Henry I, Duke of Guise
Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu, sometimes called Le Balafré, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI. In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne. A key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of her son, King Henry III, he succeeded his father in 1563 as Duke of Grand Maître de France. He fought the Turks in Hungary in 1565, on his return, he became one of the leaders of the Catholic faction in the French Wars of Religion, he fought at the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1567, Battle of Jarnac defended Poitiers during a siege and fought at the Battle of Moncontour.
His love affair with Margaret of Valois in 1570 offended her brother, Charles IX of France and the Queen Mother, Catherine de' Medici, but his marriage to Catherine of Cleves restored his fortunes. Considering the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny the architect of his father's assassination during the siege of Orléans in 1563, he is a suspect in the murder of the Admiral in August 1572; this was followed by the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which took place on the occasion of Margaret's marriage to the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre. Henry was wounded at the Battle of Dormans on 10 October 1575, was thereafter known, like his father, as "Le Balafré". With a charismatic and brilliant public reputation, he rose to heroic stature among the Catholic population of France as an opponent of the Huguenots. In 1576 he formed the Catholic League; the talent and dash of Guise contrasted favorably with the vacillation and weakness of Henry III. He was said to cast eyes on the throne; this led to the stage of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of Anjou, the king's brother, Guise concluded the Treaty of Joinville with Philip II of Spain. This compact declared that the Cardinal de Bourbon should succeed Henry III, in preference to Henry of Navarre. Henry III now sided with the Catholic League. Guise sent his cousin Duke of Aumale, to lead a rising in Picardy. Alarmed, Henry III ordered Guise to remain in Champagne; the League now controlled France. But Henry III refused to be treated as a mere cipher by the League, decided upon a bold stroke. On 22 December 1588, Guise spent the night with his current mistress Charlotte de Sauve, the most accomplished and notorious member of Catherine de' Medici's group of female spies known as the "Flying Squadron"; the following morning at the Château de Blois, Guise was summoned to attend the king, was at once assassinated by "the Forty-five", the king's bodyguard, as Henry III looked on. Guise's brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was assassinated the next day.
The deed aroused such outrage among the remaining relatives and allies of Guise that Henry III was forced to take refuge with Henry of Navarre. Henry III was assassinated the following year by an agent of the Catholic League. According to Baltasar Gracian in A Pocket Mirror for Heroes, it was once said of him to Henry III, "Sire, he does good wholeheartedly: those who do not receive his good influence directly receive it by reflection; when deeds fail him, he resorts to words. There is no wedding he does not enliven, no baptism at which he is not godfather, no funeral he does not attend, he is courteous, generous, the honorer of all and the detractor of none. In a word, he is a king by affection, just as Your Majesty is by law." The Duke of Guise appears as an archetypal Machiavellian schemer in Christopher Marlowe's The Massacre at Paris, written about 20 years after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; the death of the duke is mentioned, by the ghost of Machiavelli himself, in the opening lines of The Jew of Malta.
He appears in its sequel, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee wrote The Duke of Guise, based on events during the reign of Henry III of France, he appears by Madame de La Fayette. He appears in Voltaire's epic poem "La Henriade", he is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas's novel La Reine Margot and its sequels, La Dame de Monsoreau and The Forty-Five Guardsmen. Stanley Weyman's novel A Gentleman of France includes the Duke of Guise in its tale about the War of the Three Henries. Ken Follett's novel A Column of Fire features Henry, Duke of Guise as a prominent character, explores his involvement with the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; the Duke is a leading character in the play The Massacre at Paris, by Christopher Marlowe. George Onslow's 1837 opera Le duc de Guise deals with the duke's assassination. L'Assassinat du Duc de Guise, Op. 128, first shown at the Salle Charras in Paris on 16 November 1908, was the first film to include a score written by a well-known classical comp
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Château de Meudon
The Château de Meudon called the royal castle of Meudon or imperial palace of Meudon, was a French château in Meudon in the Hauts-de-Seine. On the edge of a wooded plateau, the castle offers views of Paris and the Seine, as well as of the valley of Chalais. Ideally located between Paris and Versailles, in the heart of an abundant hunting reserve, with an ideal topography for large gardens, it has been grandly arranged by its successive owners from the Renaissance until the fall of the Second French Empire, it should not be confused with the Château de Bellevue in Meudon. Notable past residents include the Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly Duchess of Étampes, the Cardinal of Lorraine, Abel Servien, François Michel Le Tellier Marquis de Louvois, Louis, Grand Dauphin, known as Monseigneur, who attached the castle of Chaville to the Château de Meudon; the Château-Vieux burned down in 1795 and was rebuilt as the Château-Neuf, which in turn burned down in 1871. Demolition was considered, but most of the château was conserved and from 1878 became an observatory with an Astronomical telescope was attached to the Observatory of Paris in 1927.
