Venus de Milo
The Venus de Milo is an ancient Greek statue and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture. It was attributed to the sculptor Praxiteles, but from an inscription, on its plinth, the statue is thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch. Created sometime between 130 and 100 BC, the statue is believed to depict Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, it is a marble sculpture larger than life size at 203 cm high. Part of an arm and the original plinth were lost following its discovery, it is on permanent display at the Louvre Museum in Paris. The statue is named after the Greek island of Milos; the Venus de Milo's arms are missing, for unknown reasons. There is a filled hole below her right breast that contained a metal tenon that would have supported the separately carved right arm, it is asserted that the Venus de Milo was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Trypiti, on the island of Milos in the Aegean, a part of the Ottoman Empire.
Elsewhere the discoverers are identified as his son Antonio. Paul Carus gave the site of discovery as "the ruins of an ancient theater in the vicinity of Castro, the capital of the island", adding that Bottonis and his son "came accidentally across a small cave covered with a heavy slab and concealed, which contained a fine marble statue in two pieces, together with several other marble fragments; this happened in February, 1820". He based these assertions on an article he had read in the Century Magazine; the Australian historian Edward Duyker, citing a letter written by Louis Brest, the French consul in Milos in 1820, asserts the discoverer of the statue was Theodoros Kendrotas and that he has been confused with his younger son Giorgios who claimed credit for the find. Duyker asserts that Kendrotas was taking stone from a ruined chapel on the edge of his property – terraced land that had once formed part of a Roman gymnasium – and that he discovered an oblong cavity some 1.2 x 1.5 metres deep in the volcanic tuff.
It was in this cavity, which had three wings, that Kendrotas first noticed the upper part of the statue. Notwithstanding these anomalies, the consensus is that the statue was found in two large pieces along with several herms, fragments of the upper left arm and left hand holding an apple, an inscribed plinth. In 1871, during the Paris Commune uprising, many public buildings were burned; the Venus de Milo statue was secreted out of the Louvre Museum in an oak crate and hidden in the basement of the Prefecture of Police. Though the Prefecture was burned, the statue survived undamaged. In 1920, sculptor Robert Ingersoll Aitken created a stir when he criticized the display and placement of the statue of Venus de Milo in the museum. In the autumn of 1939, the Venus was packed for removal from the Louvre in anticipation of the outbreak of war. Scenery trucks from the Comédie-Française transported the Louvre's masterpieces to safer locations in the countryside. During World War II, the statue was sheltered safely in the Château de Valençay, along with the Winged Victory of Samothrace and Michelangelo's Slaves.
The great fame of the Venus de Milo during the nineteenth century owed much to a major propaganda effort by the French authorities. In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus to the Italians after it had been looted by Napoleon Bonaparte; the Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they had lost. The statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labelling it a "big gendarme"; the statue has influenced masters of modern art. The statue was part of the seal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, one of the oldest associations of plastic surgeons in the world. In February 2010, the German magazine Focus featured a doctored image of this Venus giving Europe the middle finger, which resulted in a defamation lawsuit against the journalists and the publication.
They were found not guilty by the Greek court. A plot to steal the statue is at the center of the 1966 spoof spy film The Last of the Secret Agents?, starring Marty Allen and Steve Rossi. In The Simpsons episode "Homer Badman", a Gummi Venus de Milo parodies the statue. Charlie Drake had a sketch in which the statue lost its arms as a result of careless work by museum employees tasked with packing it."Venus" is the second track on Television's 1977 debut album Marquee Moon. In the refrain, the narrator falls into "the arms of Venus de Milo"; the fourth track on Miles Davis' 1957 album Birth of the Cool is named "Venus de Milo". "The Venus de Milo was a beautiful lass she held the world in the palm of her hand, she lost both her arms in a wrestling Match to win a brown eyed handsome man." Is a lyric in the song Brown Eyed Handsome Man written by Chuck Berry and covered by Buddy Holly. The popular Lewis E. Gensler and Leo Robin song Love Is Just Around the Corner contains the lyrics "Venus de Milo was noted for her charms, But between us, you're cuter than Venus, And what's more you've got arms."
