Medieval French literature
Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. The material and cultural conditions in France and associated territories around the year 1100 unleashed what the scholar Charles Homer Haskins termed the "Renaissance of the 12th century" and, for over the next hundred years, writers, "jongleurs", "clercs" and poets produced a profusion of remarkable creative works in all genres. Although the dynastic struggles of the Hundred Years' War and the Black Death pandemic of the fourteenth century in many ways curtailed this creative production, the fifteenth century laid the groundwork for the French Renaissance. For historical background, see History of France, France in the Middle Ages or Middle Ages. For other national literary traditions, see Medieval literature. Up to 1340, the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages in the northern half of what is today France are collectively known as "ancien français" or "langues d'oïl".
The language in southern France is known as "langue d'oc" or the Occitan language family known under the name of one of its dialects, the Provençal language). The Western peninsula of Brittany spoke a Celtic language. Catalan was spoken in the South, Germanic languages and Franco-Provençal were spoken in the East; the various dialects of Old French developed into. Languages which developed from dialects of Old French include Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Norman, Anglo-Norman, Poitevin and Walloon. From 1340 to the beginning of the seventeenth century, a generalized French language became distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages; this is referred to as Middle French. The vast majority of literary production in Old French is in verse; the French language does not have long and short syllables. This means that the French metric line is not determined by the number of beats, but by the number of syllables; the most common metric lengths are the ten-syllable line, the eight-syllable line and the twelve-syllable line.
Verses could be combined in a variety of ways: blocks of assonanced lines are called "laisses". The choice of verse form was dictated by the genre; the Old French epics are written in ten-syllable assonanced "laisses", while the chivalric romance was written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets. The earliest extant French literary texts date from the ninth century, but few texts before the eleventh century have survived; the first literary works written in Old French were saints' lives. The Canticle of Saint Eulalie, written in the second half of the ninth century, is accepted as the first such text, it is a short poem. The best known of the early Old French saints' lives is the Vie de saint Alexis, the life of Saint Alexis, a translation/rewriting of a Latin legend. Saint Alexis fled from his family's home in Rome on his wedding night and dwelled as a hermit in Syria until a mystical voice began telling people of his holiness. In order to avoid the earthly honor that came with such fame, he left Syria and was driven back to Rome, where he lived as a beggar at his family's house, unrecognized by all until his death.
He was only identified when the pope read his name in a letter held in the dead saint's hand. Although the saint left his family in order to devote his life more to God, the poem makes clear that his father and wife are saved by the Alexis' intercession and join him in Paradise; the earliest and best surviving text is in St. Albans Psalter, written at St Albans, England, in the second or third decade of the twelfth century; this provenance is indicative of the fact that many of the most important early texts were composed in Anglo-Norman dialect. At the beginning of the 13th century, Jean Bodel, in his Chanson de Saisnes, divided medieval French narrative literature into three subject areas: the Matter of France or Matter of Charlemagne the Matter of Rome – romances in an ancient setting the Matter of Britain – Arthurian romances, Breton lais The first of these is the subject area of the chansons de geste, epic poems composed in ten-syllable assonanced laisses. More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in around three hundred manuscripts.
The chief theme of the earliest French epics was the court of Charlemagne, Charles Martel and Charles the Bald and their wars against the Moors and Saracens, or disputes between kings and their rebellious vassals. The oldest and most celebrated of the chansons de geste is The Song of Roland, seen by some as the national epic of France (comparable with Beowulf in England, the Song of the Nibelungs in Germany and the Lay
Ferdinand Brunetière was a French writer and critic. Brunetière was born in Toulon, Provence. After school at Marseille, he studied in Paris at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. Desiring a teaching career, he entered for examination at the École Normale Supérieure, but failed, the outbreak of war in 1870 prevented him trying again, he turned to literary criticism. After the publication of successful articles in the Revue Bleue, he became connected with the Revue des Deux Mondes, first as contributor as secretary and sub-editor, in 1893, as principal editor. In 1886 Brunetière was appointed professor of French language and literature at the École Normale, a singular honour for one who had not passed through the academic mill, he was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1887, became a member of the Académie française in 1893. The published works of Brunetière consist of reprinted papers and lectures, they include six series of Etudes critiques on French literature. The first volume of L'Evolution de genres dans l'histoire de la littérature, lectures in which a formal classification, founded on Darwinism, is applied to the phenomena of literature, appeared in 1890.