The entire domain of Meudon has been classified as a historical monument since 12 April 1972. Hangar Y in the Chalais-Meudon park has been classified as a historical monument since 4 June 2000. "There are few architects and enlightened foreigners who have not desired as we did, that the expenses which have been incurred at Versailles would have been made at Meudon as the most beautiful place in the world and situation. " - J. F. Blondel, Cours d'Architecture... 1773, Tome 4, p. 132. There is little information regarding the origin of the castle, the floor plan itself being unknown. However, many records exist of 12th-century lords whose patronymic name was "Meudon". Marie-Thérèse Herlédan published an account of this period in her book Meudon, Before the King. There were various positions at court, such as that of Robert de Meudon, the lord of King Philip the Fair, his title was mentioned in a deed of 1305. The castle was sold on July 17, 1413 by Jean de Montrevel, owner of one of the Castle's fiefs and the Lord of the King, to the wealthy Augustin Isbarre.
In 1422 Isbarre, whose family served as the financial personnel of the royal family, was appointed cupbearer of the king. He was buried at the Convent of the Grands Augustins; the fief of Meudon was bought in 1426 by Guillaume Sanguin, valet de chambre of Charles VII and treasurer of the Duke of Burgundy. He was associated with the former owner Augustin Isbarre, a provost of the merchants of Paris from 1429 to 1431, it seems. He died in Paris on 14 February 1441. Jean Sanguin, known as the "Bastard of Sanguin", inherited the seigniory of his father, he had several children, including Antoine Sanguin, who inherited the fief and became lord of Meudon. Antoine married Marie Simon and died on 18 October 1500; the manor was demolished by Antoine Sanguin, according to the son of the previous owner Cardinal de Meudon, had built a square house of brick and stone on the first floor with an attic and skylights. It was adorned with Italian pilasters and stone framing; the plan of the castle had influenced that of the Castle of the Great Garden, in Joinville, a property of the Guise.
Antoine Sanguin donated the castle to his niece Anne of Pisseleu, known as Mlle d', on 5 September 1527. She became the mistress of François I, became the "Queen of France". In order to better accommodate his mistress, François I financed the addition of "sumptuous edifices"; this included two square pavilions on either side of the initial body and two wings that ended with identical pavilions. These extensions mirrored the style of the main building. Influenced by the Ecouen, corbelled corner towers were added to the pavilions; the structure was similar to the works undertaken at the Marchais Castle owned by Nicolas de Longueval, Count of Bossut and Superintendent of Finance under Francois I, who belonged to the inner circle of the Duchess of Etampes. The same unknown architect headed the expansion of properties in Meudon and Marchais, as well as those of the neighboring castle of Sissonne, of the same style. A triumphal arch was built into the center of the fence wall, serving as a majestic entrance to the courtyard.
François made a lengthy stay in Meudon, from July 11, 1537 to August 5. He stayed there until his death in 1547. On the death of Francis I, Anne de Pisseleu in disgrace, had to sell the estate of Meudon in 1552 to Charles de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine; this cession put an end to the presence of the Sanguin family in Meudon, which had lasted more than a century. The former favorite retired to the Chateau de Heilly, where she died in September 1580; the cardinal transformed his residence, drawing inspiration from the Italian models he discovered during trips to Rome. A letter of December 28, 1552, addressed to his sister-in-law, Anne d'Este, says: "I have been at Meudon while I am in Paris, I beg you to assure you that the house is finished as it is May be added to it by adding to it certain small invitations, which I have dressed, our tests of marbles, which are in Paris, it is not to recognize the wonders of other beautiful houses of this kingdom, nor any healthier prince, Before Quaresme takes hold of you and you and your husband and you will see if I am good profiles and if there is fault, reproach me...
" The cardinal has the wings on the side of a gallery surmounted by a terrace, on drawings of the Primatice. The interiors are decorated with scenes from t
Prince du sang
A prince du sang is a person legitimately descended in dynastic line from any of a realm's hereditary monarchs. The term has been used to refer to men and women descended in the male line from a sovereign, although as absolute primogeniture has become more common in monarchies, those with succession rights through female descent are more than in the past to be accorded the princely title. In some European kingdoms France, this appellation was a specific rank in its own right, of a more restricted use than other titles. Under the House of Capet, the monarchy was feudal, the younger sons and grandsons of kings did not have rights or precedence based on their royal descent. Feudal titles determined rank. Under Philip Augustus, the Duke of Burgundy, a peer of France, could be reckoned to be mightier than the Count of Dreux, a "baron of the second rank" though the latter is a paternal cousin of the king, while the former was only a distant agnate. In the feudal era, the agnates of the king held no special status.
This was because agnatic primogeniture had not yet received its sanction as the law governing the succession to the French throne. Following the Valois succession, the agnates of the king, being "capable of the crown", rose in prominence. New peerages were created for the king's agnates, for a long time this continued to be so, before the peerage was extended to non-royalty. Over time, the dignity of a peer, feudal in nature, the dignity of a prince of the blood, dynastic in nature, clashed. Non-royal peers and princes of the blood who were peers disputed for higher precedence than the other; as the royal line contracted, each prince of the blood gained greater prominence. In 1576, Henry III of France issued an edict, as a counterpoise to the growing power of the House of Guise, which made the princes of the blood supreme over the peerage, amongst themselves, the closer in the line of succession would outrank the more distant, without regard to the actual title that they held. In France, the rank of prince du sang was the highest held at court after the immediate family of the king during the ancien régime and the Bourbon Restoration.
The rank of prince du sang or princesse du sang was restricted to legitimate agnates of the Capetian dynasty who were not members of the immediate family of the king. Originating in the 14th century, male princes du sang came to be recognized as entitled to seats on the Conseil du Roi and the Parlement de Paris, to precedence above all peers and to precedence among each other according to their respective places in the order of succession. During the last century of the reign of the House of Valois, when religious strife brought forth rivals for the throne, prince du sang became restricted in use to refer to dynasts who were distant members of the Royal Family. In theory, the princes of the blood included all members of the Capetian dynasty. In practice, only the agnatic descendants of Saint Louis IX, such as the Valois and the Bourbons, were acknowledged as princes du sang. France's kings, for instance, refused to recognize the Courtenay Capetians as princes of the blood; the Courtenays descended in legitimate male-line from King Louis VI, but had become impoverished, minor nobles over the centuries.
Their repeated petitions for recognition to the Bourbon rulers were in vain. When the Treaty of Montmartre was concluded in 1662, declaring the House of Lorraine to be heirs to the French throne in the event of extinction of the Bourbons, the Courtenays protested, requesting substitution of the phrase "the royal house issued in legitimate male line from the kings of France" to no avail. In 1715 Louis-Charles de Courtenay, his son Charles-Roger and his brother Roger were once again rebuffed in their attempt to seek recognition of their status. Roger, abbé de Courtenay, was the last male of the family, dying on 5 May 1733, his sister Hélène de Courtenay, marquise de Bauffremont, obtained no redress when she appealed to the king in 1737 after the Parlement of Paris ordered the term "princesse du sang royal de France" deleted from court documents. A cadet branch of the Bourbon line, the Bourbon-Carencys, who were most distantly related to the Dukes of Bourbon, were denied princely rank and excluded from the Conseil du Roi until their extinction in 1530.
They descended from Jean, seigneur de Carency, the youngest son of Jean I de Bourbon, Count of La Marche. Since 1733, all legitimate male Capetians were of the House of Bourbon, of the Vendôme branch, descended from Charles, Duke of Vendôme. Charles' eldest son Antoine, King of Navarre, was the ancestor of the royal dynasties of France and Spain, of the House of Orléans, while his youngest son Louis, Prince of Condé, was the ancestor of the House of Condé. A cadet branch of the Condés was the House of Conti, who in male line descended of Henri, Prince of Condé. In an edict of July 1714, Louis XIV declared his legitimized sons, the Duke of Maine and Count of Toulouse, to be princes du sang and accorded them rights of succession to the French throne following all other princes du sang. Though the Parlement de Paris refused to register the decree, the king exercised his right to compel registration by conducting a lit de justice; the edict was revoked and annulled on 18 August 1715 by the Parlement on the authority of the regent after the king's death.
As a chancellor of Louis XIV had warned, a king could only make princes of the blood through his queen. Those who held this rank wer
Princes of Conti
The title of Prince of Conti was a French noble title, assumed by a cadet branch of the princely house of Bourbon-Condé. The title derives its name from Conty, a small town in northern France, c. 35 km southwest of Amiens, which came into the Bourbon-Condé family by the marriage of Louis de Bourbon, first Prince of Condé, with Eleanor de Roye in 1551. François de Bourbon, the third son of this marriage, was given the title of marquis de Conti and was elevated to the rank of prince de Conti, he died in 1614 and the title lapsed, since his only child had predeceased him in 1610. In 1629, the title of Prince of Conti was revived in favor of Armand de Bourbon, second son of Henry II, Prince of Condé, brother of Louis, the Grand Condé. During the time that the House of Bourbon ruled France, from the reign of King Henry IV of France to the reign of King Louis-Philippe of the French, the Princes of Conti were considered to be princes du sang in the Kingdom of France; the holders of this title used the style of Serene Highness.
