Jean Mitry was a French film theorist and filmmaker, a co-founder of France's first film society, and, in 1938, of the Cinémathèque Française. The first lecturer of film aesthetics in France, Mitry was one of the first intellectuals responsible for taking film studies out of the era of the film club and into that of the university. Mitry was one of few major film theorists, he edited Alexandre Astruc's short film Le Rideau Cramoisi and directed two films of his own, Pacific 231, set to Arthur Honegger's music, Images pour Debussy, set to the music of Claude Debussy. The Enigma of the Folies-Bergere Introduction to film aesthetics Dictionary of cinema The Aesthetics and Psychology of the Cinema History of cinema, 5 volumes Experimental Cinema: History and perspectives Semiotics and the Analysis of Film
Automobiles Talbot S. A. was a French automobile manufacturer based in Hauts de Seine, outside Paris. The Suresnes factory had been built by Alexandre Darracq for his pioneering car manufacturing business begun in 1896, which he named A. Darracq & Cie, it was profitable. Alexandre Darracq built racing as well as “pleasure” cars and Darracq became famous for its motor racing successes. Darracq sold his remaining portion of his business in 1912. New owners renamed the Darracq business Automobiles Talbot in 1922. However, though its ordinary production cars were badged as Talbots, the new owners continued incorporating the Darracq name in Talbot-Darracq for their competition cars. Owing to the simultaneous existence of British Talbot cars, French products when sold in Britain were badged Darracq-Talbot or Talbot-Darracq, or simply Darracq. In 1932, after the onset of the Great Depression, Italo-British businessman Antonio Lago was appointed managing director in the hope that he might revive Automobiles Talbot’s business.
Lago began this process, but the owners were unable to stave off receivership beyond the end of 1934. The receiver did not close Automobiles Talbot, in 1936 Antonio Lago managed to complete a management buy-out from the receiver. For 1935, the existing range continued in production but from 1936 these were replaced with cars designed by Walter Becchia, featuring transverse leaf-sprung independent suspension; these included the 4-cylinder 2323 cc Talbot Type T4 "Minor", a surprise introduction at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, the 6-cylinder 2,696 cc Talbot "Cadette-15", along with and the 6-cylinder 2,996 cc or 3,996 cc Talbot "Major" and its long-wheelbase version, the Talbot "Master": these were classified as Touring cars. There was in the second half of the 1930s a range of Sporting cars which started with the Talbot "Baby-15", mechanically the same as the "Cadette-15" but using a shorter lighter chassis; the Sporting Cars range centred on the 6-cylinder 2,996 cc or 3,996 cc Talbot "Baby" and included the 3,996 cc 23 and sporting Lago-Spéciale and Lago-SS models with two and three carburettors, corresponding increases in power and performance.
The most specified body for the Lago-SS was built by Figoni et Falaschi, featured a eye-catching aerodynamic form. Lago was an excellent engineer who developed the existing six-cylinder engine into a high-performance 4-litre one; the sporting six-cylinder models had a great racing history. The bodies—such as of the T150 coupé—were made by excellent coachbuilders such as Figoni et Falaschi or Saoutchik. Although the proliferation of cars types and model names that followed Lago's acquisition of the business is at first glance bewildering, it involved only four standard chassis lengths as follows: Short Châssis: Minor T4 Junior 11 Baby-15 Baby 3 litres T150 3 litres Baby 4 litres Lago Spécial Extra short Châssis: Lago SS Normal Châssis: Cadette-15 Major 3 litres Major 4 litres Long Châssis: Master 3 litres Master 4 litres During the early years of the war Walter Becchia left Talbot to work for Citroen, but Lago was joined in 1942 by another exceptional engineer, Carlo Machetti, from the two of them were working on the twin camshaft 4483 cc six-cylinder unit that would lie at the heart of the 1946 Talbot T26.
After the war, the company continued to be known both for successful high-performance racing cars and for large luxurious passenger cars, with extensive sharing of chassis and engine components between the two. The period was one of economic stagnation and financial stringency; the company had difficulty finding customers, its finances were stretched. In 1946, the company began production of a new engine design, based on earlier units but with a new cylinder head featuring a twin overhead camshaft; this engine, designed under the leadership of Carlo Marchetti, was in many respects a new engine. A 4483 cc six-cylinder in-line engine was developed for the Talbot Lago Record and for the Talbot Grand Sport 26CV; these cars were priced against large luxurious cars from the likes of Delahaye, Delage and Salmson. Talbot would remain in the auto-making business for longer than any of these others, the Talbot name had the further dubious distinction of a resurrection in the early 1980s; the Talbot Lago Record T26 was a large car with a fiscal horsepower of 26 CV and a claimed actual power output of 170 hp, delivered to the rear wheels via a four-speed manual gear box, with the option at extra cost of a Wilson pre-selector gear box, supporting a claimed top speed of 170 km/h.
The car was sold as a stylish four-door sedan, but a two-door cabriolet was offered. There were coachbuilt specials with bodywork by traditionalist firms such as Graber; the T26 Grand Sport was first displayed in public in October 1947 as a shortened chassis, only 12 were made during 1948, the models's first full year of production. The car was noted for its speed; the engine which produced 170 hp in the Lago Record was adapted to provide 190 bhp or 195 bhp in the GS, a top speed of around 200 km/h was claimed, depending on the body, fitted. The
Ponton or pontoon styling refers to a 1930s–1960s car design genre. The trend emerged as bodywork began to enclose the full width and uninterrupted length of a car, incorporating distinct running boards and articulated fenders; the fenders of an automobile with ponton styling may be called Pontoon fenders, the overall trend may be known as envelope styling. Now archaic, the term Ponton describes the markedly bulbous, slab-sided configuration of postwar European cars, including those of Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union, DKW, Lancia, Rover and Volvo—as well as similar designs from North America and Japan. Elements of the trend have been retained in modern automotive styling; the term derives from the French and German word ponton, meaning'pontoon'. The Langenscheidt German–English dictionary defines Pontonkarrosserie as "all-enveloping bodywork, straight-through side styling, slab-sided styling." The term ponton styling may have derived from the wartime practice in Germany of adding full-length tread armor along each side of a tank, attached on the top edge—which resembled pontoons.
As this coincided with automobile styling trend where bodywork running boards and fenders, became less articulated—with cars carrying integrated front fenders and full-width, full-length bodywork—the design took on the "pontoon" or "ponton" descriptor. In 1921, Hungarian aerodynamicist Paul Jaray requested a patent for a streamlined car with an evenly shaped lower body, that covers the wheels and runs parallel to the floor-space. A year he presented his first running prototype with such a body, the "Ley T6", in 1923 Auto Union presented a streamliner concept car, designed by Jaray. Another of the first known cars with a ponton body is the Bugatti Type 32 "Tank" which participated in the 1923 French Grand Prix at Tours. In 1922 the Romanian engineer Aurel Persu filed a patent application for an “aerodynamically-shaped automobile with the wheels mounted inside the aerodynamic body” having a drag coefficient of only 0.22 and received it in Germany in 1924. Named the Persu Streamliner the car was built in Germany by Persu, with the help of several local companies.
During his research Persu established that the most adequate aerodynamic shape was that of a water droplet falling to the ground. In 1924, Fidelis Böhler designed one of the first production cars with a ponton body, the Hanomag 2/10; the car's body resembled a loaf of bread earning it the sobriquet of "Kommissbrot"—a coarse whole grain bread as issued by the army. The economical car was produced from 1924 to 1928. Böhler built the core body around two side-by-side passenger seats, he dispensed with running boards and integrated the fenders in the body to save on weight." The inexpensive car became popular with consumers in Germany. In 1935, Vittorio Jano, working with the brothers Gino and Oscar Jankovitz, created a one-off mid-engine prototype on an Alfa Romeo 6C 2300 chassis, which Jano had shipped to Fiume in 1934; the brothers Jankovitz had been close friends with designer Paul Jaray, the prototype, called the Alfa Romeo Aerodinamica Spider, featured ponton styling—an early and clear example of the bulbous, uninterrupted forms that would come to characterize the genre.
