Peter Cooper Hewitt
Peter Cooper Hewitt was an American electrical engineer and inventor, who invented the first mercury-vapor lamp in 1901. Hewitt was issued U. S. Patent 682,692 on September 17, 1901. In 1903, Hewitt created an improved version that possessed higher color qualities which found widespread industrial use. Hewitt was born in New York City, the son of New York City Mayor Abram Hewitt and the grandson of industrialist Peter Cooper, he was educated at the Columbia University School of Mines. In 1901 he patented a mercury-vapor lamp, his first lamps had to be started by tilting the tube to make contact between the two electrodes and the liquid mercury. The efficiency was much higher than that of incandescent lamps, but the emitted light was of a bluish-green unpleasant color, which limited its practical use to specific professional areas, like photography, where the color was not an issue at a time where films were black and white. For space lighting use, the lamp was augmented by a standard incandescent lamp.
The two together provided a more acceptable color. Later. In the 1930s. A fluorescent coating was added to the inside of the tube at General Electric, which produced more pleasing white light when it absorbed the ultraviolet light from the mercury; this was the fluorescent lamp, now one of the most used lamps in the world. In 1902 Hewitt developed the mercury arc rectifier, the first rectifier that could convert alternating current power to direct current without mechanical means, it was used in electric railways, industry and high-voltage direct current power transmission. Although it was replaced by power semiconductor devices in the 1970s and 1980s, it is still used in some high power applications. In 1903, the degree of Honorary Doctorate of Science was conferred upon him by the Columbia University in recognition of his work. In 1907 he tested an early hydrofoil. In 1916, Hewitt joined Elmer Sperry to develop the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane, one of the first successful precursors of the cruise missile.
Hewitt married Lucy Bond Work, a daughter of Franklin H. Work, a well-known stockbroker and protégé of Cornelius Vanderbilt, his wife, Ellen Wood. and sister of Frances Ellen Work. He fathered Ann Cooper Hewitt and married her mother, Marion Jeanne Andrews, the ex-wife of George William Childs McCarter, Baron Robert Frederic Emile Regis D'Erlanger, Dr. Peder Sather Bruguiere, Stewart Denning. Hewitt adopted Ann Cooper Hewitt, his illegitimate daughter. Marion Jeanne Andrews Hewitt sterilized her daughter, Ann Cooper Hewitt, to take her daughter's inheritance from her father, Marion's ex-husband, Peter Cooper Hewitt, an inheritance dependent on the young woman having children. Works by or about Peter Cooper Hewitt at Internet Archive Andre Mohammed. "Peter Cooper Hewitt". Ringwoodmanor.com – via archive.org. This essay was written by a student at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and represents the only research done on this major inventor; the majority of the primary sources were found at the Cooper Archives in the Cooper Union Institute in Manhattan Peter Cooper Hewitt at Find a Grave
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
George Edward Cokayne
George Edward Cokayne, was an English genealogist and long-serving herald at the College of Arms in London, who rose to the rank of Clarenceux King of Arms. He wrote the authoritative and standard reference works The Complete Peerage and The Complete Baronetage. Cokayne was born on 29 April 1825, with the surname Adams, being the son of William Adams by his wife the Hon. Mary Anne Cokayne, a daughter of Viscount Cullen, he was baptised "George Edward Adams". On 15 August 1873 he changed his surname by Royal Licence to Cokayne, he matriculated from Exeter College on 6 June 1844, graduated BA in 1848 and MA in 1852. He was admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn on 16 January 1850, was called to the bar on 30 April 1853, he began his heraldic career at the College of Arms in London with an appointment in 1859 to the post of Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, was promoted in 1870 to the office of Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary. In 1882 he was promoted to Norroy King of Arms, which office he held until his appointment as Clarenceux King of Arms in 1894, which he held until his death in 1911.
