John T. Monroe
John T. Monroe was an American politician who served as the 19th and 32nd Mayor of New Orleans in 1860–1862 and 1866–1867, he was born in Missouri the son of Daniel Munro. Monroe went to New Orleans in 1837, working as a stevedore, soon becoming a prominent labor leader. In 1858 he was elected Board of Assistant Aldermen; the 1860 campaign for mayor attracted little notice in New Orleans, as all attention was on the Presidential contest. There were three candidates. Monroe, the nominee of the Native American Party, represented the current administration. Grailhe, an independent, was the anti-administration candidate, who he held responsible for the poor condition of the city; the newspapers of the time were filled with complaints about the stagnant gutters, the weeds that grew along the streets, the air of general neglect. However, Monroe was elected with 37,027 votes. Grailhe received a much smaller number, Place hardly any. There is a story about the Civil War that the white leadership of New Orleans was captured, but never surrendered.
This is a letter written by William Preston Johnston:"The capture of New Orleans in April 1862 by Captain David Farragut and General Benjamin Butler brought the name of mayor Monroe before the whole country and the people of the confederate States and the United States. It soon spread to British journalism and into British Parliament."At the approach of the federal fleet, on the morning of April 25, Mayor Monroe, determined to hoist the flag of the State of Louisiana over the City Hall. At his request, his private secretary, Mr. Marion A. Baker, descended to the roof of the building and prepared to execute the mayor’s orders, with the instructions to await the issue of the possible conflict at Chalmette. "When he heard that the defenses had failed Monroe ordered. "Forthwith, two officers of the United States Navy presented Farragut's formal demand for the city's surrender and to lower their flag. Monroe stated that be had no authority to surrender the city and that General Mansfield Lovell was the proper official to receive and to reply to that demand.
He refused to lower the flag. "Monroe sent for Lovell and while awaiting his arrival, conversation went on. Captain Bailey expressed regret at the wanton destruction of property, which he had witnessed and which he regarded as a most unfortunate mistake. To this, Monroe replied that the property was the Confederates' own and that they had a right to do as they pleased with it, that it was done as a patriotic duty. "Subsequently, Lovell refused to surrender the city or his forces and stated that he would retire with his troops and leave the decision to the civil authorities. The question of surrender being thus referred back to him, Monroe said he would submit the matter to the Council and that a formal reply would be sent as soon as their advice could be obtained; the Federal officers withdrew, with an escort furnished by Lovell. "Monroe sent a message to the Council. As civil magistrate, he held that he was incompetent to the performance of a military act.'We yield to physical force alone,' said the Mayor,'and maintain our allegiance to the Government of the Confederate States.
Beyond a due respect for our dignity, our rights and the flag of our country, does not, I think permit us to go.' "The Council, unwilling to act hastily listened to the reading of this message and adjourned until 10:00 A. M. the next day. That evening, Monroe asked Baker and Police Chief McClelland, to go to the USS Hartford as early as possible the next morning and explain to Farragut that the Council would meet that morning and a written answer to his demand would be sent as soon as possible after the meeting. "The Council listened to a second reading of the Mayor's message. Both the Council and the population of the city concurred in the sentiments expressed by Monroe and urged that he be act in the spirit manifested in his message. Anticipating such a result, a letter had been prepared, reiterating the determination neither to lower the State flag nor to raise the United States flag; the Mayor’s secretary read this letter to the assembled Council and from expressions by some of the members, it seemed to be satisfactory, but shortly after Mr. Baker left, a message was brought to Mayor Monroe, asking his presence in the Council Chamber.
"The object of this summons was to obtain his consent to the substitution of a letter written by Soulé and read by one of the members of the Council. Relations between the Mayor and the Council had not been of a most harmonious character and wishing to conciliate them at this unfortunate time, Monroe acceded to their wishes. "Before a copy of this letter could be made and sent to Farragut, two officers, Lieutenant Albert Kautz and Midshipman John H. Read were at the City Hall with a written demand for the'unqualified surrender of the city, the raising of the United States flag over the Mint, Custom-house and City Hall, by noon that day, April 26 and the removal of all other emblems but that of the United States, from all public buildings.' Monroe acknowledged receipt of this last communication and promised a reply before two o'clock, if possible. In the meantime a large and excited crowd had gathered outside the City Hall. Monroe, fearing for the safety of the two Federal officers, had had the heavy doors of the City Hall closed and ordered a carriage to be stationed at the corner of Carondelet and Lafayette streets.
Escorted by two special officers and Baker, the federal officers were conducted to a rear entrance and to the waiting carriage, while Monroe occupied the crowd in the front. As the carriage drove away, so
Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII, called the Affable, was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498, the seventh from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Louis XI at the age of 13, his elder sister Anne acted as regent jointly with her husband Peter II, Duke of Bourbon until 1491 when the young king turned 21 years of age. During Anne's regency, the great lords rebelled against royal centralisation efforts in a conflict known as the Mad War, which resulted in a victory for the royal government. In a remarkable stroke of audacity, Charles married Anne of Brittany in 1491 after she had been married by proxy to the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in a ceremony of questionable validity. Preoccupied by the problematic succession in the Kingdom of Hungary, Maximilian failed to press his claim. Upon his marriage, Charles became administrator of Brittany and established a personal union that enabled France to avoid total encirclement by Habsburg territories. To secure his rights to the Neapolitan throne that René of Anjou had left to his father, Charles made a series of concessions to neighbouring monarchs and conquered the Italian peninsula without much opposition.
A coalition formed against the French invasion of 1494-98 drove out Charles' army, but Italian Wars would dominate Western European politics for over 50 years. Charles died in 1498 after accidentally striking his head on the lintel of a door at the Château d'Amboise, his place of birth. Since he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his cousin Louis XII of France from the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Charles was born at the Château d'Amboise in France, the only surviving son of King Louis XI by his second wife Charlotte of Savoy, his godparents were Charles II, Duke of Bourbon, Joan of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon, the teenage Edward of Westminster, the son of Henry VI of England, living in France since the deposition of his father by Edward IV. Charles succeeded to the throne on 30 August 1483 at the age of 13, his health was poor. He was regarded by his contemporaries as possessing a pleasant disposition, but as foolish and unsuited for the business of the state. In accordance with the wishes of Louis XI, the regency of the kingdom was granted to Charles' elder sister Anne, a formidably intelligent and shrewd woman described by her father as "the least foolish woman in France."
She would rule as regent, together with her husband Peter of Bourbon, until 1491. Charles was betrothed on 22 July 1483 to the 3-year-old Margaret of Austria, daughter of the Archduke Maximilian of Austria and Mary, Duchess of Burgundy; the marriage was arranged by Louis XI, the Estates of the Low Countries as part of the 1482 Peace of Arras between France and the Duchy of Burgundy. Margaret brought the Counties of Artois and Burgundy to France as her dowry, she was raised in the French court as a prospective Queen consort. In 1488, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, died in a riding accident, leaving his 11-year-old daughter Anne as his heir. Anne, who feared for the independence of her duchy against the ambitions of France, arranged a marriage in 1490 between herself and the widower Maximilian, thus making Anne a stepmother to Margaret of Austria; the regent Anne of France and her husband Peter refused to countenance such a marriage, since it would place Maximilian and his family, the Habsburgs, on two French borders.
The French army invaded Brittany, taking advantage of the preoccupation of Frederick III and his son with the disputed succession to Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary. Anne of Brittany was forced to agree to be married to Charles VIII instead. In December 1491, in an elaborate ceremony at the Château de Langeais and Anne of Brittany were married; the 14-year-old Duchess Anne, not happy with the arranged marriage, arrived for her wedding with her entourage carrying two beds. However, Charles's marriage brought him independence from his relatives and thereafter he managed affairs according to his own inclinations. Queen Anne lived at the Clos Lucé in Amboise. There still remained the matter of the young Margaret of Austria. Although the cancellation of her betrothal meant that she by rights should have been returned to her family, Charles did not do so, intending to marry her usefully elsewhere in France, it was a difficult situation for Margaret, who informed her father in her letters that she was so determined to escape that she would flee Paris in her nightgown if it gave her freedom.
In 1493, she was returned to her family, together with her dowry – though the Duchy of Burgundy was retained in the Treaty of Senlis. Around the king there was a circle of court poets, the most memorable being the Italian humanist Publio Fausto Andrelini from Forlì, who spread the New Learning in France. During a pilgrimage to pay respects to his father's remains, Charles observed Mont Aiguille and ordered Antoine de Ville to ascend to the summit in an early technical alpine climb alluded to by Rabelais. To secure France against invasions, Charles made treaties with Maximilian I of Austria and England, buying their neutrality with large concessions; the English monarch Henry VII had forced Charles to abandon his support for the pretender Perkin Warbeck by despatching an expedition which laid siege to Boulogne. He devoted France's resources to building up a large army, including one of Europe's first siege trains with artillery. In 1489, Pope Innocent VIII being at odds with Ferdi
Louis A. Wiltz
Louis Alfred Wiltz was an American politician from the state of Louisiana. He served as 29th Governor of Louisiana from 1880 to 1881 and before that time was mayor of New Orleans, lieutenant governor of Louisiana, a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives. Wiltz was born on January 21, 1843 in New Orleans to J. B. Theophile Wiltz and the former Louise Irene Villanueva, his paternal family were among the first German settlers in Louisiana and his mother came from a noble Spanish family, her father coming to Louisiana with the Spanish Army. He attended public school until the age of 15, when he began work with Company. After the company failed, Wiltz became the clerk for the Second District Court of Louisiana. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, Wiltz joined the Confederate States Army as a private but rose to the rank of captain. In 1863, Wiltz married Miss Bienvinue of the seat of St. Martin Parish, they had one son. In 1868, Wiltz was elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives and the New Orleans School Board.