Among these may be mentioned Discours académiques, Discours de combat, L'Action sociale du Christianisme, Sur les chemins de la croyance. Before 1895 Brunetière was known as a rationalist, freethinking scholar; that year, however, he published an article, "Après une visite au Vatican," in which he argued that science was incapable of providing a convincing social morality and that faith alone could achieve that result. Shortly afterwards, he converted to Roman Catholicism; as a Catholic, Brunetière was orthodox and his political sympathies were conservative. He possessed unflinching courage, he was never afraid to diverge from the established critical view. The most honest, if not the most impartial, of magisterial writers, he had a hatred of the unreal, a contempt for the trivial. On the other hand, his intolerance, his sledge-hammer methods of attack and a certain dry pedantry alienated the sympathies of many who recognized his remarkable intellect, he authored the article on "Literary and Theological Appreciation of Bousset" for the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Études Critiques sur l’Histoire de la Littérature Française. Le Roman Naturaliste. Histoire et Littérature. Questions de Critique. Nouvelles Questions de Critique. Évolution de la Critique. Évolution des Genres dans l’Histoire de la Littérature. Epoques du Théâtre Français. Histoire de la Littérature Française Classique. Essais sur la Littérature Contemporaine. Évolution de la Poésie Lyrique en France au dix-neuvième Siècle. La Science et la Religion. Nouveaux Essais sur la Littérature Contemporaine. Bases de la Croyance. La Renaissance de l'Idéalisme. Manuel de l’Histoire de la Littérature Française. Discours Académiques. Les Raisons Actuelles de Croire. Victor Hugo. Variétés Littéraires. Cinq Lettres sur Ernest Renan. Sur les Chemins de la Croyance. Honoré de Balzac, 1799–1850. Discours de Combat. Lettres de Combat. Translated into English Essays in French Literature Manual of the History of French Literature. Honoré de Balzac. 2nd edition. The Law of the Drama. Science and Religion; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Brunetière, Ferdinand". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Dirk, Studien zur französischen Literaturkritik im 19. Jahrhundert. Taine - Brunetière - Hennequin - Guyau, Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg 1980. ISBN 3-533-02857-7 Babbitt, Irving. "Ferdinand Brunetière and his Critical Method," The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 79, No. 476, pp. 757–765. Bastide, Charles. "M. Brunetière," The Fortnightly Review, Vol. 66, pp. 500–509. Blaze de Bury, Yetta. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The Fortnightly Review, Vol. 64, pp. 497–511. Connolly, P. J.. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The Dublin Review, Vol. CXLI, pp. 56–73. Guerlac, Othon. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 6, pp. 323–329. Edgar, Pelham. "Ferdinand Brunetière," The University Magazine, Vol. 6, pp. 107–116. Schinz, Albert. "Ferdinand Brunetière," Modern Language Notes, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 56–57. Wendell, Barrett & Louis Allard. "Ferdinand Brunetière," Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 10, pp. 782–793.
Works by or about Ferdinand Brunetière at Internet Archive Works by Ferdinand Brunetière at LibriVox Works by Ferdinand Brunetière, at Hathi Trust Works by Ferdinand Brunetière, at Unz.org
Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms, it focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary; the Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius; the other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition.
It is accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. The poems are in Homeric Greek known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries. Most researchers believe that the poems were transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music and film; the Homeric epics were the greatest influence on education. Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, the Phocais; these claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world.
As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. Many traditions circulated in the ancient world concerning Homer. Modern scholarly consensus is; some claims were repeated often. They include that Homer was blind, that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works, that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, various explanations for the name "Homer"; the two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia; the earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral.
The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures, they were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; as a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, many interpreters the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom; because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so praised that he began to acquire the image of a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries and scholia to Homer in the twelfth century.
Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000. In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems; the earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more read than Homer and Homer was seen through a Virgilian lens. In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a s
Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian. He is considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine; as a young man, he earned the valuable patronage of Cardinal Richelieu, trying to promote classical tragedy along formal lines, but quarrelled with him over his best-known play, Le Cid, about a medieval Spanish warrior, denounced by the newly formed Académie française for breaching the unities. He continued to write well-received tragedies for nearly forty years. Corneille was born in Rouen, France, to Marthe Le Pesant and Pierre Corneille, a distinguished lawyer, his younger brother, Thomas Corneille became a noted playwright. He was given a rigorous Jesuit education at the Collège de Bourbon where acting on the stage was part of the training. At 18 he began to study law but his practical legal endeavors were unsuccessful. Corneille’s father secured two magisterial posts for him with the Rouen department of Forests and Rivers. During his time with the department, he wrote his first play.
It is unknown when he wrote it, but the play, the comedy Mélite, surfaced when Corneille brought it to a group of traveling actors in 1629. The actors made it part of their repertoire; the play was a success in Paris and Corneille began writing plays on a regular basis. He moved to Paris in the same year and soon became one of the leading playwrights of the French stage, his early comedies, starting with Mélite, depart from the French farce tradition by reflecting the elevated language and manners of fashionable Parisian society. Corneille describes his variety of comedy as "une peinture de la conversation des honnêtes gens", his first true tragedy is Médée, produced in 1635. The year 1634 brought more attention to Corneille, he was selected to write verses for the Cardinal Richelieu’s visit to Rouen. The Cardinal selected him to be among Les Cinq Auteurs; the others were Guillaume Colletet, Jean Rotrou, Claude de L'Estoile. The five were selected to realize Richelieu's vision of a new kind of drama.
Richelieu would present ideas. However, the Cardinal's demands were too restrictive for Corneille, who attempted to innovate outside the boundaries defined by Richelieu; this led to contention between employer. After his initial contract ended, Corneille returned to Rouen. In the years directly following this break with Richelieu, Corneille produced what is considered his finest play. Le Cid is based on the play Mocedades del Cid by Guillem de Castro. Both plays were based on the legend of a military figure in Medieval Spain; the original 1637 edition of the play was subtitled a tragicomedy, acknowledging that it intentionally defies the classical tragedy/comedy distinction. Though Le Cid was an enormous popular success, it was the subject of a heated argument over the norms of dramatic practice, known as the "Querelle du Cid" or "The Quarrel of Le Cid". Cardinal Richelieu's Académie française acknowledged the play's success, but determined that it was defective, in part because it did not respect the classical unities of time and action.
The newly formed Académie was a body. Although it dealt with efforts to standardize the French language, Richelieu himself ordered an analysis of Le Cid. Accusations of immorality were leveled at the play in the form of a famous pamphlet campaign; these attacks were founded on the classical theory. The Académie's recommendations concerning the play are articulated in Jean Chapelain's Sentiments de l'Académie française sur la tragi-comédie du Cid; the prominent writer Georges de Scudéry harshly criticized the play in his Observations sur le Cid. The intensity of this "war of pamphlets" was heightened by Corneille's boastful poem Excuse À Ariste, in which he rambled and boasted about his talents, while Corneille claimed no other author could be a rival; these poems and pamphlets were made public, one after the other, as once "esteemed" playwrights traded slanderous blows. At one point, Corneille took several shots at criticizing author Jean Mairet's lineage. Scudéry, a close friend of Mairet at the time, did not stoop to Corneille's level of "distastefulness", but instead continued to pillory Le Cid and its violations.
Scudéry stated of Le Cid that, "almost all of the beauty which the play contains is plagiarized." This "war of pamphlets" influenced Richelieu to call upon the Académie française to analyze the play. In their final conclusions, the Academy ruled that though Corneille had attempted to remain loyal to the unity of time, "Le Cid" broke too many of the unities to be a valued piece of work; the controversy, coupled with the Academy's ruling proved too much for Corneille, who decided to return to Rouen. When one of his plays was reviewed unfavorably, Corneille was known to withdraw from public life, he remained publicly silent for some time.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website