Cokayne wrote The Complete Peerage, the first edition of, published between 1887 and 1898 On 2 December 1856 he married Mary Dorothea Gibbs, daughter of George Henry Gibbs by his wife Caroline Crawley. The couple had eight children, of whom two daughters survived their father. One of his sons, became Governor of the Bank of England from 1918 to 1920 and was ennobled in 1920 as Baron Cullen of Ashbourne, he died on 6 August 1911 aged 86. The Complete Baronetage on Internet Archive The College of Arms CUHAGS Officer of Arms Index
Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas Francis Bayard was an American lawyer and diplomat from Wilmington, Delaware. A Democrat, he served three terms as United States Senator from Delaware and made three unsuccessful bids for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. In 1885, President Grover Cleveland appointed him Secretary of State. After four years in private life, he returned to the diplomatic arena as Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Born in Delaware to a prominent family, Bayard learned politics from his father, James A. Bayard Jr. who served in the Senate. In 1869, the Delaware legislature elected Bayard to the Senate upon his father's retirement. A Peace Democrat during the Civil War, Bayard spent his early years in the Senate in opposition to Republican policies the Reconstruction of the defeated Confederacy, his conservatism extended to financial matters, as he became known as a staunch supporter of the gold standard and an opponent of greenbacks and silver coinage, which he believed would cause inflation.
Bayard's conservative politics made him popular in the South and with Eastern financial interests, but never popular enough to obtain the Democratic nomination for President, which he attempted to win in 1876, 1880, 1884. In 1885, President Cleveland appointed Bayard Secretary of State. Bayard worked with Cleveland to promote American trade in the Pacific while avoiding the acquisition of colonies at a time when many Americans clamored for them, he sought increased cooperation with Great Britain, working to resolve disputes over fishing and seal-hunting rights in the waters around the Canada–United States border. As ambassador, Bayard continued to strive for Anglo-American friendship; this brought him into conflict with his successor at the State Department, Richard Olney, when Olney and Cleveland demanded more aggressive diplomatic overtures than Bayard wished in the Venezuela Crisis of 1895. His term at the American embassy ended in 1897, he died the following year. Thomas F. Bayard was born in Wilmington, Delaware in 1828, the second son of James A. Bayard Jr. and Anne née Francis.
The Bayard family was prominent in Delaware: Bayard's father would be elected to the United States Senate in 1851. Among Thomas Bayard's ancestors were his grandfather, James A. Bayard a Senator. Several other relatives served in high office, including Bayard's uncle, Richard H. Bayard, another Delaware Senator, his great-great-uncle, Nicholas Bayard, Mayor of New York City. On his mother's side, Bayard descended from Philadelphia financier Tench Francis Jr.. Thomas Bayard was educated in private academies in Wilmington and, after his father moved to New York City for business reasons, in Flushing, New York. James Bayard returned to Delaware in 1843, but Thomas remained in New York, working as a clerk in the mercantile firm of his brother-in-law, August Schermerhorn. In 1846, his father secured him a job in a banking firm in Philadelphia, Bayard worked there for the next two years. Bayard was unsatisfied with his progress at the firm, returned to Wilmington to read law at his father's office.
Bayard was admitted to the bar in 1851, the year. Thomas took on greater responsibilities in the family law office, rose in the legal profession. In 1853, after the election of a Democratic president, Franklin Pierce, Thomas Bayard was appointed United States Attorney for Delaware, he spent only a year in the position before moving to Philadelphia to open a practice with his friend William Shippen, a partnership that lasted until Shippen's death in 1858. While in Philadelphia, Bayard met Louise Lee, whom he married in October 1856; the marriage produced twelve children. Thomas Bayard's return to Wilmington in 1858 brought greater involvement in the political scene. James Bayard was a delegate to the 1860 Democratic National Convention, Thomas attended with him; the elder Bayard supported Robert M. T. Hunter of Virginia for the nomination; when the convention deadlocked and the Southern Democrats split from the main party, James Bayard adhered to the regular Democrats, but told Thomas that he thought the nominee, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, was untrustworthy.
The subsequent election of Republican Abraham Lincoln and secession of the seven states of the Deep South led both Bayards to fear for the future of the Union, the elder Bayard to propose a convention of all the states to resolve their differences. In the meantime, as four more Southern states seceded, James Bayard encouraged his son to help organize an independent militia unit, the Delaware Guard. In 1860, Delaware occupied an unusual position in the free state-slave state divide. Opinion on secession was mixed in Delaware, but the Bayards were Peace Democrats and leaned to the Southern perspective, they blamed the war on abolitionist Republicans and believed that secession, while unwise, should not be suppressed with military force. Thomas Bayard spoke at a public meeting in Dover in June 1861, saying that "with this secession, or revolution, or rebellion, or by whatever name it may be called, the State of Delaware has naught to do." After the Civil War's first battles erupted in Virginia, Bayard continued to hope for peace.
By early 1862, the Delaware Guard came under suspicion of Southern sympathies, Major General Henry du Pont, commander of the state militia, ordered it disarmed. When Bayard refused to comply, he was arrested before being release