ARTE is a Franco-German free-to-air television network that promotes cultural programming. It is made up of three separate companies: the Strasbourg-based European Economic Interest Grouping ARTE GEIE, plus two member companies acting as editorial and programme production centres, ARTE France in Paris and ARTE Deutschland in Baden-Baden; as an international joint venture, its programmes focuses to audiences in both countries. Due to this, the channel features two audio tracks and two subtitle tracks, each in French and German. 80% of ARTE's programming are provided by its French and German subsidiaries, each making half of the programmes available, while the remainder is being provided by the European subsidiary and the channel's European partners. ARTE France was known as La Sept. ARTE Deutschland TV GmbH is a subsidiary of the two main public German TV networks ARD and ZDF. Selected programmes are available with English and Polish subtitles online. ARTE began transmission in 1992, filling frequencies left unused by the demise of La Cinq, the first French commercial television network.
The opening night on 30 May 1992 was broadcast live from the Strasbourg Opera House. ARTE started out as an evening-only service. In the daytime, the frequencies were shared with other channels. A public channel called Télé emploi occupied the French frequencies for about a month during 1994, before the start of La Cinquième in December that year. For German viewers, ARTE was assigned a frequency on the Astra 1D satellite in late 1994, it was shared with Nickelodeon Germany replaced by the new public children's channel Kinderkanal. In 1996, it started offering an afternoon schedule with reruns for viewers on digital satellite and digital cable. A "proper" afternoon schedule with programmes between 2 p.m. and 7 p.m. was introduced on 6 January 2001. The channel got its own analogue frequency on the Astra satellites. Since 2005 ARTE broadcasts 24/7. In 2007 the catch-up service ARTE+7 is launched, offering internet users free access to a broad range of programs within seven days of their original transmission.
ARTE programmes are available with multi-channel audio: all programmes go out in French and in German. Further the original version is screened whenever possible with subtitles in French and German and the hearing or visually impaired may get subtitles or an audio description. Since 2015 a selection of programmes are available with English and Spanish subtitles online, with Polish to follow in late 2016; the channel enjoys a major footprint in Europe. Both the German and the French version can be received in nearly whole Europe via the satellite Astra1, the French version is available via Hot Bird. In addition ARTE is relayed not only by all cable networks in Germany and France, but by numerous cable networks in Austria, Finland, Switzerland, in the Netherlands too. Since 2008 ARTE broadcasts in France. Like the national channels of its own respective countries, the German HDTVversion of ARTE broadcasts in 720p50, while the French one broadcasts in 1080i25. In April 2016 ARTE co-produced a live Ultra-high-definition television broadcast of the Le Corsaire ballet from the Vienna State Opera.
The programme was transmitted free-to-air on the UHD1 demonstration channel from the Astra 19.2°E satellites. Online ARTE programmes can be streamed live or watched on catch-up TV for at least 7 and up to 700 days on ARTE+7 and the theme platforms ARTE Concert, Info, Future or Cinema. In Africa, ARTE is broadcast via satellite, cable, MMDS and ADSL in many other countries, via the digital service CanalSat Horizons. Many French-language ARTE programs are broadcast in Canada on the Ici ARTV cable channel owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and ARTE itself; the Australian Special Broadcasting Service translates many ARTE programs into English for broadcast on its own television network and overseas. ARTE has more viewers in France than in Germany. In 2015, its share of overall viewing was about 1 % in Germany; the differences can be put down to the different television markets in both countries. In France, ARTE was for a long time available to everyone as one of six analogue terrestrial channels.
