A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature, the upper house being the California State Senate. The Assembly convenes, along with the State Senate, at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the Assembly consists with each member representing at least 465,000 people. Due to a combination of the state's large population and small legislature, the Assembly has the largest population-per-representative ratio of any state lower house and second largest of any legislative lower house in the United States after the federal House of Representatives. Members of the California State Assembly are referred to using the titles Assemblyman, Assemblywoman, or Assemblymember. In the current legislative session, Democrats enjoy a three-fourths supermajority of 61 seats, while Republicans controls 19 seats; the Speaker presides over the State Assembly in the chief leadership position, controlling the flow of legislation and committee assignments. The Speaker is elected by the full Assembly.
Other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber. The current Speaker is Democrat Anthony Rendon; the majority leader is Democrat Ian Calderon. As a result of Proposition 140 in 1990 and Proposition 28 in 2012, members elected to the Legislature prior to 2012 are restricted by term limits to three two-year terms, while those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years in the legislature in any combination of four-year State Senate or two-year State Assembly terms; every two years, all 80 seats in the Assembly are subject to election. This is in contrast to the State Senate, in which only half of its 40 seats are subject to election every two years; the chamber's green tones are based on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with its central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a portrait of Abraham Lincoln and a Latin quotation: legislatorum est justas leges condere.
Every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. To run for the Assembly, a candidate must be a United States citizen and a registered voter in the district at the time nomination papers are issued, may not have served three terms in the State Assembly since November 6, 1990. According to Article 4, Section 2 of the California Constitution, the candidate must have one year of residency in the legislative district and California residency for three years; the chief clerk of the Assembly, a position that has existed since the Assembly's creation, is responsible for many administrative duties. The chief clerk is the custodian of all Assembly bills and records and publishes the Assembly Daily Journal, the minutes of floor sessions, as well as the Assembly Daily File; the chief clerk is the Assembly's parliamentarian, in this capacity gives advice to the presiding officer on matters of parliamentary procedure. The chief clerk is responsible for engrossing and enrolling of measures, the transmitting passed legislation to the governor.
Since 2016, the chaplain of the Assembly has been a Buddhist cleric. The chaplain from 2003 to 2016 was a Greek Orthodox priest; the position of sergeant-at-arms of the Assembly has existed since 1849. The sergeant-at-arms is tasked with law enforcement duties, but customarily has a ceremonial and protocol role. Today, some fifty employees are part of the Assembly Sergeant-at-Arms Office; the Chief Clerk, the acting Chief Sergeant-at-Arms, the Chaplains are not members of the Legislature. Elected in a special election Current committees include: Assembly Committee on Accountability and Administrative review Assembly Committee on Aging And Long-Term Care Assembly Committee on Agriculture Assembly Committee on Appropriations Assembly Committee on Arts, Sports and Internet Media Assembly Committee on Banking and Finance Assembly Committee on Budget Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 1 on Health and Human Services Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 2 on Education Finance Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 3 on Resources and Transportation Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 4 on State Administration Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 5 on Public Safety Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 6 on Budget Process Oversight and Program Evaluation Assembly Committee on Business and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Communications and Conveyance Assembly Committee on Education Assembly Committee on Elections and Redistricting Assembly Committee on Environmental Safety and Toxic Materials Assembly Committee on Governmental Organization Assembly Committee on Health Assembly Committee on Higher Education Assembly Committee on Housing and Community Development Assembly Committee on Human Services Assembly Committee on Insurance Assembly Committee on Jobs, Economic Development, the Economy Assembly Committee on Judiciary Assembly Committee on Labor and Employment Assembly Committee on Local Government Assembly Committee on Natural Resources Assembly Committee on Privacy and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Public Employees and Social Security Assembly Committee on Public Safety Assembly Committee on Revenue and Taxation Assembly Committee on Rules Assembly Committee on Transportation Assembly Committee on Utilities and Commerce Assembly Committee on Veterans Affairs Assembly Committ
Santa Clarita Valley
The Santa Clarita Valley is part of the upper watershed of the Santa Clara River in Southern California. The valley was part of the 48,612-acre Rancho San Francisco Mexican land grant. Located in Los Angeles County, its main population center is the city of Santa Clarita which includes the communities of Canyon Country, Newhall and Valencia. Adjacent unincorporated communities include Castaic, Stevenson Ranch, Val Verde, the new master planned community of Newhall Ranch; the Santa Clarita Valley is bordered by the Lake Piru area, including the community of Val Verde, Los Padres National Forest, Castaic Lake to the northwest, Sierra Pelona Mountains and Angeles National Forest to the north and northeast, San Gabriel Mountains to the east and southeast, Santa Susana Mountains to the south and southwest, Ventura County and the Santa Clara River Valley to the west. To the west-northwest lies the Topatopa Mountains. Santa Clarita Valley is connected to a wide array of other nearby valleys: the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles Basin via Newhall Pass to the south.
