Beyond the Mat
Beyond the Mat is a 1999 documentary film directed, written and narrated by Barry W. Blaustein; the film focuses on the lives of professional wrestlers outside of the ring Mick Foley, Terry Funk, Jake Roberts, as well as some aspiring wrestlers. It focuses on the World Wrestling Federation, Extreme Championship Wrestling during its rise in popularity, many other independent wrestlers and organizations; the film was released in U. S. theaters in March 2000, on VHS and DVD. The film begins with director Barry Blaustein discussing his love for professional wrestling and clips of him viewing employees of the World Wrestling Federation and Extreme Championship Wrestling, he decides to travel the United States over a three-year period, endeavoring to understand the mindset of someone who would voluntarily choose to become a professional wrestler. Blaustein ascertains their motivations. Blaustein focuses on three famous wrestlers, one at the height of his career, one contemplating retirement and one at a career low.
He begins by following Funk, a 53-year-old man in need of knee surgery who appears unable to retire, despite the mounting toll wrestling is taking on his body. Blaustein follows him as he competes at hardcore wrestling promotion Extreme Championship Wrestling's first pay-per-view event Barely Legal. Funk appears with his friend, former wrestler Dennis Stamp, eager to work as a referee in Funk's upcoming "retirement" match. Stamp discusses the fact that he has not wrestled in years, but remains in shape just in case he gets the call, demonstrates his unusual workout regimen: jumping on a trampoline in his back yard while holding hand weights. Funk's sometime in-ring rival, Foley, is profiled next, he has been taking risky falls and blows to the head, at one point is heard talking incoherently as the result of a fall which rendered him unconscious. Clips of Foley with his wife and children are spliced with the clips of him risking his body for the sport. In the film's climax, his wife and young children watch in horror from the front of the audience during Foley's "I Quit" match at the 1999 Royal Rumble, wherein he takes multiple unprotected shots to the head by Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson with a steel folding chair.
Lastly, Roberts is a wrestler. Now he is a crack cocaine addict, estranged from his daughter. Although he was once one of the more famous wrestlers in America, performing in front of tens of thousands of fans, he is now wrestling in small-town venues. In the course of the film, Roberts is shown attempting to reconcile with his daughter and being interviewed after smoking crack cocaine in a hotel room, as well as musing aloud about his illicit sexual dalliances while traveling; the careers of the three successful wrestlers are contrasted with those of wrestlers who have not yet achieved comparable success, such as two men getting started in the sport of wrestling, Tony Jones and Michael Modest, who are granted a tryout match for the WWF. In addition, Darren Drozdov is a former NFL football player, shown in an interview with Vince McMahon. Drozdov, who can vomit at will, is called on by McMahon to vomit in a bucket as a demonstration of his ability—an ability which earned him the ring name "Puke"—which McMahon plans to use as part of Drozdov's new in-ring persona.
Drozdov becomes a WWF wrestler, but at the end of the film, it is revealed that Droz was paralyzed in an in-ring accident from a botched maneuver several months later. Blaustein decided to make a documentary about professional wrestling after being outed as a professional wrestling fan, his original budget was $500,000, funded by the company Imagine. He shot footage for the film over a span of three to five years. World Championship Wrestling refused to participate in the film. Blaustein approached the World Wrestling Federation about involving the company in the film in 1997. WWF chairman Vince McMahon allowed Blaustein full access to behind-the-scenes aspects of his company, but tried to pull out of the deal. Jake Roberts has stated that he was informed the film would be used to help children, but that never transpired. Blaustein has stated the opposite. In response to why he thought Roberts made the allegations, Blaustein responded, "I don't know why. Jake's looking for publicity for himself, maybe.
