Isaac de Razilly
Isaac de Razilly was a member of the French nobility appointed a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at the age of 18, he was born at the Château d'Oiseaumelle in the Province of France. A member of the French navy, he served for many years during which he played an important role in the French colony of Acadia in New France, he was the son of François de Razilly and Catherine de Villiers, brother of Claude de Razilly and François de Razilly. Commandeur de la Commanderie de l'Ile Bouchard Isaac de Razily explored the coast of Brazil in 1612-15 near the island of Marajó, in the attempts to establish France Equinoxiale, with his brother and leader of the expedition François de Razilly. Issac de Razilly sailed to Morocco in 1619, under the orders of Louis XIII, considering a colonial venture in Morocco, he was able to reconnoiter the coast as far as Mogador. In 1624, he was put in charge of an embassy to the pirate harbour of Salé in Morocco, in order to solve the affair of the library of Mulay Zidan.
He was imprisoned and put under chains before being released, although he had to leave many Christian captives behind. The mission of Razilly was accompanied by the first Capuchins to establish themselves in Morocco. Razilly took part in the Blockade of La Rochelle during the suppression of the Huguenot rebellion, where he commanded the blockade fleet, lost an eye there. Soon after, in 1626, he wrote pamphlets advocating commercial expansion overseas, either in Africa, Asia or America, such as his Articles pour persuader un chacun de risquer sur mer et trouver fonds pour la navigation, he submitted the memorandum to Cardinal Richelieu. As Richelieu and Père Joseph were attempting to establish a colonial policy, Razilly suggested them to occupy Mogador in Morocco in 1626; the objective was to create a base against the Sultan of Marrakesh, asphyxiate the harbour of Safi. He departed for Salé on 20 July 1629 with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Catherine, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean.
He bombarded the city the Salé and destroyed 3 corsair ships, sent the Griffon under [Treilleboi to Mogador. The men of Razilly saw the fortress of Castelo Real in Mogador, landed 100 men with wood and supplies on Mogador island, with the agreement of Richelieu. After a few days however, the Griffon reimbarked the colonists, departed to rejoin the fleet in Salé. In 1630, Razilly was able to negotiate the purchase of French slaves from the Moroccans, he visited Marocco again in 1631, participated to the negotiation of the Franco-Moroccan Treaty of 1632, with the help of descendants of Samuel Pallache. In 1632, Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia. Razilly was to develop it into a French colony. To deal with a shortage of funds, a company was set up by Razilly and some of his friends which became known as the Razilly-Condonnier company. Together with the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France, an expedition was outfitted to sail to Acadia; the King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France.
One of his able lieutenants in Acadia was Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, instrumental in maintaining the shipping to and from France. As well, he took on military tasks such as ordering the taking of control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, given to France in an earlier Treaty, to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid; this was accomplished shortly before Razilly's death and resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored. Razilly died at LaHave, Nova Scotia in December 1635
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Claude de Razilly
Claude de Razilly Claude de Launay-Razilly. was a French Navy officer. He was the brother of Isaac de Razilly. Claude de Razilly fought in the Siege of the Siege of La Rochelle. In 1627, he relieved the siege of the Royal forces in the fortress of Saint-Martin-de-Ré by sailing through an important English naval blockade. In 1632, he was given by Richelieu in association with his brother Isaac de Razilly a mission to recover Acadia from the English following the Treaty of Saint-Germain, he was Governor of Acadia when Port Royal was recovered in 1634. Three years Claude de Razilly was succeeded as Acadian Governor by two contenders, Charles de Menou d'Aulnay and Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour. In 1638, Claude de Razilly fought in the Battle of Guetaria
São Luís, Maranhão
São Luís is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão. The city is located on Upaon-açu Island or Ilha de São Luís, in the Baía de São Marcos, an extension of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the estuary of Pindaré, Mearim and other rivers, its coordinates are 44.30 ° west. São Luís has the second largest maritime extension within Brazilian states, its maritime extension is 640 km. The city proper has a population of some 1,082,935 people; the metropolitan area totals 1,605,305, ranked as the 15th largest in Brazil. São Luís, created as Saint-Louis-de-Maragnan, is the only Brazilian state capital founded by France and it is one of the three Brazilian state capitals located on islands; the city has two major sea ports: Madeira Port and Itaqui Port, through which a substantial part of Brazil's iron ore, originating from the -Amazon region, is exported. The city's main industries are metallurgical with Alumar, VALE. São Luís is home of the Federal University of Maranhão. São Luís was the home town of famous Brazilian samba singer Alcione, Brazilian writers Aluísio Azevedo, Ferreira Gullar and Josué Montello, Belgian-naturalised soccer player Luís Oliveira, the musician João do Vale, a Música popular brasileira singer.
The town was a large village of the Tupinambá tribe. The first Europeans to settle it were the French, in 1612, who intended to make it the center of a colony named Equinoctial France, under the command of Daniel de la Touche, Seigneur de la Ravardière, Admiral François de Razilly, they built a fort named Saint-Louis de Maragnan after King Louis XIII and his Saintly ancestor Louis IX. The settlement was conquered for Portugal by Jerônimo de Albuquerque in 1615, when it was renamed São Luís. There had been little time for the French to build a city, a fact which has led to some controversy as to the actual date of the founding of the city, whether by the French or the Portuguese. In 1641, the city was invaded by the Dutch, who left in 1645. In 1677, the city was made. Only when those invasions ceased permanently did the colonial government decide to create the state of Grão-Pará e Maranhão, independent from the rest of the country. By that time, the economy was based on agriculture the exportation of sugar cane and tobacco.
Conflicts amongst. This started due the struggle between Jesuits and landowners, the first against the Indian slavery and the others against the unfair treatment given by the Portuguese authorities. After few skirmishes, the rebels were defeated and the Beckman brothers arrested and, after a brief trial, were hanged and quartered; the last words of Manuel Beckman at the gallows were "Pelo Povo do Maranhão morro contente". The phrase decorates the main hall of State Council Building. Soon after the outbreak of the American Civil War, the region started to provide cotton to Great Britain; the wealth generated by this activity was used to modernize the city. The city came to be the third most populous city in the country. By the end of the 19th century, agriculture was in decay and since the city's population has been searching for other ways to make a living. Nowadays, São Luís has the largest and best preserved heritage of colonial Portuguese architecture of all Latin America; the island is known as the "Island of Love" and as "the Brazilian Athens", due to its many poets and writers, such as Sotero dos Reis, Aluísio Azevedo, Graça Aranha, Gonçalves Dias, Josué Montello, Ferreira Gullar, among others.
The city is known as "the Brazilian Jamaica" because of the popularity of Reggae Music. The ancestral composition of São Luís, according to an autosomal DNA study, is 42% European, 39% Native American and 19% African; until the mid-nineteenth century, Maranhão's economy was one of the most prosperous in the country. However, after the Civil War in the United States of America, when it lost space in the export of cotton and the state went into decline. Only after the end of the 1960s did the state begin to receive incentives and emerge from seclusion, by way of road and rail connections with other regions. In the late eighteenth century, increased international demand for cotton to meet the English textile industry coupled with reduced production because of the Revolutionary War in the United States provided the perfect setting to stimulate cotton production in Maranhão. Shipping companies and Southampton & Company Maranha Maranha Shipping Company, shipping steam, which performed the transportation of cotton from the states of Georgia and Alabama, began operating in St. Louis shaft - London, leading to production of Caxias and Baixada Maranhão.
By the early twentieth century, St. Louis still exporting cotton to England by sea, through the lines and Booth Red Cross Line Line and company-Maranha Liverpool Shipping Company. During this golden period of the Maranhão economy, São Luís was a living cultural effervescence; the city had more in common with the European capitals than the other Brazilian cities. It was the first to receive an Italian opera and received the latest news about French literature every week. The