Downstream lies the Santa Clara River Valley, given the moniker Heritage Valley by the tourism bureau representing Piru and Santa Paula. Upstream is Soledad Canyon which contains the communities of Vincent, Acton and Agua Dulce; the Santa Clara River was named by Spanish explorers for Claire of Assisi. The valley became known as "little Santa Clara" in deference to the Northern California mission and city of Santa Clara, California. In time, "little Santa Clara" became "Santa Clarita." Santa Clarita Valley is about 20 miles from the Burbank Bob Hope Airport, about 35 miles away from the Los Angeles International Airport. It is home to the 262-acre theme park Six Flags Magic Mountain and the gated waterpark Six Flags Hurricane Harbor, it offers a variety of family-oriented activity centers such as the Mountasia Family Fun Center, Copper Horse Riding Ranch and the Ice Station Valencia and shopping centers, golf courses and theaters, luxurious day spas, outdoor recreation areas like Castaic Lake, Placerita Canyon, Towsley Canyon Park, as well as acres of parkland, animal sanctuaries like the Gentle Barn and Gibbon Conservation Center, over 70 miles of paseos and trails for hiking and biking, more.
Santa Clarita is home to a number of historical sites, such as the oil drilling town Mentryville, Walk of Western Stars, William S. Hart Ranch and Museum. Santa Clarita Valley has a rich Western heritage, since 1994, it has hosted an annual Cowboy Festival, which attracts more than 10,000 visitors each year; the Santa Clarita Valley is home to many school districts such as Acton-Agua Dulce Unified School District, Castaic Union School District, Newhall School District, Saugus Union School District, Sulphur Springs School District, William S. Hart Union High School District, with several elementary, junior high, high schools within these districts. Many of these schools in these districts have been awarded with the California Distinguished and National Blue Ribbon School Award; the Santa Clarita Valley includes three colleges. One is a private university called The California Institute of the Arts, otherwise known as CalArts and is located in Valencia. CalArts is run by President Ravi Rajan; the second college is College of the Canyons, a public two-year community college that operates within the Santa Clarita Community College District.
The colleges main campus is located in Valencia with a smaller satellite campus located in Canyon Country. Dr. Dianne G. Van Hook is president of the college and chancellor of the Santa Clarita Community College District; the Master's University is a private Christian college located in Santa Clarita Valley. Santa Clarita, California Placerita Canyon State Park Newhall Pass Rancho San Francisco Disney—Golden Oak Ranch Monogram Movie Ranch—Melody Ranch Santa Susana Mountains Santa Clara River Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society website
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, sometimes within, countries. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, 7 and the secondary school grade 8. In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory. In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; the ciclo básico of secondary education is equivalent to middle school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school; as an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", "senior". In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of early adolescent needs guiding principles for educators appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale. Other schools have since followed this trend; the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12. Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools; the middle schools cover years 5 to 8. In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Schools are from class 1 to class 10, it means upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school while 10–12 is called college. There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education. In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school.
Gymnasiums are the most prestigious type of "middle" school. In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14. In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga and Kitchener-Waterloo.
In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system, different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section; the Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V. There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica or the first years of educación media. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has junior stage and senior stage; the junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens. Some middle schools have both stages; the admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments.
Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. Secondary education is divided into basic secondary and
Porter Ranch, Los Angeles
Porter Ranch is an affluent neighborhood in the northwest region of the San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The neighborhood is bounded by Brown's Canyon/Chatsworth on the south and west, Northridge on the south, Granada Hills on the northeast and east; the Santa Susana Mountains, which separate the San Fernando and Santa Clarita valleys, lie to the north. The principal thoroughfares are Mason Ave. Corbin Ave. Porter Ranch Drive, Tampa Ave. and Reseda Blvd. running north-south, Sesnon Blvd. Rinaldi St. and the Ronald Reagan Freeway, running west. The Porter Ranch ZIP code is 91326. Porter Ranch is in the hilly northwestern tip of the San Fernando Valley, according to a 2008 Los Angeles Times article, it was a "calm outpost of Los Angeles" that attracted residents "seeking sanctuary from the urban hubbub." It was noted that the neighborhood had "some of the cleanest air in the Valley year-around—some of, attributable to winds that sweep through the community regularly."
"those same winds, which have been clocked at 70 mph, take down trees and holiday lights." New home building that took place in the Porter Ranch area in the 1990s–2000s, including the Renaissance Summit development, was mired in controversy and Los Angeles politics in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Existing residents of the Porter Ranch area feared the increased traffic that would be brought by the planned building of an area commercial complex to service the new homes being built. Developments were criticized for destroying the natural beauty of the brush and wild areas that inhabited the space before the houses were built. However, Shapell Homes, a company founded by Nathan Shapell, a major Los Angeles builder, brought together powerful Los Angeles political figures to support the new home building. In the late 80s, there was an attempt to connect Sesnon Boulevard, the road that flanks the north side of the neighborhood, to its counterpart across the Aliso Canyon named Sesnon, via a bridge to be named the "Aliso Canyon Bridge".
This plan never came to fruition due to demonstrations from the residents of Porter Ranch, the primary opponents of the bridge, who believed that connecting the road to the neighborhood across the canyon would bring "crime...drag racing, drug dealing". Residents were afraid of Sesnon becoming "a 118 alternate route", which would "send many cars through Porter Ranch". Proponents of the bridge said that there was a "critical need" to build a bridge because "the city of Los Angeles has installed heavy-duty guard rails to stop any vehicle, out of control as it moves east at Beaufait. There is a much smaller rail 200 feet farther east...however, the first guard rail is partially broken because of out-of-control vehicles hitting it. Before it can be repaired, there is no protection to prevent a vehicle from falling into Aliso Canyon. Additionally, if a vehicle heading west on Sesnon becomes lost, there is no barrier to prevent it from falling into this deep canyon." Despite the proponents' argument about the severity of the situation, the bridge was never built.
There is still evidence of the bridge seen from Sesnon heading east towards the canyon, the road is visible heading towards the canyon just short of the bridge, the counterpart is still visible on the west-bound side. Limekiln canyon is a wonderful place to hike along a wooded stream; the hiking trail is parallel to Tampa road, while close to the roads, while hiking one cannot see the main roads. However, one needs to be careful as roving packs of coyotes have been spotted along this trail, as well as large rattlesnakes, mountain lions roam through here, as well as occasional ticks and mosquitoes. On October 23, 2015, Southern California Gas Company workers discovered a leak in one of the over 110 wells at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility, about three miles north of homes in Porter Ranch; the gas blowout began spewing 110,000 pounds of methane per hour. The blowout involved gas stored under pressure in an underground reservoir; the California Air Resources Board estimated that the leak increased California's methane-gas emissions by 25%.
By order of the Los Angeles County Dept of Health, the company relocated thousands of families from the Porter Ranch area. On December 15, the county of Los Angeles declared a state of emergency, two days it approved a plan to close two schools in the area. Officials estimated. On January 11, 2016 Mitchell Englander, the LA City Councilman representing Porter Ranch, said "Most people weren't aware that one of the largest gas storage facilities in the United States was in their backyard. There are wells located off Mullholland on the border of Calabasas and Woodland Hills, 57 of them to be exact; those wells are over 50 years old and pose a threat."On February 18, 2016, state officials announced that the leak was permanently plugged. On March 12, 2016, Los Angeles County Public Health Department officials say its test of dust in Porter Ranch homes turned up the presence of metals, including barium, that could have caused the kinds of health symptoms some residents have reported experiencing after the big gas blowout was plugged.