I don't know. He has problems with reality. I wish Jake all the best."Beyond the Mat was released in theaters in the United States in March 2000. The film was released on DVD, including extra footage and cast interviews. An unrated director's cut edition dubbed Special Ringside Edition was released on DVD in March 2004; this version featured a new introduction and additional footage, as well as an interview with Foley and Jesse Ventura. Beyond the Mat has an 82% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 66 reviews, its consensus reads: "Even if you aren't a fan, Beyond the Mat provides a riveting, perceptive look into the world of professional wrestling by taking a closer look at the people beneath the personas."Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly rated the film a B-, stating that "Beyond the Mat is dependent on, shaped by, the good stuff the director happens to get, rather than driven by hard questions a journalist might want answered." Paul Tatara of CNN wrote, "Blaustein seems to think that he's humanizing these guys by showing how "normal" they are out of the ring, but he unintentionally makes the
Michael Francis Foley is an American author and former professional wrestler and color commentator signed to WWE. Foley has worked for many wrestling promotions, including the World Wrestling Federation, World Championship Wrestling, Extreme Championship Wrestling, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, National Wrestling Alliance and Global Wrestling Federation, as well as numerous promotions in Japan. Foley is regarded as one of the greatest performers in the history of WWE, where he participated in the main event of WrestleManias XV and 2000 – as a special guest referee in the former. Foley was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2013. Foley has wrestled under his real name and various personas, including Dude Love, Cactus Jack and Mankind known as the "Three Faces of Foley", he is a four-time world champion, an eleven-time world tag team champion, a one-time TNA Legends Champion and the inaugural WWF Hardcore Champion. Foley was born in Indiana, he has an older brother named John. Shortly after his birth, Foley's family moved to East Setauket, New York, where Foley attended Ward Melville High School, played lacrosse, wrestled.
Foley is of Irish descent. Foley was a high school classmate of actor Kevin James; the two attended the same college. While a student at State University of New York at Cortland, he hitchhiked to Madison Square Garden to see his favorite wrestler, Jimmy Snuka, in a steel cage match against Don Muraco. Foley has said that Snuka's flying body splash from the top of the cage inspired him to pursue a career in pro wrestling. Foley is visible on the video of the event. Mick Foley formally trained at Dominic DeNucci's wrestling school in Freedom, driving several hours weekly from his college campus in Cortland, New York, debuted in 1983. In addition to appearing on DeNucci's cards and several other students took part in some squash matches as jobbers for WWF TV tapings of Prime Time Wrestling and Superstars of Wrestling, where Foley wrestled under the names Jack Foley and Nick Foley. In one of these matches and Les Thornton faced the British Bulldogs, during which the Dynamite Kid clotheslined Foley with such force that he was unable to eat solid food for several weeks.
During these squash matches, Foley faced other top level talent at the time, such as Hercules Hernandez. His run would not last long. During this run, he was billed from different hometowns and at different weights. After several years of wrestling in the independent circuit, Foley began receiving offers from various regional promotions, including Bill Watts' Universal Wrestling Federation, he joined the Memphis-based Continental Wrestling Association as Cactus Jack Manson, where he teamed with Gary Young as part of the Stud Stable. Cactus and Young held the CWA tag titles in late 1988. On November 20, Foley left CWA for Texas-based World Class Championship Wrestling. In World Class Championship Wrestling, Cactus Jack, billed as Cactus Jack Manson, was a major part of Skandor Akbar's stable. Foley won several titles, including the company's light heavyweight and tag team titles before leaving the company, losing his last match to Eric Embry in nine seconds, he briefly competed in Alabama's Continental Wrestling Federation before completing a brief stint with World Championship Wrestling.
For much of his time there, he would team with jobbers. When the jobber would lose the match for the team, Cactus Jack would attack his partner, throw them out of the ring, deliver his infamous ring apron flying elbow drop onto the concrete floor, his biggest match at the time was against Mil Máscaras at Clash of the Champions X: Texas Shootout. It was during this period that Foley was involved in a car accident that resulted in the loss of his two front teeth, adding to the distinctive look for which he is famous. Following the short stint with WCW, Foley signed with Herb Abrams's Universal Wrestling Federation. In UWF, Foley teamed with Bob Orton to feud with Don Muraco, Sunny Beach, Brian Blair, he soon left UWF for Tri-State Wrestling, whose high-impact and violent wrestling style fit Foley well. On one night, known as Tri-State's Summer Sizzler 1991, Cactus Jack and Eddie Gilbert had three matches in one night: Cactus won a Falls Count Anywhere match, lost a Stretcher match, fought to a double disqualification in a Steel Cage match.
These matches caught the attention of World Championship Wrestling promoters, in large part due to widespread photo circulation. In 1991, after a brief stint working in the Global Wrestling Federation, Foley joined WCW full-time. On September 5, 1991, Cactus Jack attacked Sting. After feuds with Van Hammer and Abdullah the Butcher, Cactus Jack faced Sting WCW World Heavyweight Champion, in a non-title Falls Count Anywhere match at Beach Blast in 1992, which Sting won. For a long time, Foley considered this the best match he worked. Unlike Jack's first stint in WCW, where his personality was quieter, he was now outwardly maniacal.
Karate is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom. It developed from the indigenous Ryukyuan martial arts under the influence of Chinese Kung Fu Fujian White Crane. Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands and palm-heel strikes, and in some modern styles, throws, joint locks and vital-point strikes are taught. A karate practitioner is called a karateka; the Ryukyu Kingdom was annexed by Japan in 1879. Karate was brought to Japanese archipelago in the early 20th century during a time of migration as Ryukyuans from Okinawa, looked for work in Japan, it was systematically taught in Japan after the Taishō era. In 1922, the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan and by 1932, major Japanese universities had karate clubs. In this era of escalating Japanese militarism, the name was changed from 唐手 to 空手 – both of which are pronounced karate in Japanese – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style.
After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there. The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, in English the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Asian martial arts. Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art. Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that "the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques... Movies and television... depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow... the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing." Shōshin Nagamine said, "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one's own creative efforts."On 28 September 2015, karate was featured on a shortlist along with baseball, skateboarding and sport climbing to be considered for inclusion in the 2020 Summer Olympics.
On 1 June 2016, the International Olympic Committee's executive board announced they were supporting the inclusion of all five sports for inclusion in the 2020 Games. Web Japan claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide, while the World Karate Federation claims there are 100 million practitioners around the world. Karate began as a common fighting system known as te among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China in 1372 by King Satto of Chūzan, some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China Fujian Province. A large group of Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange, where they established the community of Kumemura and shared their knowledge of a wide variety of Chinese arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts; the political centralization of Okinawa by King Shō Hashi in 1429 and the policy of banning weapons by King Shō Shin in 1477 enforced in Okinawa after the invasion by the Shimazu clan in 1609, are factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa.
There were few formal styles of te, but rather many practitioners with their own methods. One surviving example is the Motobu-ryū school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara. Early styles of karate are generalized as Shuri-te, Naha-te, Tomari-te, named after the three cities from which they emerged; each area and its teachers had particular kata and principles that distinguished their local version of te from the others. Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China to study various political and practical disciplines; the incorporation of empty-handed Chinese Kung Fu into Okinawan martial arts occurred because of these exchanges and because of growing legal restrictions on the use of weaponry. Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane, Tai Zu Quan, Five Ancestors, Gangrou-quan. Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia. Sakukawa Kanga had studied staff fighting in China.
In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa," which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand." This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi," written as 唐手. Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sōkon taught a synthesis of te and Shaolin styles. Matsumura's style would become the Shōrin-ryū style. Matsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō among others. Itosu adapted two forms; these are chiang nan. He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in
Judo was created in 1882 by Jigoro Kano as a physical and moral pedagogy in Japan. It is categorized as a modern martial art, which evolved into a combat and Olympic sport, its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice. A judo practitioner is called a judoka; the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū. The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kanō Jigorō, born Shinnosuke Jigorō. Kano was born into a affluent family, his father, was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture.
He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano. He became an official in the Shogunal government. Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, shodō and the Four Confucian Texts under a number of tutors; when he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo. The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jūjutsu dōjō at which to train. Early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher, willing to take him on met with little success. With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, jujutsu had become unfashionable in an westernized Japan. Many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had given up. Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kanō's father and a former soldier, agreed to show him kata, but not to teach him.
