The Frank was the currency of the Swiss canton of Luzern between 1798 and 1850. It was subdivided into 10 each of 10 Rappen or 20 Angster; the Frank was the currency of the Helvetic Republic from 1798, replacing the Gulden in Luzern. The Helvetian Republic ceased issuing coins in 1803 and Luzern once again issued coins its own coins, from 1803 to 1846. Copper coins were issued in denominations of 1 Angster and 1 Rappen, together with billon 1⁄2 and 1 Batzen, silver 2 1⁄2, 5 and 10 Batzen and 4 Franken and gold 10 and 20 Franken. In 1850, the Swiss franc was introduced, with 1 1⁄2 Swiss francs = 1 Luzern Frank
The Belgian franc was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced. It was subdivided into 100 subunits, known as centiemen, centimes or Centime; the conquest of most of western Europe by revolutionary and Napoleonic France led to the French franc's wide circulation. In the Austrian Netherlands, the franc replaced the kronenthaler; this was in turn replaced by the Dutch guilder when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed. Following independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the new Kingdom of Belgium in 1832 adopted its own franc, equivalent to the French franc, followed by Luxembourg in 1848 and Switzerland in 1850. Belgian mint working during the late 19th century was innovative and Belgium was the first country to introduce coins made of cupronickel, in 1860. In 1865, France and Italy created the Latin Monetary Union: each would possess a national currency unit worth 4.5 g of silver or 290.322 mg of fine gold, all exchangeable at a rate of 1:1.
In the 1870s the gold value was made the fixed standard, a situation, to continue until 1914. In 1926, Belgium, as well as France, experienced depreciation and an abrupt collapse of confidence, leading to the introduction of a new gold currency for international transactions, the Belga worth 5 francs, the country's withdrawal from the monetary union, which ceased to exist at the end of the year; the Belga was tied to the British pound at a rate of 35 belgas = 1 pound and was thus put on a gold standard of 1 Belga = 209.211 mg fine gold. The 1921 monetary union of Belgium and Luxembourg survived, forming the basis for full economic union in 1932. In 1935, the Belgian franc was devalued by 28% to 150.632 mg fine gold and the link between the Luxembourg and Belgian francs was revised to 1 Luxembourgish franc = 1 1⁄4 Belgian francs. Following Belgium's occupation by Germany in May 1940, the franc was fixed at a value of 0.1 Reichsmark, reduced to 0.08 Reichsmark in July 1940. Following liberation in 1944, the franc entered into the Bretton Woods system, with an initial exchange rate of 43.77 francs = US dollar set on 5 October.
This was changed to 43.8275 in 1946 and to 50 following the devaluation of the British pound in September 1949. The Belgian franc was devaluated again in 1982. Like 10 other European currencies, the Belgian/Luxembourgish franc ceased to exist on 1 January 1999, when it became fixed at 1 EUR= 40.3399 BEF/LUF, thus a franc was worth € 0.024789. Old franc coins and notes lost their legal tender status on 28 February 2002. Though it is a tringual country with three official languages, Belgian coins only shown both French and Flemish Dutch text, sometimes one or the other depending on the type or time period to represent which region the coin is meant to represent. In 20th century issues, the text is without exception divided between two types of coins, with Flemish issues reading "België" and "Frank," and French issues reading "Belgique" and "Franc." The currency was monolingual in French. From 1886, some Belgian coins carried the Dutch language legends; some coins featured inscriptions in both languages.
When the two languages appeared on either side of the same face of a coin, two versions were still produced: one with Dutch to the left and French to the right, one with the alternate arrangement. Banknotes became bilingual in 1887 and, from 1992, banknotes were introduced which were trilingual, with either French or Dutch on the obverse and German and the remaining language on the reverse; some commemorative coins were issued with German inscriptions but none for circulation. The Franc's value compared to the US dollar varied over the years. After 1971, its lowest mark was in February 1985, its highest standing was in July 1980. After 1 January 1999, the rates are calculated from the Francs fixed conversion rate to the Euro. Between 1832 and 1834, copper 1, 2, 5 and 10 centime, silver 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1, 2 and 5 franc, gold 20 and 40 franc coins were introduced; some of the early 1 and 2 centimes were struck over 1 cent coins. The 40 franc was not issued after 1841, whilst silver 2 1⁄2 francs and gold 10 and 25 francs were issued between 1848 and 1850.
Silver 20 centimes replaced the 1⁄4 franc in 1852. In 1860, cupro-nickel 20 centimes were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel 5 and 10 centimes in 1861; the silver 5 franc was discontinued in 1876. Between 1901 and 1908, cupro-nickel 5, 10 and 25 centime coins were introduced. In 1914, production of the 1 centime and all silver and gold coins ceased. Zinc 5, 10 and 25 centimes were introduced in the German occupied zone, followed by holed, zinc 50 centimes in 1918. Production of 2 centimes ended in 1919. In 1922 and 1923, nickel 50 centime and 1 and 2 franc coins were introduced bearing the text "Good For"; these featured the god Mercury. Nickel-brass replaced cupro-nickel in the 5 and 10 centimes in 1930, followed by the 25 centime in 1938. Nickel 5 and 20 francs were introduced in 1930 and 1931 followed by silver 20 francs in 1933 and 50 francs in 1939. In 1938 the 5 franc was reduced in size and redesigned along with the 1 franc to depict a lion and heraldic arms; as a consequence of the German occupation in 1940, the silver coinage was discontinued.
In 1941, zinc replaced all other metals in the 5, 10 and 25 centimes, 1 and 5 francs. In 1944 the Allies minted 25 million 2 franc coins at the Philadelphia Mint using leftover planchets for the 1943
The Franga is an obsolete unit of currency, equal to 5 lek, used in the Albanian Republic and Albanian Kingdom under Zogu. Coins denominated in Franga were in use from 1926 until 1939. Between 1926 and 1938, 1, 2, 5 franga coins were issued in silver, while 10, 20, 50, 100 franga pieces were minted in gold. Fractional pieces in denominated in lek and qindarka were issued during the period. An undated series of banknotes was issued by the National Bank of Albania in 1926, it comprised 1, 5, 20, 100 franga notes, the first of, recalled shortly after being released into circulation. In 1939, during the Italian occupation, the 100 franga notes were overprinted to obscure the image of king Zog. Korçë frange www.taxfreegold.co.uk about Franga Franga Banknote
The franc is the name of several currency units. The French franc was the currency of France until the euro was adopted in 1999; the Swiss franc is a major world currency today due to the prominence of Swiss financial institutions. The name is said to derive from the Latin inscription francorum rex used on early French coins and until the 18th century, or from the French franc, meaning "frank"; the countries that use francs include Switzerland and most of Francophone Africa. Before the introduction of the euro, francs were used in France and Luxembourg, while Andorra and Monaco accepted the French franc as legal tender; the franc was used within the French Empire's colonies, including Algeria and Cambodia. The franc is sometimes Hispanicised as the franco, for instance in Luccan franco. One franc is divided into 100 centimes; the French franc symbol was an F with a line through it or, more only an F. For practical reasons, the banks and the financial markets used the abbreviation FF for the French franc in order to distinguish it from the Belgian franc, the Luxembourgish franc, et cetera.
In the Luxembourgish language, the word for franc is plural form Frangen. The franc was a French gold coin of 3.87 g minted in 1360 on the occasion of the release of King John II, held by the English since his capture at the Battle of Poitiers four years earlier. It was equivalent to one livre tournois; the French franc was the name of a gold coin issued in France from 1360 until 1380 a silver coin issued between 1575 and 1641. The franc became the national currency from 1795 until 1999. Though abolished as a legal coin by Louis XIII in 1641 in favor of the gold louis and silver écu, the term franc continued to be used in common parlance for the livre tournois; the franc was minted for many of the former French colonies, such as Morocco, French West Africa, others. Today, after independence, many of these countries continue to use the franc as their standard denomination; the value of the French franc was locked to the euro at 1 euro = 6.55957 FRF on 31 December 1998, after the introduction of the euro notes and coins, ceased to be legal tender after 28 February 2002, although they were still exchangeable at banks until 19 February 2012.
Fourteen African countries use the franc CFA worth 1.7 French francs and from 1948, 2 francs but after January 1994 worth only 0.01 French franc. Therefore, from January 1999, 1 CFA franc is equivalent to €0.00152449. A separate circulates in France's Pacific territories, worth €0.0084. In 1981, The Comoros established an arrangement with the French government similar to that of the CFA franc. 50 Comorian francs were worth 1 French franc. In January 1994, the rate was changed to 75 Comorian francs to the French franc. Since 1999, the currency has been pegged to the euro; the conquest of most of western Europe by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France led to the franc's wide circulation. Following independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the new Kingdom of Belgium in 1832 adopted its own Belgian franc, equivalent to the French one, followed by Luxembourg adopting the Luxembourgish franc in 1848 and Switzerland in 1850. Newly unified Italy adopted the lira on a similar basis in 1862. In 1865, Belgium and Italy created the Latin Monetary Union: each would possess a national currency unit worth 4.5 g of silver or 0.290322 g of gold, all exchangeable at a rate of 1:1.
In the 1870s the gold value was made the fixed standard, a situation, to continue until 1914. In 1926 Belgium as well as France experienced depreciation and an abrupt collapse of confidence, leading to the introduction of a new gold currency for international transactions, the belga of 5 francs, the country's withdrawal from the monetary union, which ceased to exist at the end of the year; the 1921 monetary union of Belgium and Luxembourg survived, forming the basis for full economic union in 1932. Like the French franc, the Belgo-Luxemburgish franc ceased to exist on 1 January 1999, when it became fixed at 1 EUR = 40.3399 BEF/LUF, thus a franc was worth €0.024789. Old franc coins and notes lost their legal tender status on 28 February 2002. 1 Luxembourgish franc was equal to 1 Belgian franc. Belgian francs were legal tender inside Luxembourg, Luxembourgish francs were legal tender in the whole of Belgium; the equivalent name of the Belgian franc in Dutch, Belgium's other official language, was Belgische Frank.
As mentioned before, in Luxembourg the franc was called Frang. The Swiss franc, which appreciated against the new European currency from April to September 2000, remains one of the world's strongest currencies, worth today around five-sixths of a euro; the Swiss franc is used in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein retains the ability to mint its own currency, the Liechtenstein franc, which it does from time to time for commemorative or emergency purposes; the name of the c
The franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The Swiss National Bank issues banknotes and the federal mint Swissmint issues coins; the smaller denomination, a hundredth of a franc, is a Rappen in German, centime in French, centesimo in Italian, rap in Romansh. The ISO code of the currency used by banks and financial institutions is CHF, although Fr. is widely used by businesses and advertisers. The Latinate "CH" stands for Confoederatio Helvetica. Given the different languages used in Switzerland, Latin is used for language-neutral inscriptions on its coins. Before 1798, about 75 entities were making coins in Switzerland, including the 25 cantons and half-cantons, 16 cities, abbeys, resulting in about 860 different coins in circulation, with different values and monetary systems; the local Swiss currencies included the Basel thaler, Berne thaler, Fribourg gulden, Geneva thaler, Geneva genevoise, Luzern gulden, Neuchâtel gulden, St. Gallen thaler, Schwyz gulden, Solothurn thaler, Valais thaler, Zürich thaler.
In 1798, the Helvetic Republic introduced the franc, a currency based on the Berne thaler, subdivided into 10 batzen or 100 centimes. The Swiss franc was equal to 6 3⁄4 grams of 1 1⁄2 French francs; this franc was issued until the end of the Helvetic Republic in 1803, but served as the model for the currencies of several cantons in the Mediation period. These 19 cantonal currencies were the Appenzell frank, Argovia frank, Basel frank, Berne frank, Fribourg frank, Geneva franc, Glarus frank, Graubünden frank, Luzern frank, St. Gallen frank, Schaffhausen frank, Schwyz frank, Solothurn frank, Thurgau frank, Ticino franco, Unterwalden frank, Uri frank, Vaud franc, Zürich frank. After 1815, the restored Swiss Confederacy attempted to simplify the system of currencies once again; as of 1820, a total of 8,000 distinct coins were current in Switzerland: those issued by cantons, cities and principalities or lordships, mixed with surviving coins of the Helvetic Republic and the pre-1798 Helvetic Republic.
In 1825, the cantons of Berne, Fribourg, Solothurn and Vaud formed a monetary concordate, issuing standardised coins, the so-called Konkordanzbatzen, still carrying the coat of arms of the issuing canton, but interchangeable and identical in value. The reverse side of the coin displayed a Swiss cross with the letter C in the center. Although 22 cantons and half-cantons issued coins between 1803 and 1850, less than 15% of the money in circulation in Switzerland in 1850 was locally produced, with the rest being foreign brought back by mercenaries. In addition, some private banks started issuing the first banknotes, so that in total, at least 8000 different coins and notes were in circulation at that time, making the monetary system complicated. To solve this problem, the new Swiss Federal Constitution of 1848 specified that the federal government would be the only entity allowed to issue money in Switzerland; this was followed two years by the first Federal Coinage Act, passed by the Federal Assembly on 7 May 1850, which introduced the franc as the monetary unit of Switzerland.
The franc was introduced at par with the French franc. It replaced the different currencies of the Swiss cantons, some of, using a franc, worth 1.5 French francs. In 1865, Belgium and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union, in which they agreed to value their national currencies to a standard of 4.5 grams of silver or 0.290322 grams of gold. After the monetary union faded away in the 1920s and ended in 1927, the Swiss franc remained on that standard until 1936, when it suffered its sole devaluation, on 27 September during the Great Depression; the currency was devalued by 30% following the devaluations of the British pound, U. S. dollar and French franc. In 1945, Switzerland joined the Bretton Woods system and pegged the franc to the US dollar at a rate of $1 = 4.30521 francs. This was changed to $1 = 4.375 francs in 1949. The Swiss franc has been considered a safe-haven currency, with a legal requirement that a minimum of 40% be backed by gold reserves. However, this link to gold, which dated from the 1920s, was terminated on 1 May 2000 following a referendum.
By March 2005, following a gold-selling program, the Swiss National Bank held 1,290 tonnes of gold in reserves, which equated to 20% of its assets. In November 2014, the referendum on the "Swiss Gold Initiative" which proposed a restoration of 20% gold backing for the Swiss franc, was voted down. In March 2011, the franc climbed past the US$1.10 mark. In June 2011, the franc climbed past US$1.20 as investors sought safety as the Greek sovereign debt crisis continued. Continuation of the same crisis in Europe and the debt crisis in the US propelled the Swiss franc past US$1.30 as of August 2011, prompting the Swiss National Bank to boost the franc's liquidity to try to counter its "massive overvaluation". The Economist argued that its Big Mac Index in July 2011 indicated an overvaluation of 98% over the dollar, cited Swiss companies releasing profit warnings and threatening to move operations out of the country due to the strength of the franc. Demand for francs and franc-denominated assets was so strong that nominal short-term Swiss interest rates became negative.
On 6 September 2011, when the ex
French West African franc
The franc was the currency of French West Africa. The French franc circulated, together with distinct banknotes from 1903 and coins from 1944, it was replaced by the CFA franc in 1945. In 1944, aluminium-bronze 50 centimes and 1 franc coins were issued; these were the only coins struck before the introduction of the CFA franc. The Banque de l'Afrique Occidentale began issuing notes in 1903. 100 franc notes were introduced that year, followed by 5 francs in 1904, 500 francs in 1912, 25 francs in 1917, 1000 francs in 1919 and 50 francs in 1920. 10 franc notes were introduced in 1943. In 1944, the government issued notes for 50 centimes, 1 and 2 francs; the notes of the Banque de l'Afrique Occidentale continued to circulate after the introduction of the CFA franc
The Frank was the currency of the Swiss canton of Berne between 1798 and 1850. It was subdivided into 10 Batzen, each of 10 Rappen; the Frank was the currency of the Helvetian Republic from 1798, replacing the Thaler in Berne. The Helvetian Republic ceased issuing coins in 1803. Berne issued coins between 1808 and 1836. In 1850, the Swiss franc was introduced, with 1 1⁄2 Swiss francs. Billon coins were issued in denominations of 1, 2, 2 1⁄2 and 5 Rappen, 1⁄2 and 1 Batzen, with silver coins for 2 1⁄2 and 5 Batzen and 1, 2 and 4 Franken. Berne counterstamped various French écu and 6 livres for use as 40 Batzen coins