According to the U. S. Census in 2000, the population was 24,923. Based on the Los Angeles Department of City Planning estimates, the population was 30,571 in 2008. With a population density of 4,462 people per square
California State University, Northridge
California State University, Northridge is a public state university in the Northridge neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. With a total enrollment of 38,716 students, it has the largest undergraduate population as well as the second largest total student body of the 23-campus California State University system, making it one of the largest comprehensive universities in the State of California and the nation in terms of enrollment size; the size of CSUN has a major impact on the California economy, with an estimated $1.9 billion in economic output generated by CSUN on a yearly basis. As of Fall 2017, the university had 2,127 faculty. California State University, Northridge was founded first as the Valley satellite campus of California State University, Los Angeles, it became an independent college in 1958 as San Fernando Valley State College, with major campus master planning and construction. The university adopted its current name of California State University, Northridge in 1972. CSUN offers a variety of programs including 134 different bachelor's degrees, master's degrees in 70 different fields, 3 doctoral degrees, 24 teaching credentials.
CSUN ranks 10th in the U. S. in bachelor's degrees has over 300,000 alumni. Additionally, CSUN has been recognized as having one of the best film schools in the U. S. and in the world. CSUN is home to the National Center on Deafness and the university hosts the International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, held each year in San Diego. CSUN's Chicana and Chicano Studies Department is the largest in California; the establishment of CSUN began in 1952 with the proposal of a new satellite campus for Los Angeles State College. A Baldwin Hills location was planned in 1955, but San Fernando Valley advocates persuaded state officials to change the location to Northridge. In July 1958, the campus separated from Los Angeles State College and was renamed San Fernando Valley State College, with enrollment reaching 2,525 and tuition $29 per semester. In 1959, it became the first State College to have its own computer. In 1964, the pioneering computer lab was moved into quarters in the newly completed Sierra Hall building complex, student enrollment reached nearly 12,000.
The campus's quiet, moderately conservative and overwhelmingly white suburban setting did not shield it from a share of the noise and social upheavals of the Vietnam War era. As on many college campuses, there were large antiwar demonstrations and occasional draft card burnings. In 1966–67, there were only 23 Black and 7 Latino students. Responding to complaints about low minority representation, the administration made some attempts to boost enrollment of Latinos and Blacks in 1967. By the fall of 1968 the tally stood at about 150 75 Latino students. In March 1968, a presidential primary campaign speech by Robert F. Kennedy drew an orderly crowd of 10,000, but in the wake of the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. in April and Robert Kennedy himself in June, some events were not so peaceful. On November 4, 1968, a group of Black students held the college president and more than 30 staff members hostage in the Administration Building for several hours, pressing demands for greater outreach in minority enrollment and employment and the establishment of minority studies departments.
No one was hurt and, under duress, the president agreed to their demands. The administration kept its part of the bargain, but despite an included assurance of amnesty, 28 of the students involved were charged with kidnapping and false imprisonment. One month a fire started by an arsonist gutted the president's office. Several massive antiwar demonstrations took place during 1969–1970, variously resulting in campus shutdowns, heavy police responses, violent clashes, hundreds of arrests, in a few cases serious injuries to demonstrators; the last such demonstration was on the first anniversary of the Kent State shootings. The college renamed itself California State University, Northridge in June 1972. In 1975, the construction of the CSUN sculpture began at the southeast corner of campus. By 1977, enrollment at the university was 28,023, with tuition at $95. In 1981, the campus established a foreign exchange student program with Japan, Ukraine, South Korea, Taiwan and the Netherlands. In 1988, the campus had a $342 tuition fee.
In 1990, the Marilyn Magaram Center for Food Science and Dietetics was established. The 1994 Northridge earthquake struck on January 17 and caused $400 million in damage to the campus, the heaviest damage sustained by an American college campus; the epicenter was less than two miles away on a undiscovered blind thrust fault. The same month, Vice President Al Gore visited with a promise of funds to help with the reconstruction. Entire sections of the main library, the art building and several other major structures were either physically unusable or too hazardous to occupy, but classes soon continued in alternative locations and hastily erected temporary facilities. Among the structures judged to be so damaged that repair was not a practical option were the
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. The party is headquartered in Sacramento, is led by acting-Chair Alex Gallardo-Rooker. With 43.5% of the state's registered voters as of 2018, the Democratic Party has the highest number of registrants of any political party in California. Democrats enjoy supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature, holding 61 out of 80 seats in the California State Assembly and 29 out of 40 in the California State Senate. Democrats hold all 8 statewide executive branch offices, 46 of the state's 53 seats in the House of Representatives, both of California's seats in the United States Senate. Since the beginning of the 1850s, issues regarding slavery had split the California Democratic Party. By the 1853 general election campaign, large majorities of pro-slavery Democrats from Southern California, calling themselves the Chivalry, threatened to divide the state in half, should the state not accept slavery.
John Bigler, along with former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor David C. Broderick from the previous McDougall Administration, formed the Free Soil Democratic faction, modeled after the federal Free Soil Party that argued against the spread of slavery; the Democrats split into two camps, with both the Chivalry and Free Soilers nominating their own candidates for the 1853 election. By 1857, the party had split into the Anti-Lecompton factions. Lecompton members supported the Kansas Lecompton Constitution, a document explicitly allowing slavery into the territory, while Anti-Lecompton faction members were in opposition to slavery's expansion; the violence between supporting and opposition forces led to the period known as Bleeding Kansas. Splits in the Democratic Party, as well as the power vacuum created by the collapse of the Whig Party, helped facilitate the rise of the American Party both in state and federal politics. In particular, state voters voted Know-Nothings into the California State Legislature, elected J. Neely Johnson as governor in the 1855 general elections.
During the 1859 general elections, Lecompton Democrats voted for Milton Latham, who had lived in the American South, as their nominee for Governor. Anti-Lecomptons in turn selected John Currey as their nominee; the infant Republican Party, running in its first gubernatorial election, selected businessman Leland Stanford as its nominee. To make matters more complicated, during the campaign, Senator David C. Broderick, an Anti-Lecompton Democrat, was killed in a duel by slavery supporter and former state Supreme Court Justice David Terry on September 13; until the early 1880s the Republican Party held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti freedom of attainment position. In 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry; the party began working with the state's railroad commission to create fair rates for passengers and to eliminate monopolies the railroad companies held over the state.
The main effort focused on making railroads public avenues of transportation similar to streets and roads. This measure passed and was a great victory for the Democrats. Budd was to be the last Democratic governor for thirty years; the struggle between the anti-monopolists and the railroad companies was, however, a key and defining issue for the Democratic Party for some time. Despite their relative lack of power during this period, the Democrats in California were still active in pursuing reform; the party crusaded for tariff reform. The party supported the large scale railroad strikes that sprung up statewide; the corruption of the time in both the railroad companies and the government led to a change in political dynamic. The people of the state moved away from both of the main parties and the Progressive Movement began. While the Progressives were successful in creating positive reform and chasing out corruption, the movement drained away many of the Democratic Party's members; as their movement ended, the Republicans won the governorship, but the Democratic Party had a distinct voter advantage.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president and the Power balance between the Republicans and the Democrats in California equalized. However, as Roosevelt's New Deal policies began to raise the nation out of the depression, Democratic strength mounted. Culbert Olson was elected to the governorship, but his term was rocky and both parties organized against him. Shortly thereafter, Earl Warren and the Republicans seized power again; the California Democratic Party needed a new strategy to regain power in the state. A strategy of reorganization and popular mobilization emerged and resulted in the creation of the California Democratic Council; the CDC as it became known was a way for members of the party from all levels of government to come together and as such the party became more unified. A new network of politically minded civilians and elected officials emerged and the party was stronger for it. Despite the fact that the council struggled in the cold war era, due to Republican strength and issues such as the Vietnam War, it still exists today.
By 1992, California was hurting more than most states from a national recession which had started in 1990, causing incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush's approval rating to tank within the state, giving an opening for the Democratic party to break through and become the largest party. Starting with the double digit victory of Bill Clinton, this became the f