In 1937, Pinin Farina designed a flowing ponton-style body for the Lancia Aprilia berlinetta aerodynamica coupé, the open body on the 1940 Lancia Aprilia Cabriolet. The 1946 Cisitalia 202 coupé, which Farina designed from sketches by Cisitalia’s Giovanni Savonuzzi, was the car that "transformed postwar automobile design" according to New York’s Museum of Modern Art. MoMA acquired an example for its permanent collection in 1951, noting that the car’s "hood, body and headlights are integral to the continuously flowing surface, rather than added on. Rounded, flowing forms, with unbroken horizontal lines between the fenders—the style had identified as "the so-called Ponton Side Design" became "the new fashion in Europe". Two of the first American cars with fresh post-war styling, that adopted the new envelope body style, were the 1946 Frazer / Kaiser, the 1946 Crosley CC series; the Howard "Dutch" Darrin-designed Frazer won the Fashion Academy of New York Gold Medal for design achievement, was said to have been the inspiration for the 1949 Borgward Hansa 1500, Germany's first sedan in the ponton style.
The 1947 Studebaker Champion, designed by Virgil Exner and Roy Cole followed suit, but the design is sometimes erroneously attributed to Raymond Loewy. In the Soviet Union the GAZ-M20 Pobeda came into production in 1946, about one month after the first 1946 Kaiser rolled off the production line, in Britain the Standard Vanguard went on sale the following year. In 1948 Czechoslovakian Tatra 600 began production. Ford and General Motors followed the trend with their own designs in 1949. One of the earliest new styled cars that were introduced after World War II in the United States were the 1949 Nash models. Popular Science magazine described the new "pontoon" Nashes as "the most obvious departure from previous designs." They "carried the fenderless pontoon-body, fast-back shape further than the competition." This Nash design became a "family appearance" for their automobiles that included the Nash-Healey. The 1952 redesign of the two-seat sports car took on an "even closer family appearance" to the redesigned Nash models by featuring "pontoon-type fenders fore and aft."
The new styling moved the headlights "from the pontoon fenders to the grille."The term is used in reference to Mercedes-Benz models from 1953–1962. For example, a book about the marque refers to "the Ponton", the "Ponton saloon", "Ponton 220", "Ponton 220S and SE coupes and cabriolets", "the Ponton models". A General Motors document refers to the 195
Hispano-Suiza was a Spanish automotive/engineering company and, after World War II, a French aviation engine and components manufacturer. It is best known for its pre-World War II luxury cars and aviation engines. In 1923, its French subsidiary became a semi-autonomous partnership with the Spanish parent company. In 1946, the Spanish parent company sold all its Spanish automotive assets to Enasa. In 1968, the French arm was taken over by the aerospace company Snecma, now a part of the French Safran Group. In 1898 a Spanish artillery captain, Emilio de la Cuadra, started electric automobile production in Barcelona under the name of La Cuadra. In Paris, De la Cuadra met the Swiss engineer Marc Birkigt and hired him to work for the company in Spain. La Cuadra built their first gasoline-powered engines from a Birkigt design. At some point in 1902, the ownership changed hands to José María Castro Fernández and became Fábrica Hispano-Suiza de Automóviles but this company went bankrupt in December 1903.