1558-1614: marquis from 1581 onwards 1st prince François de BourbonAt his death, the title was not passed on, for want of direct descendants. The title was bestowed in 1629 upon: 1629-1666: 2nd prince Armand 1666-1685: 3rd prince Louis Armand I 1685-1709: 4th prince François Louis 1709-1727: 5th prince Louis Armand II 1727-1776: 6th prince Louis François I 1776-1814: 7th prince Louis François IIAt his death, the title was not passed on, for want of legitimate descendants. Princess of Conti Château de L'Isle-Adam Hôtel de Conti This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Conti, Princes of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Legitimacy (family law)
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are married to each other, of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce. Conversely, illegitimacy has been the status of a child born outside marriage, such a child being known as a bastard, or love child, when such a distinction has been made from other children. In Scots law, the terminology of natural son or natural daughter has the same implications; the prefix "Fitz-" added to a surname sometimes denoted that the child's parents were not married at the time of birth. Depending on local legislation, legitimacy can affect a child's rights of inheritance to the putative father's estate and the child's right to bear the father's surname or hereditary title. Illegitimacy has had consequences for the mother's and child's right to support from the putative father; the importance of legitimacy has decreased in Western countries with the increasing economic independence of women, the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the fall of totalitarian regimes, declining influence of Christian churches on family life.
Births outside marriage represent the majority in many countries in Western Europe and in former European colonies. In many Western-derived cultures, stigma based on parents' marital status, use of the word "bastard", are now considered offensive. England's Statute of Merton stated, regarding illegitimacy: "He is a bastard, born before the marriage of his parents." This definition applied to situations when a child's parents could not marry, as when one or both were married or when the relationship was incestuous. The Poor Law of 1576 formed the basis of English bastardy law, its purpose was to punish a bastard child's mother and putative father, to relieve the parish from the cost of supporting mother and child. "By an act of 1576, it was ordered that bastards should be supported by their putative fathers, though bastardy orders in the quarter sessions date from before this date. If the genitor could be found he was put under great pressure to accept responsibility and to maintain the child."Under English law, a bastard could not inherit real property and could not be legitimized by the subsequent marriage of father to mother.
There was one exception: when his father subsequently married his mother, an older illegitimate son took possession of his father's lands after his death, he would pass the land on to his own heirs on his death, as if his possession of the land had been retroactively converted into true ownership. A younger non-bastard brother would have no claim to the land. There were many "natural children" of Scotland's monarchy granted positions which founded prominent families. In the 14th century, Robert II of Scotland gifted one his illegitimate sons estates in Bute, founding the Stewarts of Bute, a natural son of Robert III of Scotland was ancestral to the Shaw Stewarts of Greenock. In Scots law an illegitimate child, a "natural son" or "natural daughter", would be legitimated by the subsequent marriage of his parents, provided they were free to marry at the date of the conception; the Legitimation Act 1968 extended legitimation by the subsequent marriage of the parents to children conceived when their parents were not free to marry, but this was repealed in 2006 by the amendment of section 1 of the Law Reform Act 1986 which abolished the status of illegitimacy stating that " No person whose status is governed by Scots law shall be illegitimate...".
The Legitimacy Act 1926 of England and Wales legitimized the birth of a child if the parents subsequently married each other, provided that they had not been married to someone else in the meantime. The Legitimacy Act 1959 extended the legitimization if the parents had married others in the meantime and applied it to putative marriages which the parents incorrectly believed were valid. Neither the 1926 nor 1959 Acts changed the laws of succession to the British throne and succession to peerage and baronetcy titles. In Scotland children legitimated by the subsequent marriage of their parents have always been entitled to succeed to peerages and baronetcies and The Legitimation Act 1968 extended this right to children conceived when their parents were not free to marry; the Family Law Reform Act 1969 allowed a bastard to inherit on the intestacy of his parents. In canon and in civil law, the offspring of putative marriages have been considered legitimate. Since 2003 in England and Wales, 2002 in Northern Ireland and 2006 in Scotland, an unmarried father has parental responsibility if he is listed on the birth certificate.
In the United States, in the early 1970s a series of Supreme Court decisions held that most common-law disabilities imposed upon illegitimacy were invalid as violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Still, children born out of wedlock may not be eligible for certain federal benefits unless the child has been legitimized in the appropriate jurisdiction. Many other countries have legislatively abolished any legal disabilities of a child born out of wedlock. In France, legal reforms regarding illegitimacy began in the 1970s, but it was only in the 21st century that the principle of equality was upheld. In 2001, France was forced by the European Court of Human Rights to change several laws that were deemed discriminato