The caretaker of Jirosaku's second house, Katagiri Ryuji knew jujutsu, but would not teach it as he believed it was no longer of practical use. Another frequent visitor, Imai Genshiro of Kyūshin-ryū school of jujutsu refused. Several years passed before he found a willing teacher. In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school, Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers opening Seikotsu-in. After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke, a teacher of the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū of jujutsu, who had a small nine mat dojo where he taught five students. Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis on randori in judo. On Fukuda's death in 1880, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and kata, was given the densho of the Fukuda dojo. Kano chose to continue his studies at that of Iso Masatomo. Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of "kata", entrusted randori instruction to assistants to Kano.
Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi of Kitō-ryū. Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kitō-ryū having a greater focus on nage-waza. In February 1882, Kano founded a school and dojo at the Eisho-ji, a Buddhist temple in what was the Shitaya ward of Tokyo. Iikubo, Kano's Kitō-ryū instructor, attended the dojo three days a week to help teach and, although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name Kōdōkan, Kano had not yet received his Menkyo in Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan founding; the Eisho-ji dojo was shoin. It was a small affair, consisting of a 12 jo training area. Kano took in resident and non-resident students, the first two being Tomita Tsunejirō and Shiro Saigo. In August, the following year, the pair were granted shodan grades, the first, awarded in any martial art. Central to Kano's vision for judo were the principles of seiryoku zen ` jita kyōei, he illustrated the application of seiryoku zen'yō with the concept of jū yoku gō o seisu: In short, resisting a more powerful opponent will result in your defeat, whilst adjusting to and evading your opponent's attack will cause him to lose his balance, his power will be reduced, you will defeat him.
This can apply whatever the relative values of power, thus making it possible for weaker opponents to beat stronger ones. This is the theory of ju yoku go o seisu. Kano realised that seiryoku zen'yō conceived as a jujutsu concept, had a wider philosophical application. Coupled with the Confucianist-influenced jita kyōei, the wider application shaped the development of judo from a bujutsu to a budō. Kano rejected techniques that did not conform to these principles and emphasised the importan
Sub-Zero (Mortal Kombat)
Sub-Zero is the alias of two video game characters from the Mortal Kombat franchise. A mainstay of the series, Sub-Zero is one of only three characters who have appeared in every main Mortal Kombat fighting game, the other two being Raiden and Scorpion. Sub-Zero is a formidable fighter possessing the innate ability to control ice in many forms and whose defining character trait is his fierce rivalry with his nemesis Scorpion. In his first return appearance in Mortal Kombat II, it was revealed that the original Sub-Zero had died during the events of the first game and was replaced by his brother. In the subsequent games, the younger brother remained as Sub-Zero, while the older brother became the wraith Noob Saibot; the elder of the two men who take the name Sub-Zero, called Bi-Han was introduced in the first Mortal Kombat game where he participates in the eponymous tournament as he was ordered by the Lin Kuei to kill the host Shang Tsung and take his treasure. He fails to accomplish his mission, is killed by the specter Scorpion, who sought to avenge his own death.
Bi-Han becomes the undead Noob Saibot. In Mortal Kombat Mythologies: Sub-Zero, which serves as a prequel to the first Mortal Kombat, sorcerer Quan Chi hires the Lin Kuei to find an ancient amulet. After the first Sub-Zero delivers the amulet to Quan Chi, he is sent back to the Netherrealm by Raiden upon learning it is the key to releasing the god Shinnok. Sub-Zero returns it to Raiden. In the direct sequel Mortal Kombat II, Bi-Han's place is taken by his brother Kuai Liang, known by his codename Tundra prior to assuming his elder brother's codename to honor him. Upon his brother's death in the first tournament and the survival of Shang Tsung, Kuai Liang is sent by the Lin Kuei to complete his brother's unfinished task. In doing so, Scorpion discovers that Liang is not the Sub-Zero he held accountable. In return for taking Bi Han's life, Scorpion vows to forever protect Liang, which becomes a deciding factor in the sequel. In Mortal Kombat 3, the younger Sub-Zero escapes from the Lin Kuei who wanted to transform their warriors into cyborgs.
They program three cyborg assassins to hunt and terminate Sub-Zero, who by this time had received a vision from Raiden and agreed to join the rebellion against a new threat. In Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks, which reprises the events from Mortal Kombat II, Sub-Zero first appears as a boss character, but allies with the protagonists Liu Kang and Kung Lao for a short time during the search of his older brother, he is last seen pursuing Noob Saibot in the Netherrealm. In addition to the current Sub-Zero, Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 and Mortal Kombat Trilogy included a playable character known as "Classic Sub-Zero", his biography states that although he was believed to have died after the first Mortal Kombat, he returned to try again and assassinate Shang Tsung. However, his ending states that he is not Sub-Zero, but an unidentified warrior, missing from the previous tournament. In Mortal Kombat 4, Raiden once again summons Sub-Zero to assist in the defense of Earthrealm against the former Elder God Shinnok.
In the meantime, Sub-Zero fights Scorpion, told by Quan Chi that the Lin Kuei killed his family, but he leaves him upon discovering Quan Chi was the actual person responsible. In Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance, Sub-Zero defeats Sektor in a fight for leadership of the Lin Kuei Clan, he meets his apprentice Frost and takes her to fight alongside Earthrealm's warriors against the alliance of Shang Tsung and Quan Chi. In Mortal Kombat: Deception, Sub-Zero joins Shujinko's group to defeat the new threat in Onaga, he confronts his corrupted older brother, now the undead Noob Saibot, across the game. In both Deadly Alliance and Mortal Kombat: Unchained, Sub-Zero comes to encounter Frost for the Lin Kuei's leadership, but he remains victorious. In Mortal Kombat: Armageddon's Konquest mode, Sub-Zero faces the warrior Taven, who invaded the Lin Kuei Palace. Both decide to ally to stop the invading Noob Saibot and Smoke. After the invaders' defeat, Sub-Zero stays with the unconscious Noob Saibot to find a way to save him.
Both incarnations of Sub-Zero appear in the 2011 Mortal Kombat game. While Bi-Han is still killed by Scorpion and becomes Noob Saibot, Kuai Liang's fate changes in the second tournament due to Raiden's interference, he joins Raiden's warriors to stop Shao Kahn. His reunion on seeing Bi-Han as Noob Saibot becomes much earlier, shortly when Nightwolf takes Sub-Zero's place and tells him to fall back, which he succeeded freeing Earthrealmer's souls by throwing Noob. However, Kahn's wife, overloads his circuits, electrocuting him as a result, he is "resurrected" and enslaved by Quan Chi in the Netherrealm. Sub-Zero's background is further clarified during this installment as well, as it is revealed that the two brothers were in fact abducted by the Lin Kuei as infants, after the Lin Kuei murdered their parents. In Mortal Kombat X, a cyberized Sub-Zero is temporarily awakened from Quan Chi's influence while being apprehended by his fallen friends turned Quan Chi's revenants to have his cyborg body removed along with killing him and resurrects him with
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company, known for professional wrestling. WWE has branched out into other fields, including movies, real estate, various other business ventures; the WWE name refers to the professional wrestling promotion itself, founded by Jess McMahon and Toots Mondt in 1952 as the Capitol Wrestling Corporation. As of 2019, it is the largest wrestling promotion in the world, holding over 500 events a year, with the roster divided up into various globally traveling brands, is available to about 36 million viewers in more than 150 countries; the company's global headquarters is located in Stamford, with offices in major cities across the world. As in other professional wrestling promotions, WWE shows are not legitimate contests, but purely entertainment-based, featuring storyline-driven and choreographed matches, though matches include moves that can put performers at risk of injury if not performed correctly.
This was first publicly acknowledged by WWE's owner Vince McMahon in 1989 to avoid taxes from athletic commissions. Since the 1980s, WWE publicly has branded their product as sports entertainment, acknowledging the product's roots in competitive sport and dramatic theater; the company's majority owner is its chairman and CEO, Vince McMahon, who retains a 42% ownership of the company's outstanding stock and 83% of the voting power. The current entity, incorporated on February 21, 1980, was known as Titan Sports, Inc., founded that same year in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. It acquired Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. the holding company for the World Wrestling Federation, in 1982. Titan was renamed World Wrestling Federation, Inc. in 1998 World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. in 1999, the current World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. in 2002. Since 2011, the company has branded itself as WWE though the company's legal name was not changed. WWE's origins can be traced back as far as 1952 when Roderick James "Jess" McMahon and Toots Mondt created the Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. which joined the National Wrestling Alliance in 1953.
McMahon, a successful boxing promoter, began working with Tex Rickard in 1926. With the help of Rickard, he began promoting boxing and wrestling at the third Madison Square Garden, it was not the first time McMahon had promoted wrestling cards, as he had done so during the 1910s. In November 1954, McMahon died and Ray Fabiani, one of Mondt's associates, brought in McMahon's son Vincent James; the younger McMahon and Mondt were successful and soon controlled 70% of the NWA's booking due to their dominance in the populated Northeastern United States. In 1963, McMahon and Mondt had a dispute with the NWA over "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers being booked to hold the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Both men left the company in protest and formed the WWWF in the process, awarding Rogers the newly created WWWF World Heavyweight Championship in April of that year, he lost the championship to Bruno Sammartino a month on May 17, 1963, after suffering a heart attack a week before the match. Capitol operated the WWWF in a conservative manner compared to other pro wrestling territories: it ran its major arenas monthly rather than weekly or bi-weekly featuring a babyface champion wrestling various heels in programs that consisted of one to three matches.
After gaining a television program deal and hiring Lou Albano as a manager for Sammartino's heel opponents, the WWWF was doing sellout business by 1970. Mondt left Capitol in the late 1960s and although the WWWF had withdrawn from the NWA, Vince McMahon, Sr. re-joined in 1971. Capitol renamed the World Wide Wrestling Federation to the World Wrestling Federation in 1979. Vincent J. McMahon's son, Vincent K. McMahon, his wife Linda, established Titan Sports, Inc. in 1980 in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. The company was incorporated on February 1980, in the Cape Cod Coliseum offices; the younger McMahon bought Capitol from his father in 1982 seizing control of the company. Seeking to make the WWF the premier wrestling promotion in the country, the world, he began an expansion process that fundamentally changed the wrestling business. At the annual meeting of the NWA in 1983, the McMahons and former Capitol employee Jim Barnett all withdrew from the organization. McMahon worked to get WWF programming on syndicated television all across the United States.
This angered other promoters and disrupted the well-established boundaries of the different wrestling promotions ending the territory system, in use since the founding of the NWA in the 1940s. In addition, the company used income generated by advertising, television deals, tape sales to secure talent from rival promoters. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, McMahon noted: In the old days, there were wrestling fiefdoms all over the country, each with its own little lord in charge; each little lord respected the rights of his neighboring little lord. No takeovers or raids were allowed. There were maybe 30 of these tiny kingdoms in the U. S. and if I hadn't bought out my dad, there would still be 30 of them and struggling. I, of course, had no allegiance to those little lords. McMahon gained significant traction when he hired American Wrestling Association talent Hulk Hogan, who had achieved popularity outside of wrestling, notably for his appearance in the film Rocky III. McMahon signed Roddy Piper as Hogan's rival, shortly afterward Jesse Ventura as an announcer.
Other wrestlers joined the roster, such as Jimmy Snuka, Don Muraco
Mortal Kombat (film)
Mortal Kombat is a 1995 American fantasy action film written by Kevin Droney, directed by Paul W. S. Anderson, produced by Lawrence Kasanoff, starring Robin Shou, Linden Ashby, Bridgette Wilson and Christopher Lambert, it is a loose adaptation of the early entries in the fighting game series Mortal Kombat and the first installment of the live-action Mortal Kombat film series. The plot of the film follows the warrior monk Liu Kang, the actor Johnny Cage, the soldier Sonya Blade, all three guided by the god Raiden, on their journey to combat the evil sorcerer Shang Tsung and his forces in a tournament to save Earth; the film's primary source material was 1992's original game of the same title, but it was inspired by and incorporates elements of 1993's follow-up game Mortal Kombat II. Mortal Kombat, a Lawrence Kasanoff/Threshold Entertainment production in association with Midway Games, was filmed in Los Angeles, as well as on location in Thailand, premiered on August 18, 1995 in the United States.
It received mixed reviews from the critics with praise towards its martial art sequences, exotic locations and production values whereas the performances were criticized along with the simple script. Its tie-in media included hit soundtracks Mortal Kombat: Original Motion Picture Score, Mortal Kombat: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack and Mortal Kombat: More Kombat, an animated film, Mortal Kombat: The Journey Begins. Mortal Kombat spent three weeks as the number-one film at the U. S. box office, earning over $122 million worldwide. Threshold Entertainment followed with a 1997 sequel film, Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, created two spin-off television series, Mortal Kombat: Defenders of the Realm and Mortal Kombat: Conquest. A Mortal Kombat film reboot was announced by New Line Cinema in 2011, with an animated film being announced in January 2019. Mortal Kombat is a fighting tournament between the representatives of the realms of Earth and Outworld conceived by the Elder Gods amid looming invasion of the Earth by Outworld.
If the realm of Outworld wins Mortal Kombat ten consecutive times, its Emperor Shao Kahn will be able to invade and conquer the Earthrealm. Shaolin monk Liu Kang and his comrades, movie star Johnny Cage and military officer Sonya Blade were handpicked by Rayden, the god of thunder and defender of the Earth realm, to overcome their powerful adversaries in order to prevent Outworld from winning their tenth straight Mortal Kombat tournament; each of the three has his or her own reason for competing: Liu seeks revenge against the tournament host Shang Tsung for killing his brother Chan. At Shang Tsung's island, Liu is attracted to Shao Kahn's adopted daughter. Aware that Kitana is a dangerous adversary because she is the rightful heir to Outworld and that she will attempt to ally herself with the Earth warriors, Tsung orders the creature Reptile to spy on her. Liu defeats his first opponent and Sonya gets her revenge on Kano by snapping his neck. Cage encounters and beats Scorpion. Liu engages in a brief duel with Kitana.
Liu's next opponent is Sub-Zero, whose defense seems untouched because of his freezing abilities until Liu recalls Kitana's advice and uses it to kill Sub-Zero. Prince Goro mercilessly crushes every opponent he faces. One of Cage's peers, Art "Kai" Lean, is defeated by Goro as well and has his soul taken by Shang Tsung. Sonya worries that they may not win against Goro, he reveals their own fears and egos are preventing them from winning the tournament. Despite Sonya's warning, Cage comes to Tsung to request a fight with Goro; the sorcerer accepts on the condition that he be allowed to challenge any opponent of his choosing and anywhere he chooses. Rayden tries to intervene. After Shang Tsung leaves, Rayden confronts Cage for what he has done in challenging Goro but is impressed when Cage shows his awareness of the gravity of the tournament. Cage uses guile and the element of surprise to defeat the defending champion. Now desperate, Tsung takes Sonya hostage and takes her to Outworld, intending to fight her as his opponent.
Knowing that his powers are ineffective there and that Sonya cannot defeat Tsung by herself, Rayden sends Liu and Cage into Outworld in order to rescue Sonya and challenge Tsung. In Outworld, Liu is attacked by Reptile, but gains the upper hand and defeats him. Afterward, Kitana meets up with Liu, she reveals to the pair the origins of both Outworld. Kitana allies with them and helps them to infiltrate Tsung's castle while advising Liu Kang about three challenges in the castle: To face his enemy and his worst fear. Inside the castle tower, Shang Tsung challenges Sonya to fight him, claiming that her refusal to accept will result in the Earth realm forfeiting Mortal Kombat. All seems lost for Earthrealm until Kitana and Cage appear. Kitana berates Tsung for his treachery to the Emperor as Sonya is set free, claiming that his arrogance and greed will cost him the tournament if he doesn't honor his deal. Tsung challenges is counter-challenged by Liu. During the lengthy battle, Liu faces not only Tsung but the souls that Tsung had forcibly taken in past tournaments.
In a last-ditch attempt to take advantage, Tsung morphs into Chan. Seeing through the charade, Liu renews his determination and fires an energy bolt at the sorcer