In 1872, he was elected mayor but could not take office until January 1873 because of the refusal of the Republican mayor to vacate the office. In addition to serving two years as mayor, Wiltz was once again elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives and served as lieutenant governor, he was succeeded by E. D. Estilette. With the implementation of the new Louisiana state constitution of 1879, the gubernatorial term of Francis T. Nicholls was cut short by one year. An election was held in 1879, Louis Wiltz defeated his Republican opponent. Wiltz’s term as governor was one rife with corruption; the corrupt Louisiana Lottery continued to have influence over the state legislature. The state treasurer, Edward A. Burke, embezzled state funds while the public schools were neglected, black disenfranchisement continued. Wiltz died of tuberculosis while in office on October 1881, in New Orleans. Lieutenant Governor Samuel D. McEnery, a fellow Democrat, succeeded Wiltz. State of Louisiana – Biography Kendall's History of New Orleans, Chapter 22: Wiltz New Orleans Public Library page Works by Louis A. Wiltz at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Louis A. Wiltz at Internet Archive
John Fitzpatrick (mayor)
John Fitzpatrick was an Irish-American mayor of New Orleans from April 25, 1892 to April 27, 1896. His great-great-granddaughter is comedian Tig Notaro; the Fitzpatrick Administration
Samuel Miller Quincy
Samuel Miller Quincy was the 28th mayor of New Orleans and a Union Army officer during the American Civil War. He was the son of Josiah Quincy, Jr. former mayor of Boston, the younger brother of Josiah Phillips Quincy. He was a distant cousin of President John Quincy Adams and a descendant of Rev. George Phillips who settled in Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630, he was a Harvard graduate and legal historian, Union soldier in the American Civil War, during which he was wounded, captured and exchanged. Shortly after the attack on Fort Sumter, Quincy was commissioned a captain in the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry Regiment on May 25, 1861, he was promoted to major on October 22, 1862 and to colonel on January 18, 1863. He resigned his commission on June 5, 1863 but was re-commissioned as the lieutenant colonel of the 73rd United States Colored Infantry Regiment on November 29, 1863 and was promoted to colonel in command of the regiment on May 29, 1864, he served as Mayor of New Orleans from May 5 to June 8, 1865.
He transferred to the 96th US Colored Infantry Regiment on September 27, 1865 and was mustered out on January 21, 1866 and became the colonel of the 81st US Colored Infantry the next day. He was honorably mustered out of service on November 30, 1866. On February 21, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Quincy for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, United States Volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, The U. S. Senate confirmed the award on May 18, 1866, he was a member of the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. General Quincy died on March 24, 1887. Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue, p. 496. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc. 1990. ISBN 1-56013-002-4. Massachusetts Historical Society: Quincy, Wendell and Upham Family Papers, 1633-1910
Benjamin Franklin Flanders was a teacher and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1867, he was appointed by the military commander as the 21st Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction, a position which he held for some six months, he is the last Republican mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana. Flanders was born in New Hampshire. At the age of twenty-six, he graduated from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. In January 1843 he read law under Charles M. Emerson; the following year he left this study to become a principal. In 1845, Flanders became editor of a local newspaper. In 1847 he married Susan H. Sawyer in New Hampshire, she returned with him to New Orleans. Flanders became active in politics, elected as a Democratic alderman representing the 3rd Municipal District of New Orleans, serving from 1847 to 1852. In 1852, he was selected as the secretary and treasurer of the New Orleans and Great Western Railroad, a position he held until 1862. In 1861, he fled New Orleans, he had opposed secession, sentiment against Unionists was strong.
Flanders made his way to Illinois. He did not return to New Orleans until April 1862. On July 20, he was appointed by the military government as New Orleans City Treasurer, he served until his election to Congress on December 12, 1862. He was elected along with Michael Hahn as at-large Representatives of Louisiana, defeating independent incumbent J. E. Bouligny. Flanders and Hahn were not seated in Congress until the last fifteen days of their terms in February 1863. On July 13, 1863, Flanders was made the Captain of Company C, 5th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, a Union Army unit, he was honorably discharged in August 1863, when he was appointed a Special Agent of the United States Treasury Department of the Southern Region by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, he held this position until 1866. While in office, he generated commissions for the government by selling confiscated cotton from Confederate plantations; the Department of Treasury controlled licensing of cotton brokers, trying to regulate the market, but a black market flourished for the lucrative sale of cotton.
In 1864, Flanders campaigned for governor and finished in third place behind Michael Hahn and Fellows. He was appointed by Republicans as the first Supervising Special Agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau, Department of the Gulf. At the same time, he led the movement to create a local Republican Party in Louisiana, he formed the'Friends of Universal Suffrage' with other Louisiana Unionists, as well as free men of color and freedmen. These laws had been passed to control the movement of freedmen. Fearful of the black majority in many Louisiana districts, most white Democrats opposed giving freedmen suffrage after Confederate veterans were temporarily disenfranchised unless they took a loyalty oath; the tension over the rights of freed slaves escalated into New Orleans riot of 1866, in which whites attacked blacks. In 1867, General Philip Sheridan, Commander of the 5th Military District, which included Louisiana and Texas, removed elected Governor James Madison Wells for not responding to the riots appropriately and for not advancing the rights of freedmen.
Sheridan appointed Flanders as Governor of Louisiana. About six months on January 1, 1868, Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, as the new military commander of Louisiana, removed all radical Republicans from state offices. Governor Flanders resigned on January 8 and was replaced by General Hancock's appointee, Joshua Baker. In 1870, Governor Henry C. Warmoth, elected as part of the Reconstruction-era civil government, appointed Flanders as Mayor of New Orleans; as of 2018, Flanders remains the most recent Republican mayor of the city. He was elected to a full two-year mayoral term, serving until 1873; that year President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Flanders as Assistant Treasurer of the United States. Flanders ran unsuccessfully in 1888 as a Republican candidate for Louisiana State Treasurer. Flanders retired to his Ben Alva plantation in Lafayette Parish, he died there in 1896. His remains were interred at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans. Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress National Governor's Association biography State of Louisiana - Biography
Louis Philippe de Roffignac
Count Louis Philippe de Roffignac was a wealthy Louisiana merchant, member of the state legislature, the tenth individual to serve as Mayor of New Orleans, in 1820-1828. He was born in Angoulême. At the age of fourteen he was a page in the household of his godmother, the Duchess of Orléans, he first saw service under his father. At twenty-four he was promoted captain for meritorious service in the field, his army career took him to America, in 1800 he settled in Louisiana. He served ten consecutive terms in the state legislature. For his participation in the Battle of New Orleans, he was made an honorary brigadier general; when the Louisiana Legion was formed, in 1822, he became its colonel. Among his many business endeavors, he was for a time a director of the State Bank of Louisiana. For many years he was a member of the City Council, was a member of that body when elected mayor; as mayor of New Orleans, Roffignac sought to develop the city as fast as possible, borrowing large sums of money by issuing "city stock", a form of municipal bonds.
He used the money to improve and beautify the city: he was responsible for the massive planting of trees as well the first street paving. In 1821 he introduced street lighting. In the late 1820s he organized the city's first regular fire department, he established New Orleans' first public educational system. He strove to regulate gambling, but was only the first of several mayors to deal with this long intractable problem, he resigned in 1828 and returned to France, to a leisurely retirement in literary and social pursuits. He died at his château, near Périgueux, under curious circumstances: according to the medical examiner called in to determine the precise cause of his death, he had been sitting in his invalid chair, examining a loaded pistol, when he was overwhelmed by an apoplectic stroke and fell to the floor. Stanley Arthur, Old New Orleans, a History of the Vieux Carre, Its Ancient and Historical Buildings, Heritage Books, 2009, p. 123 Henry C. Castellanos, New Orleans as it was: Episodes of Louisiana Life, LSU Press, 2006, p. 14-27 Grace Elizabeth King, Creole Families of New Orleans, The Macmillan Company, 1921, p. 435-442 James F. Hopkins, The Papers of Henry Clay: Secretary of State 1827, University Press of Kentucky, 1981, p. 636 Denise Gee, Southern Cocktails: Dixie Drinks, Party Potions, Classic Libations, Chronicle Books, 2013, p. 49