Yet another restructuring took place in 1904, creating La Hispano-Suiza Fábrica de Automóviles, under Castro's direction based in Barcelona. Four new engines were introduced in a half; this company managed to avoid bankruptcy and its largest operations remained in Barcelona until 1946, where cars, buses, aero engines and weapons were produced. Other factories in Spain were at Ripoll and Guadalajara. In 1910 Jean Chassagne competed with a Hispano-Suiza together with works drivers Pilleveridier and Zucarelli in the Coupe des Voiturettes Boulogne and the Catalan Cup Races, gaining second and fourth places respectively. France was soon proving to be a larger market for Hispano-Suiza's luxury cars than Spain. In 1911, an assembly factory called Hispano France began operating in the Paris suburb of Levallois-Perret. Production was moved to larger factories at Bois-Colombes, under the name Hispano-Suiza in 1914 and soon became Hispano-Suiza's main plant for producing the largest, most costly models.
With the start of World War I, Hispano-Suiza turned to the design and production of aircraft engines under the direction of Marc Birkigt. His chief engineer during this period was Louis Massuger. Traditionally, aircraft engines were manufactured by machining separate steel cylinders and bolting these assemblies directly to the crankcase. Birkigt's novel solution called for the engine block to be formed from a single piece of cast aluminum, into which thin steel liners were secured. Manufacturing an engine in this way simplified construction and resulted in a lighter, yet stronger more durable engine. Thus, Birkigt's new construction method created the first practical, what are known today as, "cast block" engines, his aluminum cast block V-8 design was noteworthy for incorporating overhead camshafts, propeller reduction gearing and other desirable features that would not appear together on competitor's engines until the late 1920s. Another major design feature, for the HS.8B line was the use of a hollow propeller shaft for both the 8B and 8C gear-reduction versions, which when used for the HS.8C versions engineered to accommodate one, to allow heavy calibre projectile firing through the hollow propeller shaft, avoiding the need for a synchronization gear, a feature used in future Hispano-Suiza military engines.
Hispano-Suiza's aero engines, produced at its own factories and under license, became the most used aero engines in the French and British air forces, powering over half the alliance's fighter aircraft. After World War I, Hispano-Suiza returned to automobile manufacturing and in 1919 they introduced the Hispano-Suiza H6; the H6 featured an inline 6-cylinder overhead camshaft engine based on the features of its V8 aluminum World War I aircraft engines and had coachwork done by well known coachbuilders like Hibbard & Darrin and D'Ieteren. Licences for Hispano-Suiza patents were much in demand from prestige car manufacturers world-wide. Rolls-Royce used a number of Hispano-Suiza patents. For instance, for many years Rolls Royce installed Hispano-Suiza designed power brakes in its vehicles. In 1923 the French arm of Hispano-Suiza was incorporated as the Société Française Hispano-Suiza, the Spanish parent company retaining control with 71% of the share capital; the French subsidiary was granted a large degree of financial and project independence to bring design and production direction into closer contact with its main markets but overall direction remained at Barcelona.
This arrangement increased the importance of the Bois-Colombes plant near Paris as Hispano-Suiza's premier luxury car plant, while the Spanish operations continued to produce luxury cars the smaller, less expensive models, production in Spain moved to the production of buses and aircraft engines at several plants located around the country. Through the 1920s and into the 1930s, Hispano-Suiza built a series of luxury cars with overhead camshaft engines of increasing performance. On the other hand, in the 1930s, Hispano-Suiza's V-12 car engines reverted to pushrod valve actuation to reduce engine noise. During this time, Hispano-Suiza released the 37.2 Hispano-Suiza car built at the Bois-Colombes works. The mascot statuette atop the radiator after World War I was the stork, the symbol of the French province of Alsace, taken from the squadron emblem painted on the side of a Hispano-Suiza powered fighter aircraft, flown by the World War I French ace Georges Guynemer. In 1925, Carlos Ballester obtained permission to represent Hispano-Suiza in Argentina.
The agreement consisted of a phase in which the chassis were impor
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën. In 1934, the firm established its reputation for innovative technology with the Traction Avant; this car was the world's first mass-produced front wheel drive car, one of the first to feature a unitary type body, with no chassis supporting the mechanical components. In 1954 they produced the world's first hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system in 1955, the revolutionary DS, the first mass-produced car with modern disc brakes and, in 1967, they introduced in several of their models swiveling headlights that allowed for greater visibility on winding roads. With a successful history in motorsport, Citroën is the only automobile manufacturer to have won three different official championships from the International Automobile Federation: the World Rally Raid Championship five times, the World Rally Championship eight times and the World Touring Car Championship.
Citroën has been selling vehicles in China since 1984 via the Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën joint venture, which today represents a major market for the brand. In 2014, when PSA Peugeot Citroën ran into severe financial difficulties, the Dongfeng Motor Corporation took an ownership stake. André Citroën built armaments for France during World War I. There was nothing automatic about his decision to become an automobile manufacturer once the war was over: the automotive business was one that Citroën knew well, thanks to a successful six-year stint working with Mors between 1908 and the outbreak of war; the decision to switch to automobile manufacturing was evidently taken as early as 1916, the year when Citroën asked the engineer Louis Dufresne with Panhard, to design a technically-sophisticated 18HP automobile for which he could use his factory once peace returned. Long before that happened, however, he had modified his vision and decided, like Henry Ford, that the best post-war opportunities in auto-making would involve a lighter car of good quality, but made in sufficient quantities to be priced enticingly.
In February 1917 Citroën contacted another engineer, Jules Salomon, who had a considerable reputation within the French automotive sector as the creator, in 1909, of a little car called Le Zèbre. André Citroën's mandate was characteristically demanding and characteristically simple: to produce an all-new design for a 10 HP car that would be better equipped, more robust and less costly to produce than any rival product at the time; the result was the Type A, announced to the press in March 1919, just four months after the guns fell silent. The first production Type A emerged from the factory at the end of May 1919 and in June it was exhibited at a show room at Number 42, on the Champs-Élysées in Paris which sold Alda cars. Citroën persuaded the owner of the Alda business, Fernand Charron, to lend him the show-room, still in use today; this C42 showroom is where the company organises exhibitions and shows its vehicles and concept cars. A few years Charron would be persuaded to become a major investor in the Citroën business.
On 7 July 1919, the first customer took delivery of a new Citroën 10HP Type A. That same year, André Citroën negotiated with General Motors a proposed sale of the Citroën company; the deal nearly closed, but General Motors decided that its management and capital would be too overstretched by the takeover. Thus Citroën remained independent till 1935. Between 1921 and 1937, Citroën produced half-track vehicles for off-road and military uses, using the Kégresse track system. In the 1920s, the U. S. Army purchased several Citroën-Kégresse vehicles for evaluation followed by a licence to produce them; this resulted in the Army Ordnance Department building a prototype in 1939. In December 1942, it went into production with the M2 Half Track M3 Half-track versions; the U. S. produced more than 41,000 vehicles in over 70 versions between 1940 and 1944. After their 1940 occupation of France, the Nazi's captured many of the Citroën half-track vehicles and armored them for their own use. Mr Citroën was a keen marketer: he used the Eiffel Tower as the world's largest advertising sign, as recorded in Guinness World Records.
He sponsored expeditions in Asia, North America and Africa, demonstrating the potential for motor vehicles equipped with the Kégresse track system to cross inhospitable regions. These expeditions conveyed journalists. Demonstrating extraordinary toughness, a 1923 Citroën that had travelled 48,000 km was the first car to be driven around Australia; the car, a 1923 Citroën 5CV Type C Torpedo, was driven by Neville Westwood from Perth, Western Australia, on a round trip from August to December 1925. This vehicle is now restored and in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. In 1924, Citroën began a business relationship with the American engineer Edward G. Budd. From 1899, Budd had worked to develop stainless steel bodies for railroad cars, for the Pullman in particular. Budd went on to manufacture steel bodies for many automakers. At the Paris Motor Show in October 1924, Citroën introduced the Citroën B10, the first all-steel body in Europe; these automobiles were successful in the marketplace, but soon competitors introduced new body des
Delage was a French luxury automobile and racecar company founded in 1905 by Louis Delage in Levallois-Perret near Paris. The company was founded in 1905 by Louis Delage, who borrowed Fr 35,000, giving up a salary of Fr 600 a month to do so, its first location was on the Rue Cormeilles in Levallois-Perret. The company at first had just two lathes and three employees, one of them Peugeot's former chief designer. Delage produced parts for Helbé, with the De Dion-Bouton engine and chassis assembled by Helbé; the first model was the Type A, a voiturette which appeared in 1906. It was powered by a one-cylinder De Dion-Bouton of 9 hp. Like other early carmakers, Delage participated in motor racing, entering the Coupe de Voiturettes held at Rambouillet in November 1906 with a 9 hp racer. Seven days of regularity trials decided the entrants, one of the two 9 hp Delage specials was wrecked in the rain on the fifth. In 1907 the factory moved to the Rue Baudin Levallois; the two-cylinder Delages were no match for the competition this year at the Coupe des Voiturettes.
In 1908, the success enabled the development of the entry into more Grand Prix races. That year, racing success returned: Delage won the Grand Prix des Voiturettes held 6 July; this event, six laps of the 47.74 mi Dieppe Grand Prix circuit, saw 47 starters. Delage fielded three cars: a pair with 1,242 cc De Dion-Bouton twins, driven by Thomas and Lucas-Bonnard, a radical 28 hp 1,257 cc one-cylinder in the hands of Delage dealer Albert Guyot. Guyot won at an average 49.8 mph. All three Delages finished this time, Thomas the quickest of the two-cylinder cars, while the team took home the regularity prize; these good results contributed to total sales exceeding 300 cars for the year. Delage converted to four-cylinder engines at first provided by De Dion and Edouard Ballot. After an increase in sales, the existing facilities were too small, so in 1910 the factory moved to a new facility at 138 Boulevard de Verdun, Courbevoie; the following year saw the creation of advanced bodywork. By 1912, 350 workers were producing over 1000 cars annually, offered four- and six-cylinder sidevalve engines.
During the First World War, Delage produced munitions. Production of passenger cars stopped, with the exception of some fabrication for the Army, but the Delage factories were running full support for the war effort. When the war concluded, Delage made its reputation with larger cars. First up was the CO, with a 4,524 cc fixed-head sidevalve six producing 20 hp; the CO plans had been drawn up during the conflict. It was joined by the DO with a 3-liter four; the 1920s were the first "Golden Age" of Delage. The most famous were the DI: 4 cylinders of about 2 liters and 11 hp. Delage attempted to compete with Hispano-Suiza, with the GL of 30 hp and 5954 cc, with some success. After that came a new generation of six-cylinder cars, like the MD and DR, the best-selling vehicle in the history of the brand, designed by engineer Gaultier. Both the CO and DO were replaced in 1922; the CO became the CO2, which changed to an overhead valve twin-plug head, producing 88 hp, while the DO was supplanted by the DE with a 2,117 cc sidevalve four and, unusual in a production car in this era, four-wheel brakes.
The CO2 completed the Paris-Nice run in an average of 67 km/h. The next year, the new 14 hp DI switched to OHV with a 2,121 cc four, fitted with magneto ignition and thermosyphon cooling. At the other end of the scale, the GL known as the 40/50, replaced the CO2, being fitted with a magneto-fired 5,344 cc overhead cam six. In 1923, a hillclimb car with DI chassis, larger wheels and tires, 5,107 cc CO block was produced. Delage scored successes at Mont Ventoux; this car was joined by a 10,688 cc V12, which broke the course record at the Gaillon hillclimb, with Thomas at the wheel. Thomas would set the land speed record at Arpajon in this car, at a speed of 143.24 mph, in 1924. A 1925 car had a 5,954 cc six, again using the GL block, with four valves per cylinder and twin overhead cams. Driven by Divo, it broke the Mont Ventoux course record in its debut; the car was destroyed by fire at the Phoenix Park meet in 1934. The 1924 and 1925 DIS, with a 117 in wheelbase, switched from Rolls-Royce-type locking wheel hubs to Rudge knock-ons, better cam, bigger valves, while the 1925 and 1926 DISS on the same wheelbase.
Some of the DISes were bodied by Kelsch. The DIS became the Series 6 in 1927, switching to water pump. In 1926, Delage introduced the DM, with a 3,182 cc six, which made it emblematic of the era for the marque; the high-performance DMS had hotter cam
Jules Gustave René Coty was President of France from 1954 to 1959. He was the last president of the Fourth French Republic. René Coty was born in Le Havre and studied at the University of Caen, where he graduated in 1902, receiving degrees in law and philosophy, he worked as a lawyer in his hometown of Le Havre, specialising in commercial law. He became involved in politics, as a member of the Radical Party, in 1907 was elected as a district councillor; the following year he was elected to the communal council of Le Havre as a member of the Republican Left group. He retained both of these positions until 1919. Coty served as a member of the Conseil Général of Seine-Inférieure 1913–1942, holding the post of Vice President from 1932. With the outbreak of the First World War, Coty volunteered for the army, joining the 129th Infantry Regiment, he fought at the Battle of Verdun. In 1923, Coty entered the Chamber of Deputies, succeeding Jules Siegfried as Deputy for Seine-Inférieure. However, by this stage of his political career he had moved away from the Radical Party, sat as a member of the Republican Union.
Between 13 and 23 December 1930 he served as Under-secretary of State for the Interior in the government of Théodore Steeg. In 1936, Coty was elected to the Senate for Seine-Inférieure, he was one of the French parliamentarians who, on 10 July 1940, voted to give extraordinary powers to Philippe Pétain, thereby bringing about the Nazi-backed Vichy government. Coty remained inactive during World War II, although he was rehabilitated after the war, he was a member of the Constituent National Assembly from 1944 to 1946, chaired the right-wing Independent Republican group, which became part of the National Center of Independents and Peasants. Coty was elected to the National Assembly in 1946 as a Deputy for Seine-Inférieure, from November 1947 to September 1948, he served as Minister for Reconstruction and Urban Planning in the governments of Robert Schuman and André Marie. Coty was elected as a member of the Council of the Republic in November 1948, served as Vice President of the Council from 1952.
Coty stood as a candidate for President in 1953, although it was thought unlikely that he would be elected. Nonetheless, despite twelve successive ballots, right-wing favourite Joseph Laniel failed to obtain the absolute majority required. Following the withdrawal of another key right-wing candidate, Louis Jacquinot, Coty was elected in the thirteenth ballot on 23 December 1953, winning 477 votes against the 329 of the socialist Marcel-Edmond Naegelen, he succeeded Vincent Auriol as President on 16 January 1954. As President of the Republic, Coty was less active than his predecessor in trying to influence policy, his presidency was troubled by the political instability of the Fourth Republic and the Algerian question. With the deepening of the crisis in 1958, on 29 May of that year, President Coty appealed to Charles de Gaulle, the "most illustrious of Frenchmen" to become the last Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic. Coty had threatened to resign. De Gaulle drafted a new constitution, on 28 September, a referendum took place in which 79.2% of those who voted supported the proposals, which led to the Fifth Republic.
De Gaulle was elected as President of the new Republic by parliament in December, succeeded Coty on 9 January 1959. Coty was a member of the Constitutional Council from 1959 until his death in 1962. A photo of President Coty is a running joke in the 2006 French spy spoof OSS 117: Cairo, Nest of Spies. Politics of France "René Coty, Ex-President of France, Dies at 80"; the Victoria Advocate, Texas. Associated Press. 23 November 1962. P. 1. Retrieved 18 May 2014. An AP obituary of René Coty, 23 November 1962