On 3 October 2012, French activists belonging to Femen protested against rape by standing topless in
Granite Falls, Minnesota
Granite Falls is a city in Chippewa and Yellow Medicine counties in the State of Minnesota. The population was 2,897 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Yellow Medicine County. The Andrew John Volstead House, a National Historic Landmark, is located in Granite Falls. Granite Falls was platted in 1872; the city was named for deposits of granite rock in the area. A post office has been in operation at Granite Falls since 1870. Granite Falls was incorporated as a city in 1889. On July 25, 2000, the city of Granite Falls and Yellow Medicine County were hit by a powerful tornado; the tornado first touched down in rural parts of the county west-northwest of Granite Falls, hitting the city at 6:10 pm. After tearing through the residential sections of town, the tornado lifted at 6:25PM after being on the ground for over nine miles. One person was killed, more than a dozen were injured, the town and surrounding area suffered millions of dollars in property damage. While the damage in Granite Falls was limited to that of F-2 and F-3 storms, the extent of the damage at the corner of 9th Avenue and 14th Street caused the National Weather Service to classify it as an F-4 storm.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.82 square miles. U. S. Highway 212 and Minnesota State Highways 23 and 67 are three of the main routes in the city. Granite Falls, along with the rest of Minnesota, has a humid continental climate with significant differences between seasons. With a July mean temperature of 22.2 °C Granite Falls just falls into the hot-summer zone of the Köppen classification of the humid continental climate regime. Winters are cold and dry influenced by arctic air masses affecting it through its continental position, while summers are influenced by humid subtropical air masses bringing hot temperatures and significant rainfall. Transitional periods are short, since only April and October are between 0 °C and 10 °C in daily mean temperatures, with May–September being above and November–March averaging below freezing; the middle three months in each of those cycles are clearly warmer and colder than the months at the beginning or at the end of transitional periods.
That is in turn a typical feature of continental climates. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,897 people, 1,282 households, 747 families residing in the city; the population density was 807.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,417 housing units at an average density of 394.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.9% White, 0.6% African American, 5.2% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 1,282 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.7% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 43 years.
21.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,070 people, 1,344 households, 806 families residing in the city; the population density was 890.5 people per square mile. There were 1,472 housing units at an average density of 427.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.35% White, 0.07% African American, 5.70% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.15% of the population. There were 1,344 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 21.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,031, the median income for a family was $45,536. Males had a median income of $32,905 versus $22,957 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,356. About 6.6% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over. In the film A Prairie Home Companion, the character of Guy Noir, played by Kevin Kline, asks radio host Garrison Keillor to send him a signal if he sees a dangerous woman in white in the audience. One of the multiple signals he chooses is the use of the phrase'Granite Falls'. Media related to Granite Falls, Minnesota at Wikimedia Commons City Website Advocate-Tribune newspaper site NWS statement regarding July 2000 tornado
An armless wonder was a person without arms, exhibited at a circus sideshow. A woman, she would perform various tricks using her feet and toes, such as smoking a cigarette or writing, she would have a supply of visiting cards which, for an extra charge, she would sign with her feet and give to onlookers. The armless wonder was one of the most paid people of the sideshow. In times when the exposure of a female ankle was considered risqué, a pretty young woman who performed feats of dexterity with her toes would attract a great deal of prurient interest. Examples of armless wonders of the early 20th century are Frances O'Connor and Martha Morris, both of whom appeared in the 1932 film, Freaks. Another example from the late 19th century was Anne Leak who included a few simple lines of verse when she signed her visiting cards, such as the following: So you perceive it's true, When hands are lacking, toes will do. Examples of male armless wonders are Carl Unthan and Charles B. Tripp. Limbless at ShowHistory.com Limbs and Armless at Quasi-Modo.net
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
In North America, a sideshow is an extra, secondary production associated with a circus, fair, or other such attraction. There are four main types of classic sideshow attractions: The "Ten-in-One" offers a program of ten sequential acts under one tent for a single admission price; the ten-in-one might be a freak show exhibiting "human oddities". However, for variety's sake, the acts in a ten-in-one would include "working acts" who would perform magic tricks or daredevil stunts. In addition, the freak show performers might perform acts or stunts, would sell souvenirs like "giant's rings" or "pitch cards" with their photos and life stories; the ten-in-one would end in a "blowoff" or "ding," an extra act not advertised on the outside, which could be viewed for an additional fee. The blowoff act would be described provocatively as something deemed too strong for women and children, such as pickled punks; the "Single-O" is a single attraction, for example a single curiosity like the "Bonnie and Clyde Death Car" or Hitler's staff car, a "Giant Rat" or other unusual animal, a "What Is It?" or a geek show billed as "See the Victim of Drug Abuse."
A "Museum Show" which might be deceptively billed as "World's Greatest Freaks Past and Present," is a sideshow in which the exhibits are not alive. It might include tanks of piranhas or cages with unusual animals, stuffed freak animals or other exotic items like the weapons or cars used by famous murderers; some of the exhibits might be dummies or photographs of the billed attractions. It could still be truthfully billed with the claim "$1,000 reward if not real — please do not touch or feed the animals on exhibit"; the Single-O and the Museum Show are operated as "grind shows," meaning that patrons may enter at any time, viewing the various exhibits at their leisure. A "Girl Show" was sometimes offered in; these could range from the revue with clothed performers to the racier "kootch" or "hootchie-kootchie" show which might play either clothed or "strong". "Working acts" exhibited a number of stunts that could be counted on to draw crowds. These stunts offered the elements of danger and excitement.
Such acts included fire eating, sword swallowing, knife throwing, body piercing, lying on a bed of nails, walking up a ladder of sharp swords, more. The renewed attention to these feats has prompted a new round of oversimplified or inaccurate explanations, leading some inexperienced people to attempt them without adequate training resulting in injury and sometimes death. Interest in sideshows declined as television made it easy to see the world's most exotic attractions. Moreover, viewing "human oddities" became distasteful as the public conscience changed, many localities passed laws forbidding the exhibition of freaks; the performers protested that they had no objection to the sideshow since it provided not only a good income for them, but in many cases it provided their only possible job. The sideshow seemed destined for oblivion. A greater number of "Single O" attractions still tour carnivals. In 1970, John Strong, Jr began a 47 year continuous run of The Strong Sideshow. Several acts and artifacts toured over the years such as the 5-legged dog, Chupacabba, a 2-headed cow, a mummy.
John Jr. performed all the live acts himself for several years including sword swallowing, fire eating, bed of nails blade box and electric chair. After living the lifestyle for a lifetime, The Strong Sideshow is now in residency at "The Sideshow Museum", in Uranus, Missouri; the museum is slated to open in 2018. In the early 1990s, Jim Rose developed a modern sideshow called "the Jim Rose Circus", reinventing the sideshow with two types of acts that would attract modern audiences and stay within legal bounds; the show featured acts reviving traditional sideshow stunts and carrying some of them to extremes, "fringe" artists performing bizarre or masochistic acts like eating insects, lifting weights by means of hooks inserted in their body piercings, or stapling currency to their forehead. The show drew audiences at venues unknown to old-time sideshows, like rock clubs and the 1992 Lollapalooza festival; the Jim Rose Circus held its last known performance in 2013 at The London Burlesque Festival.
The impact of the Jim Rose Circus on pop culture inspired a new wave of performers. There are now more sideshow performers than at any other time in the genre's history. At the same time in Canada, Scott McClelland, grandson of itinerant showman N. P. Lewchuk, formed Carnival Diablo, a show that performs to this day; the success of these shows sparked a growing number of performers to revive the traditional sideshow arts, taught by sideshow veterans, many now perform in spot engagements from rock clubs and comedy clubs to corporate events. "Sideshows by the Seashore", sponsored by Coney Island USA in Brooklyn, NY has performed since 1983, tours under the name "Coney Island Circus Sideshow". Circus historian and collector Ken Harck ran the Brothers Grim Sideshow, which toured with the OzzFest music festival in the summer of 2006 and 2007. Sideshow celebrity and m
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate