MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
In radio, long wave or long-wave, abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave, medium-wave, short-wave radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would have been considered'ultra-short'. In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined and its intended meaning varies, it may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m i.e. frequencies up to 300 kilohertz, including the International Telecommunications Union's low frequency and low frequency bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 525 kHz. In Europe and large parts of Asia, where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave refers to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum.
The "Longwave Club of America" is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band". Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth; this mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band. The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. Low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines. Low frequency waves can occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere, although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at F layers.
Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres from the transmitting antenna. Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation, they identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz. There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example: WWVB in Colorado, United States, on 60 kHz DCF77 in Frankfurt, Germany, on 77.5 kHz JJY in Japan, on 40 & 60 kHz 66.66 kHz in Taldom transmitter, Russia BPC in Lintong, China, 68.5 kHz MSF time and 60 kHz frequency standard transmitted from Anthorn in the UK. TDF from Allouis, France, on 162 kHzRadio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers, they use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.
Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, ‘bouncing’ off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day; these different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter and when the signal is received by the clock depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, very nearly constant. Since the time lag is the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station; the militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.
In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allows unlicensed use of 136 kHz and the 160–190 kHz band at output power up to 1 watt with up to a 15-meter antenna; this is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio. The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons. Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz. Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1; the long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia and Morocco. A larger geographic area can be covered by a long-w
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support
Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster. Radio France offers seven national networks: France Inter — Radio France's "generalist" station, featuring entertaining and informative talk mixed with a wide variety of music, plus hourly news bulletins with extended news coverage in the morning and early-evening peaks France Info — 24-hour news France Culture — cultural programming covering the arts, science, etc. together with in-depth news coverage at peak times France Musique — classical music and jazz France Bleu — a network of 44 regional stations, mixing popular music with locally based talk and information, including: France Bleu 107.1 — for the Paris-Île-de-France region France Bleu Béarn — Pyrénées-Atlantiques France Bleu Nord — Nord and Pas de Calais FIP — specialising in a wide range of music – classical, hip hop, chanson, blues, world music – and minimal speech Mouv' — pop music, aimed at a young audience Radio France's two principal missions are: To create and expand the programming on all of their stations.
6 November 1922: Radiola, the first French private radio transmitter, begins regular broadcasts. It changes its name to Radio Paris in 1924, it is followed by Radio Toulouse and Radio Lyon, in 1932/1933 by Radio Luxembourg. Before World War II, 14 commercial and 12 public sector radios operate in France. 1940–44: In both the German Occupied zone and under the Vichy regime in the south, radio is taken over by the State. 1942–43: With the agreement of Vichy, Radio Monte Carlo and its financial holding company la SOFIRAD are born. 1944: At the Liberation of France, the state broadcasting monopoly is retained for practical and ideological reasons. Public service radio broadcasting is ensured by the RDF, soon to be called the RTF the ORTF in 1964. 1955: The commercial station Europe No. 1 begins broadcasting from across the border in the Sarre region of Germany, freed from French occupation in that year. 1965: Under the management of Roland Dhordain, the four French radio stations are reorganised: France I and II are merged to "RTF Inter" renamed "France Inter".
1975: When the ORTF is broken up into separate TV channels, technical services, archive services and professional training and audiovisual creation services and radio, Radio France gains its independence from other media institutions as the state controlled public service radio broadcaster. 1981: Following pressure from the independent and commercial radio lobbies and pirate broadcasters, the newly elected President François Mitterrand allows the licensing of "free" radio stations, to become "radios locales privées" with a state subsidy and financed by commercial advertising, to group themselves into national networks. A private radio sector broadcasting from within French borders is reborn. 1999: The daily radio audience is 83%. They listen on average for over three hours a day. 99% of French homes have a radio. 80% of French households have a car radio, 26.8% a personal stereo. 2000: Radio France re-organises its radio network. France Bleu becomes a regional-only network on FM and several FIP stations in large cities were closed down and replaced with youth station Le Mouv'.
2015: Radio France announced the end of its Medium Wave broadcasts at the end of December 31. Radio France has its headquarters at the Maison de la Radio, a circular building designed by the architect Henry Bernard and inaugurated in December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle, which stands beside the River Seine in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. In addition to housing Radio France's central services and the studios of several of its channels, the building is home to the Musée de Radio France, a museum of radio and television broadcasting and recording techniques; the building caught fire in October 2014. Radio France Internationale Public Francophone Radios Information from Geoff Hare, Newcastle University Radio France Radio France Streaming Online
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio broadcasting of an audio signal representing voice or music, the instantaneous frequency deviation, the difference between the frequency of the carrier and its center frequency, is proportional to the modulating signal. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits – for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0; this modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying. FSK is used in modems such as fax modems, can be used to send Morse code. Radioteletype uses FSK. Frequency modulation is used for FM radio broadcasting, it is used in telemetry, seismic prospecting, monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, music synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems.
In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better than an equal power amplitude modulation signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast over FM radio. Frequency modulation and phase modulation are the two complementary principal methods of angle modulation; these methods contrast with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the frequency and phase remain constant. If the information to be transmitted is x m and the sinusoidal carrier is x c = A c cos , where fc is the carrier's base frequency, Ac is the carrier's amplitude, the modulator combines the carrier with the baseband data signal to get the transmitted signal: y = A c cos = A c cos = A c cos where f Δ = K f A m, K f being the sensitivity of the frequency modulator and A m being the amplitude of the modulating signal or baseband signal. In this equation, f is the instantaneous frequency of the oscillator and f Δ is the frequency deviation, which represents the maximum shift away from fc in one direction, assuming xm is limited to the range ±1.
While most of the energy of the signal is contained within fc ± fΔ, it can be shown by Fourier analysis that a wider range of frequencies is required to represent an FM signal. The frequency spectrum of an actual FM signal has components extending infinitely, although their amplitude decreases and higher-order components are neglected in practical design problems. Mathematically, a baseband modulating signal may be approximated by a sinusoidal continuous wave signal with a frequency fm; this method is named as single-tone modulation. The integral of such a signal is: ∫ 0 t x m d τ = A m sin