Few French households received cable and satellite television, the other terrestrial channels didn't compete with ARTE. Meanwhile, thanks to widespread roll-out of cable television, the vast majority of German households had access to about three dozen channels, including several from the public broadcasters with content similar to Arte. After the introduction of digital terrestrial television in France, ARTE's market share has fallen there, while it has been more or less flat in Germany. Abenteuer Arte – documentary series Arte Journal – information program Arte Reportage – current affairs program Arte Themenabend – special topics show A Very Secret Service – spy comedy Bagdad, le bac sous les bombes / Die Jungs von der Bagdad-High – documentary film Die Nacht/La Nuit – late-night news Do Not Track, a 2015 Arte co-produced web documentary Durch die Nacht mit … Geo 360° Karambolage – a show about French/German customs Kurzschluss Metropolis Le dessous des cartes – geopolitical documentary Tracks – music program WunderWelten Venice New Year's Concert ARTE offers programmes on all sorts of screens that are free and without advertising.
The new media formats complement the on-air programming. A
TMC (TV channel)
TMC is a Franco-Monégasque general entertainment television channel, owned by the French media holding company TF1 Group share the 10.1%. The oldest private channel in Europe, TMC dates back to 1954, inaugurated by Rainier III, Prince of Monaco. Like several other European television channels, its first major broadcast was one relating to the country's reigning dynasty, in this case the marriage of Prince Rainier III and Grace Kelly; as a result of an agreement between Prince Rainier III and the French President François Mitterrand, TMC was able to be broadcast as far west as Montpellier, tripling its coverage. In 1987 the channel was carried for a few hours on M6, a French television service — which made it available to much more of France — and the channel was carried by CanalSat and became available in all of France and the Indian Ocean area; the channel won a spot on the French language digital terrestrial television scheme, demonstrating its wide appeal. The channel was owned jointly by the AB Group and the Government of Monaco.
In 2010, TF1 Group bought AB Group's shares, In 2016, TF1 bought the Government of Monaco's shares, now owns 100% of the channel. Until 1995 TMC was a member of the European Broadcasting Union as a part of Radio Monte-Carlo; the Monégasque membership is held by Groupement de Radiodiffuseurs Monégasques, a joint organisation by Monte-Carlo Radiodiffusion and Radio Monte Carlo. Télé Monte Carlo shows a variety including many imports, it produces many original programming that include news magazines, cooking shows, talkshows, which include: SUD: A cultural programme focusing on Monaco and the South of France, aired every Sunday. Monacoscope: A programme presenting the latest news of politics and the monarchy of Monaco. Notre région: A news magazine focussing on political and economic news of the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Downton Abbey Saving Grace Les filles d'à côté Undercover Boss MacGyver The A-Team Law & Order Alarm für Cobra 11 - Die Autobahnpolizei Army Wives Extreme Makeover: Home Edition Eleventh Hour Agatha Christie's Poirot The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes The Return of Sherlock Holmes Agatha Christie's Marple The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes Une femme d'honneur Life Psych www.tmc.tv – official website
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the
C8 (French TV channel)
C8 is a private national French TV channel, owned by Canal+ Group. The channel was launched in 2012, replacing Direct 8, it was owned by Bolloré Group. D8 was rebranded C8 on 5th September 2016. Touche pas à mon poste!, presented by Cyril Hanouna Voyage au bout de la nuit Domino Day, presented by Valérie Bénaïm Le Grand Bêtisier, presented by Justine Fraioli & Caroline Ithurbide Le Zap La folle soirée du Palmashow L'Œuf ou la Poule?, presented by Sebastien Cauet Still Standing, presented by Julien Courbet Guess My Age, presented by Jean-Luc Lemoine Hold Up!, presented by Benjamin Castaldi Couple ou pas couple?, presented by Jean-Luc Lemoine Focus, presented by Guy Lagache Les Mystères, presented by Cécile de Ménibus Au cœur de l'enquête, presented by Adrienne de Malleray Histoire interdite, presented by Guy Lagache C8 le JT, presented by Émilie Besse Langue de bois s'abstenir, presented by Philippe Labro La Nouvelle Édition, presented by Daphné Bürki Salut les Terriens!, presented by Thierry Ardisson Les Animaux de la 8, presented by Élodie Ageron and Sandrine Arcizet À vos régions, presented by Grégory Galiffi À vos recettes, presented by Grégory Galiffi Élodie Ageron Capucine Anav Sandrine Arcizet Thierry Ardisson Valérie Bénaïm Émilie Besse Laurent Boyer Benjamin Castaldi Cécile de Ménibus Caroline Delage Alexandre Delpérier Justine Fraioli Grégory Galiffi Cyril Hanouna Caroline Ithurbide Philippe Labro Vincent Lagaf' Jean-Luc Lemoine William Leymergie Victor Robert Carole Rousseau Patrick Sabatier Pascal Soetens Francesca Antoniotti Agathe Auproux Laurent Baffie Damien Canivez Christophe Carrière Bertrand Chameroy Jean-Michel Cohen Tatiana-Laurens Delarue Matthieu Delormeau Rokhaya Diallo Raquel Garrido Franz-Olivier Giesbert Maxime Guény Stéphanie Loire Émilie Lopez Mathieu Madénian Géraldine Maillet Jean-Michel Maire Bernard Montiel Danielle Moreau Isabelle Morini-Bosc Tanguy Pastureau Natacha Polony Ludivine Rétory Renaud Revel Hapsatou Sy Titoff Gilles Verdez Thibaud Vézirian Tom Villa Alex Vizorek Raymond Aabou Rachid Arhab Brahim Asloum Élé Asu Roselyne Bachelot Nadège Beausson-Diagne Nabilla Benattia Magali Bertin Élisabeth Bost Daphné Bürki Cartman Sébastien Cauet Élise Chassaing Jérémy Chatelain Christelle Chollet Laurie Cholewa Camille Combal Julien Courbet Estelle Denis Miguel Derennes Nicolas Domenach Raymond Domenech Issa Doumbia Jean-Philippe Doux Éric Dussart Dominique Farrugia Jérémy Ferrari Laurence Ferrari Aude Gogny-Goubert Élodie Gossuin-Lacherie Dominique Grimault Stéphane Guillon Jeremstar Shera Kerienski Chantal Ladesou Alexia Laroche-Joubert Marc-Antoine Le Bret Catherine Laborde Guy Lagache Fabien Lecœuvre Xavier Leherpeur Annie Lemoine Angela Lorente Gérard Louvin Énora Malagré Adrienne de Malleray Hélène Mannarino Nathalie Marquay Sebastian Marx Ariane Massenet Emmanuel Maubert Pierre Ménès Julia Molkhou Thierry Moreau Louis Morin Erika Moulet Véronique Mounier Jean-Pierre Montanay Clio Pajczer Julien Pasquet Florent Peyre Guillaume Pley Audrey Pulvar Stéphanie Renouvin Daniel Riolo Bruno Roger-Petit Daphné Roulier Gyselle Soares Sophie Thalmann Aïda Touihri Philippe Vandel Mélody Vilbert François Viot Myriam Weil Ariel Wizman Canal+ Group Direct 8 Canal Star Official website
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Euronews is a European pay television news network, headquartered in Lyon, France. The network began broadcasting on 1 January 1993, aimed to cover world news from a pan-European perspective, it is jointly owned by several European and North African state broadcasting organisations, since 2015 majority owned by Media Globe Networks led by Egyptian billionaire Naguib Sawiris, chairman of the supervisory board. In 1992, following the Persian Gulf War, during which CNN's position as the preeminent source of 24-hour news programming was cemented, the European Broadcasting Union decided to establish Euronews to present information from a European perspective; the channel's first broadcast was on 1 January 1993 from Lyon. An additional broadcast studio was set up in London in 1996, it was founded by a group of ten European public broadcasters: CyBC, Cyprus France Télévisions, France RAI, Italy RTBF, Belgium RTP, Portugal RTVE, Spain TMC, Monaco YLE, Finland ERTU, EgyptIn 1997, the British news broadcaster ITN purchased a 49 percent share of Euronews for £5.1 million from Alcatel-Alsthom.
ITN supplies the content of the channel along with the remaining shareholders, which are represented by the SOCEMIE consortium. Euronews SA is the operating company that holds the broadcasting licence, it is co-owned by the ten founders and: VGTRK, Russia TRT, Turkey ČT, Czech Republic PBS, Malta SNRT, Morocco RTVSLO, Slovenia RTÉ, Ireland UA:PBC, Ukraine SRG-SSR, Switzerland TVR, Romania SVT/MTG, Sweden ERTT, Tunisia ENTV, AlgeriaThe broadcast switched from analogue to digital transmission in 1999. In the same year, the Portuguese audio track was added; the Russian audio track appeared in 2001. In 2003, ITN sold its stake in Euronews as part of its drive to streamline operations and focus on news-gathering rather than channel management. On 6 February 2006, Ukrainian public broadcaster Natsionalna Telekompanya Ukraïny purchased a one percent interest in SOCEMIE. On 27 May 2008, Spanish public broadcaster RTVE decided to leave Euronews to promote its international channel TVE Internacional, it cited legal requirements to maintain low debt levels through careful spending as a factor influencing its decision to leave.
In February 2009, the Turkish public broadcaster TRT became a shareholder in the channel, joined its supervisory board. TRT purchased 15.70% of the channel's shares and became the fourth main partner after France Télévisions, RAI, VGTRK. In February 2015, the channel's executive board approved a bid by Media Globe Networks, owned by Egyptian telecom magnate Naguib Sawiris, to acquire a 53% controlling stake in the media outlet; the deal raised questions over Euronews's future editorial independence. In 2 October 2012, Euronews launched Euronews Radio; the service was designed for viewers for whom "watching news is not an option" by providing a direct simulcast to the TV channel, with "No Comment" segment being replaced by music. The music of the bulletin openings are transmitted on Euronews Radio. Weather reports are read by a female announcer. On 20 April 2016, the French subsidiary of Euronews launched an African version of their news service called Africanews in French and English. In November 2016, the channel's executive board was in talks with NBCUniversal, parent company of NBC News, for a "strategic partnership".
NBCU would acquire 15 to 30% ownership of the Euronews network, would contribute to Euronews content, facilitate NBC News' expanded operations in Europe. After successful negotiations with the European Commission, who feared that the partnership would result on an Americanization of Euronews, the NBCUniversal News Group purchased a 25% stake in Euronews in February 2017 for $30 million. NBC News president Deborah Turness was appointed to head up international operations, incumbent Euronews CEO Michael Peters, which has led it since 2004, became CEO of the new partnership. Both report directly to NBC News chairman Andy Lack; the resulting partnership became known as Euronews NBC. Although Sawiris and NBC News have the largest stakes in Euronews, editorial control by SOCEMIE members has been assured, with the broadcasters having seven slots in the editorial board, as opposed to Sawiris' company and NBC News, which only has one, thereby reducing rumours of an Americanization of Euronews' values.
Editorial control is handled by Euronews' teams, with NBC only focusing on planning and coordinating tasks. After the formation of the partnership, video reports from NBC News' properties began to appear on the TV channel and reports from NBCNews.com began to be distributed on its digital platforms. On 9 May 2017, Euronews split its service into 12 language-specific editions, of which nine have a linear TV channel with its own language voiceover, but now including contents, on-air graphics and its lower-third news ticker in the language; the glocal strategy allows the language editorial teams to personalise the content and presentation of their channel, not only by sharing own-produced content with other languages, but by producing content, relevant to local audiences, allowing local reporters and presenters to appear on camera in all its language editions. The splitting process finished on 24 May 2017. Alongside the major language split, satellite distribution for the German, Spanish and Turkish channels was discontinued, now being only available via fibre-optic IP uplink.
However, the discontinuation of the German-language channel from satellite distribution generated outcry from many German satellite TV owners, resulting on the restoration
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori