Centre opened on October 1960 with a red-carpet gala. The first production was Alexander H. Cohen's production of the pre-Broadway premiere of Lerner and Loewe's Camelot, starring Richard Burton, Julie Andrews and Robert Goulet.
Camelot would prove to be just the first in a long and continuing line of spectacular productions, featuring such artists as Ethel Merman, Mickey Rooney, Angela Lansbury, Alfred Drake, Yul Brynner, Carol Channing, Pearl Bailey, Katharine Hepburn. Rudolf Nureyev, more familiar to Centre audiences in his frequent role as a ballet superstar, tried his hand at musical theatre as the Siamese autocrat in The King and I. Popular artists including Bob Dylan, Janet Jackson, Steve Earle, Leonard Cohen, Elvis Costello, David Bowie, Lou Reed, Elton John and bands such as The Who, The Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Led Zeppelin, The Carpenters, The Clash and Beastie Boys played concerts at the O'Keefe Centre. Other great performing legends have graced the Sony Centre stage in a range of solo shows and jazz spectaculars: Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Marlene Dietrich, Diana Ross, Anne Murray, Tom Jones, Danny Kaye, Judy Garland, Sammy Davis, Jr. Bill Cosby, Jack Benny, Liza Minnelli and Liberace.
Large-scale ballet and dance is another performing art well suited to the Centre's ample stage. Apart from regular seasons offered by The National Ballet of Canada at the Sony Centre from 1964 to 2006 and frequent visits by the Royal Winnipeg Ballet and Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, the theatre has welcomed a diverse range of international dance companies. One of the earliest, Les Ballets Africains, offered the unusual sight of topless women. Other visitors have included Britain's Royal Ballet, New York City Ballet, Dance Theater of Harlem, the Dutch National Ballet, the National Ballet of Cuba, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, Ballet Folklorico of Mexico, Kirov and the Bolshoi, it was during a 1974 Bolshoi visit that a young Mikhail Baryshnikov, on loan from the Kirov, bolted from the Centre's stage door, down The Esplanade and into a waiting getaway car, aided by PC Jim Peterson and businessman Tim Stewart. Like The National Ballet, The Canadian Opera Company made the Centre its home stage, from as early as 1961 to 2006.
Many of Canada's greatest singers, as well as a host of international opera stars, have performed for Centre audiences in COC productions. In addition, although touring opera is now rare, in earlier days the Sony Centre played host to The Met and to such towering voices as those of Birgit Nilsson, Plácido Domingo and Renata Scotto. In early February 1996, the building was renamed the Hummingbird Centre in recognition of a major gift from a Canadian software company, Hummingbird Communications Ltd; the $5-million donation allowed the Centre to undertake a number of capital improvements and repairs, among them the installation of an elevator and an acoustic reinforcement system for the auditorium. In September 2007, Sony bought the naming rights to the Centre for $10-million, a 10-year partnership was born; when the Ballet and Opera moved to the Four Seasons Centre in 2006, it meant a more open programming schedule. This has allowed the Centre to place greater emphasis on being an important community resource, where people from all backgrounds can gather to share their distinct and vibrant cultures.
Notable performances that reflect this mandate include the Last Empress with its dramatic, musical portrayal of an important figure in Korean history, the Virsky Ukrainian Dance
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Breakfast is the first meal of a day. The word in English refers to breaking the fasting period of the prior night. There is a strong tendency for one or more "typical", or "traditional", breakfast menus to exist in most places, but the composition of this varies from place to place, has varied over time, so that globally a wide range of preparations and ingredients are now associated with breakfast; the Old English word for dinner, means to break a fast, was the first meal eaten in the day until its meaning shifted in the mid-13th century. It was not until the 15th century that “breakfast” came into use in written English to describe a morning meal, which means to break the fasting period of the prior night. While breakfast is referred to as "the most important meal of the day", some epidemiological research indicates that having breakfast high in available carbohydrates increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. Present professional opinion is in favor of eating breakfast, but some contest the positive implications of its "most important" status.
The influence of breakfast on managing body weight is unclear. Breakfast in Africa varies from region to region. Most Egyptians begin the day with a light breakfast. Ful medames, one of Egypt's several national dishes, is typical, it is seasoned with salt and cumin, garnished with vegetable oil and optionally with tahini, chopped parsley, chopped tomato, onion, lemon juice, chili pepper and served topped with a boiled egg. It is scooped up and eaten with the staple whole wheat pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi and accompanied by taʿamiya, the local variant of falafel made with fava beans, fresh cut homemade French fries and various fresh or pickled vegetables. Several kinds of cheeses are popular, including gebna bēḍa or Domyati cheese, gebna rūmi, similar to Pecorino Romano or Manchego, Istanbuli cheese. Fried eggs with pastirma is common breakfast foods in Egypt. For breakfast, many Moroccans eat bread, harsha, or msemen with olive oil and different kinds of Moroccan crepes. Nigeria has over 250 different ethnic groups, with a corresponding variety of cuisines.
For the Hausa of northern Nigeria, a typical breakfast consists of funkaso. Both of these cakes can be served with sugar known as koko. For the south western Yoruba people one of the most common breakfasts is Ògì— a porridge made from corn served with evaporated milk. Ògì is eaten with Moi moi. Both are made from ground bean paste. Ògì can be steamed in leaves to harden it and eaten with akara or moi moi for breakfast. English tea or malta is served as a breakfast drink. Another popular option in southwest Nigeria is Gari, eaten like a cereal. Gari, known in Brazil as farofa, is made from the root of cassava. For breakfast, it is sweetened with sugar. Breakfast consists of café Touba, spiced coffee with abundant sugar sometimes consumed with dried milk, or kinkeliba tea. Small beignets and fresh fruit, including mangoes and bananas, are part of a simple breakfast, are accompanied by baguette with various spreads: Chocoleca, a Nutella equivalent made from peanuts. Breakfast is an important meal for Somalis, who start the day with some style of tea.
The main dish is a pancake-like bread. It might be eaten with a stew or soup. Lahoh is a pancake-like bread originating in Somalia and Yemen, it is eaten along with honey and ghee or beef jerky, washed down with a cup of tea. During lunch, lahoh is sometimes consumed with stew. Lablabi is a popular breakfast stew. In Uganda, most tribes have different cuisines but the most popular breakfast dishes are Porridge and Katogo. Porridge is made by mixing maize flour or millet flour with water and bringing the mixture to a boil. While Katogo is made from matoke and cooked in the same pot with a sauce, Katogo is served with tea or juice. Both dishes are popular in all regions of Uganda. Breakfasts vary throughout Asia. In Arab countries, breakfast is a quick meal, consisting of bread and dairy products, with tea and sometimes jam. Flat bread with olive oil and za'tar is popular; as mainland China is made up of many distinct provinces, each with their own unique cuisine, breakfast in China can vary from province to province.
In general, basic choices include sweet or salty pancakes, deep-fried bread sticks or doughnuts, buns and fried or soup-based noodles. These options are accompanied by tea or sweetened soybean milk. However, condiments for porridge and the soup base tend to vary between regions; the types of teas that are served and spices that are used can differ between the provinces. Due to its near two centuries history as a British colony and proximity to China's Canton region, both English and traditional Cantonese style breakfasts are of somewhat equal popularity in Hong Kong, as well as the hybrid form of breakfast offered in Cha chaan teng. Cha Chaan Te
A pancake is a flat cake thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan frying with oil or butter. Archaeological evidence suggests that pancakes were the earliest and most widespread cereal food eaten in prehistoric societies; the pancake's shape and structure varies worldwide. In Britain, pancakes are unleavened and resemble a crêpe. In North America, a leavening agent is used creating a thick fluffy pancake. A crêpe is a thin Breton pancake of French origin cooked on one or both sides in a special pan or crepe maker to achieve a lacelike network of fine bubbles. A well-known variation originating from southeast Europe is a palačinke, a thin moist pancake fried on both sides and filled with jam, cheese cream, chocolate, or ground walnuts, but many other fillings—sweet or savoury—can be used; when potato is used as a major portion of the batter, the result is a potato pancake. Commercially prepared pancake mixes are available in some countries.
When buttermilk is used in place of or in addition to milk, the pancake develops a tart flavor and becomes known as a buttermilk pancake, common in Scotland and the US. Buckwheat flour can be used in a pancake batter, making for a type of buckwheat pancake, a category that includes Blini, Kaletez and Memil-buchimgae. Pancakes may be served at any time of the day with a variety of toppings or fillings but in America they are considered a breakfast food. Pancakes serve a similar function to waffles. In Britain and the Commonwealth, they are associated with Shrove Tuesday known as "Pancake Day", when perishable ingredients had to be used up before the fasting period of Lent; the Ancient Greeks made pancakes called τηγανίτης, ταγηνίτης or ταγηνίας, all words deriving from τάγηνον, "frying pan". The earliest attested references to tagenias are in the works of the 5th-century BC poets Cratinus and Magnes. Tagenites were made with wheat flour, olive oil and curdled milk, were served for breakfast. Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης, from σταίτινος, "of flour or dough of spelt", derived from σταῖς, "flour of spelt".
Athenaeus mentions, in his Deipnosophistae, staititas topped with honey and cheese. The Middle English word pancake appears in English in the 15th century; the Ancient Romans called their fried concoctions alia dulcia, Latin for "other sweets". These were much different from. Pancakes in the Horn of Africa are known as injera. Injera is a yeast-risen flatbread with a unique spongy texture. Traditionally, it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Canjeero known as lahooh or lahoh, is a similar kind of flatbread eaten in Somalia and Yemen. In Eritrea and Ethiopia, injera are served with one or more stews known as wat or with salads or with other injera; the right hand is used to tear small pieces from the injera to use to pick up and eat the stews or salads. The injera under these stews soaks up juices and flavours and, after the stews and salads are finished, is consumed. Injera thus acts as food, eating utensil and plate; when the "tablecloth" formed by the injera is finished, the meal is over.
Lahoh is a pancake-like bread originating in Somalia and Yemen. It is eaten along with honey and tea. During lunch, lahoh is sometimes consumed with soup or stew. In Kenya, pancakes are eaten for breakfast as an alternative to bread, they are served plain with the sugar added to the batter to sweeten them. Kenyan pancakes are similar to French crepes. A "pancake" in South Africa is a crêpe. In Afrikaans, it is known as a pannekoek and, traditionally, is prepared on gas stoves and eaten on wet and cold days. Pannekoeke are served with cinnamon-flavoured sugar, either allowed to dissolve into and soften them or, if their crispy texture is to be retained, eaten immediately, they are a staple at Dutch Reformed Church fêtes. Plaatkoekies are American-style "silver dollar" pancakes. A variation of the pannekoek is the South African crumpet, made from self-raising flour, milk and a pinch of salt; the smooth batter is fried in butter to produce a raised flat cake. Crumpets are always served hot for breakfast, with butter and golden syrup.
In Uganda, pancakes are locally made with bananas and served as a breakfast or as a snack option. Banana pancakes are a menu item in Western-oriented backpackers' cafes in Asian countries such as Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam and China; this has elicited the term Banana Pancake Trail. Chinese pancakes may be either savoury or sweet, are made with dough rather than batter; the dough consists of water and vegetable oil. The dish can be served as a side alongside duck, or as a snack, topped with scallions along with hot and sour sauce. India has many styles of pancake. Variations range from their taste to the main ingredient used. All are made without the use of added raising agents. Pancakes prepared using a north Indian cooking style are known as cheela. Sweet cheela are made using jaggery with a wheat flour-based batter. North Indian salty pancakes are made using batter p
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa