Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Alexander Farnese was an Italian noble and condottiero, Duke of Parma and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics, his talents as a field commander and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age. Alessandro was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the King of Spain and Habsburg Emperor Charles V, he had a twin brother, who only lived one month. His mother was the half-sister of Philip II of John of Austria, he led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain under the service of his uncle the King. He fought in the Battle of Lepanto and in the Netherlands against the rebels.
He accompanied his mother to Brussels. In 1565 his marriage with Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with great splendour. Alexander Farnese had been brought up in Spain with his cousin, the ill-fated Don Carlos, Don John, both of whom were about the same age as himself, after his marriage he took up his residence at once in the court of Madrid, it was seven years. During that time the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against Spanish rule. Don John, sent as governor-general to restore order, found difficulties in dealing with William the Silent, who had succeeded in uniting all the provinces in common resistance to King Philip II. In the autumn of 1577, Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, it was his able strategy and prompt decision at a critical moment that won the Battle of Gembloux in 1578. Shortly afterwards Don John, whose health had broken down, died. Phillip appointed Farnese to take his place, both as Captain-General of the Army of Flanders, as Governor-General.
Farnese was confronted with a difficult situation. Perceiving that his opponents were divided between Catholic and Protestant and Walloon, he skilfully worked to exploit these divisions. By this means, he regained the allegiance of the Walloon provinces for the king. By the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he secured the support of the'Malcontents' for the royal cause; the rebels in the seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht, formally abjuring Phillip's rule and pledging to fight to the end. As soon as he had secured a base of operations in Hainaut and Artois, Farnese set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell under his control. Tournai, Breda and Ghent opened their gates. In a war composed of sieges rather than battles, he proved his mettle, his strategy was to offer generous terms for surrender: there would be no massacres or looting. He laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp; the town was open to the sea fortified, defended with resolute determination and courage by its citizens.
They were led by the famous Marnix van St. Aldegonde and assisted by an ingenious Italian engineer named Federigo Giambelli; the siege called forth all of Farnese's military genius. He cut off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, in spite of the desperate efforts of the besieged townspeople; the terms offered. This disciplined capture and occupation of the town should not be confused with the bloody events of the Spanish Fury on 4 November 1576. Farnese avoided the mistakes of his predecessor Don Luis de Requesens. With the Fall of Antwerp, with Mechelen and Brussels in the hands of Farnese, the whole of the southern Netherlands was once more placed under the authority of Philip. At one stage Holland and Zeeland, whose geographical position made them unassailable except by water, were hard pressed to retain territory; the poorly supplied English forces, sent by Elizabeth I, were duly defeated by the Duke's. In 1586, Alexander Farnese became Duke of Parma through the death of his father.
He applied for leave to visit his paternal territory, but Philip would not permit him as there was no replacement in the Netherlands. However, while retaining him in his command at the head of a formidable army, the king would not give his sanction to his great general's desire to use it for the conquest of England, at the time a supporter of the rebels. Farnese at first believed it possible to invade England with a force of 30,000 troops, without significant naval protection, relying on the hope of a native Catholic insurrection. Philip overruled him, began the work that led to the Spanish Armada; as part of the general campaign preparations, Farnese moved against Sluis. Sluis was taken in August 1587; the plan was. The Armada reached the area a year but poor communication between Parma a
Duchy of Limburg
The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian province of Liège, with a small part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg, within the east of Voeren. From about 1020, Limburg Castle served as the residence of the Counts of Limburg, who in 1100 adopted the ducal title as Dukes of Lower Lorraine, one of the most important and ancient titles in this part of the empire; the extinction of the line in 1283 sparked the War of the Limburg Succession, whereafter Limburg was ruled by the Dukes of Brabant in personal union being grouped together with the Brabantian "Overmaas" territories bordering it, to be one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Burgundian Netherlands. Unlike other parts of this province, the lands of the duchy stayed intact within the Southern Netherlands, under Habsburg control, after the divisions caused by the Eighty Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession.
However after the failed Brabant Revolution in 1789, the duchy's history was terminated with the occupation by French Revolutionary troops in 1793. These lands were reunited within modern Belgium only after World War I; the duchy was multilingual, being the place where Dutch and German dialects border upon each other and coexist at their geographical extremes, both now and in medieval times. Its northern and eastern borders are the approximate boundaries of the modern state of Belgium with the Netherlands and Germany, at their "tripoint"; the eastern part, which includes Eupen, is the administrative capital and northernmost part of the modern Belgian German-speaking Ostkantonen. Of the various places known as Limburg, it is the Duchy of Limburg, the origin of the pungent-smelling soft cheese known as Limburger, today made in many places; the state's territory was situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse in the west and the Imperial city of Aachen in the east. Its most important cities were Limbourg, the capital, Eupen.
The Limburg estates were divided into five legal districts: the original manor of Baelen in the southeast with the castle and city of Limburg and Welkenraedt. The territory of Limburg formed a complex patchwork with those of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, based to the west, the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy to the south, the County of Luxembourg, to the south. In the east the main neighbour was the Rhenish Duchy of Jülich. To the north were the smaller lordships such as Slenaken, Wittem and the lordships of Dalhem and Rolduc, today in the Dutch province of Limburg, which came under Brabant control and were referred to in that context as the "Overmaas" territory. In the northeast was the imperial city of Aachen. Linguistically Limburg was situated on the border of Germanic with Romance Europe. While in the northern and eastern districts Limburgish and Ripuarian dialects were spoken, the southwestern part around Herve was dominated by Walloon; the territory of the duchy of Limburg was formed in the 11th century around the town of Limbourg in present-day Wallonia.
About 1020, Duke Frederick of Lower Lorraine, a descendant of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia, had Limbourg Castle built on the banks of the Vesdre river. His estates comprised the districts of Baelen, Montzen and the southwestern exclave of Sprimont. Frederick's eventual successor was Henry, although between them was Count Udon, who about 1065 was called a "count of Limburg". Henry claimed Frederick's ducal title, acknowledged by Emperor Henry IV in 1101; the Duchy of Limburg, like most of modern Belgium, was within the Duchy of Lower Lorraine. For a while, Lower Lorraine had its own single Duke, it is from this Duchy. This meant that Lower Lorraine came to have two Duchies, that of Brabant, that of Limburg, the title of Duke of Lothier, still held by Brabant became ineffective; as the Lorrainian ducal dignity was contested the title "duke of Limburg" arose, achieving confirmation from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1165. The rise of the Limburg dynasty continued, when Duke Waleran III in 1214 became Count of Luxembourg by marriage with the heiress Ermesinde and his son Henry IV in 1225 became Count of Berg as husband of heiress Irmgard.
However, upon the death of Henry's son Waleran IV in 1279, leaving only one heiress Irmgard, who had married Count Reginald I of Guelders but died childless in 1283, the War of the Limburg Succession broke out. The Duke of Brabant won the final Battle of Worringen in 1288, thereby gaining control of the Duchy of Limburg with the consent of King Rudolph I of Germany. Though it shared the fate of Brabant, Limburg remained a separate Imperial State, which in 1404 passed from Joanna of Brabant to Anthony of Valois, son of the Burgundian duke Philip the Bold. With the Burgundian heritage of Mary the Rich, it was bequested to her husband Maximilian I from the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1482. Combined with the Landen van Overmaas (the lands beyond t
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre. Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in Catholic Paris to attend the wedding; the massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572, two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead across France vary from 5,000 to 30,000; the massacre marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion.
The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file. Those who remained were radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres." Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion." The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events: The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which put an end to the third War of Religion on 8 August 1570. The marriage between Henry III of Navarre and Margaret of Valois on 18 August 1572; the failed assassination of Admiral de Coligny on 22 August 1572. The Peace of Saint-Germain put an end to three years of terrible civil war between Catholics and Protestants; this peace, was precarious since the more intransigent Catholics refused to accept it. The Guise family was out of favour at the French court. Staunch Catholics were shocked by the return of Protestants to the court, but the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, her son, Charles IX, were practical in their support of peace and Coligny, as they were conscious of the kingdom's financial difficulties and the Huguenots' strong defensive position: they controlled the fortified towns of La Rochelle, La Charité-sur-Loire and Montauban.
To cement the peace between the two religious parties, Catherine planned to marry her daughter Margaret to the Protestant, Henry of Navarre, son of the Huguenot leader Queen Jeanne d'Albret. The royal marriage was arranged for 18 August 1572, it was not accepted by the Pope. Both the Pope and King Philip II of Spain condemned Catherine's Huguenot policy as well; the impending marriage led to the gathering of a large number of well-born Protestants in Paris. But Paris was a violently anti-Huguenot city, Parisians, who tended to be extreme Catholics, found their presence unacceptable. Encouraged by Catholic preachers, they were horrified at the marriage of a princess of France to a Protestant; the Parlement's opposition and the court's absence from the wedding led to increased political tension. Compounding this bad feeling was the fact that the harvests had been poor and taxes had risen; the rise in food prices and the luxury displayed on the occasion of the royal wedding increased tensions among the common people.
A particular point of tension was an open-air cross erected on the site of the house of Philippe de Gastines, a Huguenot, executed in 1569. The mob erected a large wooden cross on a stone base. Under the terms of the peace, after considerable popular resistance, this had been removed in December 1571, which had led to about 50 deaths in riots, as well as mob destruction of property. In the massacres of August, the relatives of the Gastines family were among the first to be killed by the mob; the court itself was divided. Catherine had not obtained Pope Gregory XIII's permission to celebrate this irregular marriage, it took all the queen mother's skill to convince the Cardinal de Bourbon to marry the couple. Beside this, the rivalries between the leading families re-emerged; the Guises were not prepared to make way for the House of Montmorency. François, Duke of Montmorency and governor of Paris, was unable to control the disturbances in the city. On August 20, he retired to Chantilly. In the years preceding the massacre, Huguenot "political rhetoric" had for the first time taken a tone against not just the policies of a particular monarch of France, but monarchy in general.
In part this was led by an apparent change in stance by John Calvin in his Readings on the Prophet Daniel, a book of 1561, in which he had argued that when kings disobey God, they "automatically abdicate their worldly power" – a change from his views in earlier works that ungodly kings should be obeyed. This change was soon picked up by Huguenot writers, who began to expand on Calvin and promote the idea of the sovereignty of the people, ideas to which Catholic writers and preachers responded fiercely, it was only in the aftermath of the massacre that anti-monarchical ideas found widespread supp
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Charles de Cossé, Count of Brissac
Charles de Cossé, comte de Brissac, was a French courtier and soldier, named beau Brissac at court and remembered as the Maréchal Brissac. A member of the nobility of Anjou, he was appointed in 1540 to his father's prestigious former post of Grand Falconer of France, one of the Great Officers of the Maison du Roi; this was not purely honorary, as the king still hunted with falcons. Brissac was Grand Panetier, his position as colonel general of the cavalry was a court appointment. Raised to Marshal of France in 1550, he was Grand Master of the Artillery, he was given the title of Count of Brissac. His son, Charles II de Cossé, became the first Duke of Brissac; the son of René de Cossé, seigneur of Brissac and of Cossé in Anjou, grand fauconnier du Roi, of his wife Charlotte de Gouffier, he was an enfant d'honneur in the household of the dauphin François, son of King François I. The young prince made him his premier écuyer. Not robust by nature, he made himself horseman. Sent to the siege of Naples in 1528, he made a name for himself when his forces were being attacked by the Spanish.
Upon embarking from the galleys, he was forced back to the shore's edge. There and without his cuirass, sword in hand, he made prisoner the armed knight on horseback who attacked him, he commanded a hundred light cavalry at the taking of Avigliana and at the castle of Susa in 1537. Grand fauconnier de France since 1540, he was named in 1542 as colonel général des gens de guerre français, à pied, de là les monts. At the siege of Perpignan, fighting under the new Dauphin, he covered himself with glory when the besieged forces surprised the unwary young nobles engaged in gaming in the Dauphin's tent, defended the pieces of artillery until the infantry regrouped and relieved him; as colonel general, he was in command of all the light cavalry in Piedmont in 1543 and that same year followed the king to Flanders, where he took 600 prisoners. In the following retreat of Habsburg forces and their allies, he took prisoner Francesco d'Este, brother of the Duke of Ferrara. In the return to France, he took the exposed position of rear guard at great personal danger.
In 1544, with his light cavalry, he was sent to harass Imperial forces at Vitry-en-Perthois, was twice taken prisoner and twice rescued by his troops. The following year, he fought at Oye in the Boulonnais. Following the peace, agreed in 1546, he was made Grand Master of Artillery. In the Italian War of 1551–1559 and the War of Parma, as Maréchal de France, Brissac was sent as governor to French-occupied Piedmont, where he distinguished himself by the strict discipline kept in the occupying army, maintained in fighting trim by regular military exercises and forbidden to harass peasants, merchants or bourgeois, considered remarkable at the time. In 1551, Brissac established himself at Chieri and several other Piedmontese cities, obliging Gonzaga to raise the siege of Parma. In 1553, he took Vercelli and pillaged the treasury of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, transported there as an impregnable place of safety. Though he was unable to take the citadel for lack of cannon, the energetic presence of Brissac in Piedmont forced the Duke to reinforcee his garrisons, weakening his forces in the field, as Brissac hoped.
Perennially short of cash from the king of France, Brissac held his troops together through the force of their loyalty to him. In 1554, he occupied the hilly district of Langhe and finished his campaign with the conquest of Ivrea, which opened a route for the auxiliary Swiss forces. In 1555, by a daring move, he surprised and took Casale, where the nobles of the Imperial forces, gathered for a festive tourney, had time to fortify themselves in the citadel. Brissac, forbidding his troops to pillage the city, secured the capitulation of the fortress and all its armaments, paid his soldiers through the ransom of their captives. Henri II made a present of his own sword to Brissac; these and other episodes of his military role were recounted by François de Boivin. His portrait, attributed to Corneille de Lyon, is conserved in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, he had four children. His younger son was Charles II de Cossé, Duke of Brissac, the first Duke of Brissac; this son headed forces loyal to the Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion
Ivry-la-Bataille is a commune in the Eure Department in the Normandy region in northern France. Ivry-la-Bataille was known as Ivry; the Battle of Ivry took place near Ivry on 14 March 1590. It was renamed Ivry-la-Bataille to commemorate the battle and to distinguish the town from Ivry-sur-Seine. Ivry-la-Bataille is located on the Eure River in Normandy and about thirty miles west of Paris, at the boundary between the Île-de-France and the Beauce regions. Château d'Ivry-la-Bataille Communes of the Eure department INSEE Official Web site