Economy of Africa
The economy of Africa consists of the trade, industry and human resources of the continent. As of 2012 1.3 billion people were living in 54 different countries in Africa. Africa is a resource-rich continent. Recent growth has been due to growth in sales in commodities and manufacturing. West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa and Southern Africa in particular, are expected to reach a combined GDP of $29 trillion by 2050. In March 2013, Africa was identified as the world's poorest inhabited continent: Africa's entire combined GDP is a third of the United States' GDP. In 2013, Africa was the world’s fastest-growing continent at 5.6% a year, GDP is expected to rise by an average of over 6% a year between 2013 and 2023. In 2017, the African Development Bank reported Africa to be the world’s second-fastest growing economy, estimates that average growth will rebound to 3.4% in 2017, while growth is expected to increase by 4.3% in 2018. Growth has been present throughout the continent, with over one-third of African countries posting 6% or higher growth rates, another 40% growing between 4% to 6% per year.
Several international business observers have named Africa as the future economic growth engine of the world. Africa's economy was diverse, driven by extensive trade routes that developed between cities and kingdoms; some trade routes were overland, some involved navigating rivers, still others developed around port cities. Large African empires became wealthy due to their trade networks, for example Ancient Egypt, Mali and the Oyo Empire; some parts of Africa had close trade relationships with Arab kingdoms, by the time of the Ottoman Empire, Africans had begun converting to Islam in large numbers. This development, along with the economic potential in finding a trade route to the Indian Ocean, brought the Portuguese to sub-Saharan Africa as an imperial force. Colonial interests created new industries to feed European appetites for goods such as palm oil, cotton, precious metals, cash crops other goods, integrated the coastal areas with the Atlantic economy. Following the independence of African countries during the 20th century, economic and social upheaval consumed much of the continent.
An economic rebound among some countries has been evident in recent years, however. The dawn of the African economic boom has been compared to the Chinese economic boom that had emerged in Asia since late 1970's. In 2013, Africa was home to seven of the world's fastest-growing economies; as of 2018, Nigeria is the biggest economy in terms of nominal GDP, followed by South Africa. Equatorial Guinea possessed Africa's highest GDP per capita albeit allegations of human rights violations. Oil-rich countries such as Algeria and Gabon, mineral-rich Botswana emerged among the top economies since the 21st century, while Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo among the world's richest nations, have sunk into the list of the world's poorest nations due to pervasive political corruption and braindrain of workforce. Botswana remains the site of Africa's longest and one of the world's longest periods of economic boom; the United Nations predicts Africa’s economic growth will reach 3.5% in 2018 and 3.7% in 2019.
As of 2007, growth in Africa had surpassed that of East Asia. Data suggest parts of the continent are now experiencing fast growth, thanks to their resources and increasing political stability and'has increased levels of peacefulness since 2007'; the World Bank reports the economy of Sub-Saharan African countries grew at rates that match or surpass global rates. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the improvement in the region’s aggregate growth is attributable to a recovery in Egypt and South Africa, three of Africa’s largest economies; the economies of the fastest growing African nations experienced growth above the global average rates. The top nations in 2007 include Mauritania with growth at 19.8%, Angola at 17.6%, Sudan at 9.6%, Mozambique at 7.9% and Malawi at 7.8%. Other fast growers include Rwanda, Chad, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia. Nonetheless, growth has been dismal, negative or sluggish in many parts of Africa including Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Burundi.
Many international agencies are interested in investing in emerging African economies. Especially as Africa continues to maintain high economic growth despite current global economic recession; the rate of return on investment in Africa is the highest in the developing world. Debt relief is being addressed by some international institutions in the interests of supporting economic development in Africa. In 1996, the UN sponsored the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative, subsequently taken up by the IMF, World Bank and the African Development Fund in the form of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative; as of 2013, the initiative has given partial debt relief to 30 African countries. Trade has driven much of the growth in Africa's economy in the early 21st century. China and India are important trade partners; the Group of Five are another important market for Africa's exports. Africa's economy—w
Microfinance is a category of financial services targeted at individuals and small businesses who lack access to conventional banking and related services. Microfinance includes the provision of small loans to poor clients. Microfinance services are designed to be more affordable to poor and marginalized customers and to help them become self-sufficient. Microfinance had a limited definition - the provision of microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to credit; the two main mechanisms for the delivery of financial services to such clients were: relationship-based banking for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses. Over time, microfinance has emerged as a larger movement whose object is "a world in which as everyone the poor and marginalized people and households have access to a wide range of affordable, high quality financial products and services, including not just credit but savings, payment services, fund transfers."Proponents of microfinance claim that such access will help poor people out of poverty, including participants in the Microcredit Summit Campaign.
For many, microfinance is a way to promote economic development and growth through the support of micro-entrepreneurs and small businesses. Critics point to some of the ills of micro-credit that can create indebtedness. Due to diverse contexts in which microfinance operates, the broad range of microfinance services, it is neither possible nor wise to have a generalized view of impacts microfinance may create. Many studies have tried to assess its impacts. In developing economies and in rural areas, many activities that would be classified in the developed world as financial are not monetized: that is, money is not used to carry them out; this is the case when people need the services money can provide but do not have dispensable funds required for those services, forcing them to revert to other means of acquiring them. In their book The Poor and Their Money, Stuart Rutherford and Sukhwinder Arora cite several types of needs: Lifecycle Needs: such as weddings, childbirth, home building and old age.
Personal Emergencies: such as sickness, unemployment, harassment or death. Disasters: such as wildfires, floods and man-made events like war or bulldozing of dwellings. Investment Opportunities: expanding a business, buying land or equipment, improving housing, securing a job, etc. People find creative and collaborative ways to meet these needs through creating and exchanging different forms of non-cash value. Common substitutes for cash vary from country to country but include livestock, grains and precious metals; as Marguerite Robinson describes in The Micro finance Revolution, the 1980s demonstrated that "micro finance could provide large-scale outreach profitably," and in the 1990s, "micro finance began to develop as an industry". In the 2000s, the micro finance industry's objective is to satisfy the unmet demand on a much larger scale, to play a role in reducing poverty. While much progress has been made in developing a viable, commercial micro finance sector in the last few decades, several issues remain that need to be addressed before the industry will be able to satisfy massive worldwide demand.
The obstacles or challenges to building a sound commercial micro finance industry include: Inappropriate donor subsidies Poor regulation and supervision of deposit-taking micro finance institutions Few MFIs that meet the needs for savings, remittances or insurance Limited management capacity in MFIs Institutional inefficiencies Need for more dissemination and adoption of rural, agricultural micro finance methodologies Members lack of collateral to secure a loanMicrofinance is the proper tool to reduce income inequality, allowing citizens from lower socio-economical classes to participate in the economy. Moreover, its involvement has shown to lead to a downward trend in income inequality. Rutherford argues that the basic problem that poor people face as money managers is to gather a'usefully large' amount of money. Building a new home may involve saving and protecting diverse building materials for years until enough are available to proceed with construction. Children's schooling may be funded by buying chickens and raising them for sale as needed for expenses, bribes, etc.
Because all the value is accumulated before it is needed, this money management strategy is referred to as'saving up'.. People don't have enough money when they face a need, so they borrow. A poor family might borrow from relatives to buy land, from a moneylender to buy rice, or from a microfinance institution to buy a sewing machine. Since these loans must be repaid by saving after the cost is incurred, Rutherford calls this'saving down'. Rutherford's point is that microcredit is addressing only half the problem, arguably the less important half: poor people borrow to help them save and accumulate assets. Microcredit institutions should fund their loans through savings accounts that help poor people manage their myriad risks. Most needs are met through a mix of credit. A benchmark impact assessment of Grameen Bank and two other large microfinance institutions in Bangladesh found that for every $1 they were lending to clients to finance rural non-farm micro-enterprise, about $2.50 came from other so
Somerville College, Oxford
Somerville College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1879 as Somerville Hall, it was one of the first two women's colleges in Oxford, its alumni, such as Margaret Thatcher, Indira Gandhi, Dorothy Hodgkin, Iris Murdoch, Vera Brittain, Cornelia Sorabji, Dorothy L. Sayers and many activists, have played a important role in feminism. Today, around 50% of students are male. Somerville has the biggest college library in Oxford and is known for its friendly and liberal atmosphere, varied architecture and excellent hall food, its liberal character traces back to its foundation by social liberals as the first non-denominational college in Oxford, deliberately unlike the Anglican Lady Margaret Hall, the other women's college opened in the same year. Somerville is one of the few Oxford colleges where students may walk on the grass and in 1964, Somerville became one of the first colleges to abandon the policy of locking its gates at night to prevent students staying out late.
No gowns are worn during Formal Halls. The current principal is Janet Royall, Baroness Royall of Blaisdon, who succeeded Alice Prochaska in 2017. Between 2006 and 2018, the financial endowment rose from £44.5 million to £80.6 million. Its total net assets in 2018 were £225.0 million, the seventh highest total for an Oxford undergraduate college. The college is located in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter and Jericho, at the southern end of Woodstock Road, with Little Clarendon Street to the south and Walton Street to the west, it is near the Science Area, Oxford University Press, Radcliffe Observatory, Blavatnik School of Government and between the University Parks and Port Meadow. It is located nearby the colleges Green Templeton College, Keble College and St Anne's College and the PPH St Benet's Hall. Somerville is one of only three Oxford colleges to provide on-site accommodation for all undergraduates throughout their course; the college is home to circa 600 students. More than half of the UK students admitted to Somerville are educated at state schools, close to the university average.
Its sister college is Girton College, England's first residential college for the higher education of women. In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford; some of the more prominent members of the association were George Granville Bradley, Master of University College, T. H. Green, a prominent liberal philosopher and Fellow of Balliol College, Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College. Talbot insisted on a Anglican institution, unacceptable to most of the other members; the two parties split, Talbot's group founded Lady Margaret Hall, which opened its doors for students in 1879, the same year as Somerville did. Thus, in 1879, a second committee was formed to create a college "in which no distinction will be made between students on the ground of their belonging to different religious denominations." This committee had close ties to the Liberal Party. This second committee included John Percival, George William Kitchin, A. H. D. Acland, Thomas Hill Green, Mary Ward, William Sidgwick, Henry Nettleship, Walter Pater and A. G. Vernon Harcourt.
This new effort resulted in the founding of Somerville Hall, named for the recently deceased Scottish mathematician and renowned scientific writer Mary Somerville. It was felt that the name would reflect the virtues of liberalism and academic success which the college wished to embody, she was admired by the founders of the college as a scholar, as well as for her religious and political views, including her conviction that women should have equality in terms of suffrage and access to education. Madeleine Shaw Lefevre was chosen as the first principal because, although not a well-known academic at the time, her background was felt to reflect the college's political stance; because of its status as both women's college and non-denominational institution, Somerville was regarded within Oxford as "an eccentric and somewhat alarming institution." When opened, Somerville Hall had twelve students, ranging in age between 17 and 36. The first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above a baker's shop on Little Clarendon Street.
Just two of the original 12 students admitted in 1879 remained in Oxford for three years, the period of residence required for male students to complete a bachelor's degree. However, as the college admitted more students, it became more formalized. Somerville appointed its first in-house tutor in 1892 and, by the end of the 1890s, female students were permitted to attend lectures in all colleges. In 1891 it became the first women's hall to introduce entrance exams and in 1894 the first of the five women's halls of residence to adopt the title of'college', the first of them to appoint its own teaching staff, the first to build a library. In Oxford legend it soon became known as the'bluestocking college', its excellent examination results refuting the widespread belief that women were incapable of high academic achievement. In the 1910s, Somerville became known for its support for the women's suffrage campaign. In 1920, Oxford University allowed women to therefore gain degrees. From the college's inception, all female students had to be chaperoned when in the presence of male students.
The practice was abolished in 1925, although male visitors to the college were still subject to a curfew. In 1925, during the principalship of Emily Penrose, Somerville's college charter was granted. During World War I the college was converted
Giovanni Andrea Cornia
Giovanni Andrea Cornia, is a development economist. He is Professor of Department of Economics and Management, at the University of Florence, he has been the director of the Regional Institute of Economic Planning of Tuscany, the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, in Helsinki, the Economic and Policy Research Program, UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti, in Florence. He was also Chief Economist, UNICEF, New York, his main areas of professional interest are income and asset inequality, growth, child well-being, human development and mortality crises, transition economics, institutional economics. He is author of over a dozen books and dozens of articles and working papers on practical development economics issues in individual countries and globally. Cornia, Giovanni A.. The impact of world recession on children. Oxford Oxfordshire New York: Pergamon Press. ISBN 9780080313290. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Adjustment with a human face: protecting the vulnerable and promoting growth.
Volume 1. Oxford Oxfordshire Oxford Oxfordshire New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198286103. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Adjustment with a human face: ten country case studies. Volume 2. Oxford Oxfordshire Oxford Oxfordshire New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198286110. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Africa's Recovery in the 1990s: From Stagnation and Adjustment to Human Development. London New York: Macmillan. Cornia, Giovanni A.. From adjustment to development in Africa: conflict, convergence, consensus. New York, New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780333613627. Cornia, Giovanni A.. The mortality crisis in transitional economies. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press United Nations University. ISBN 9780198297413. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Transition and institutions: the experience of gradual and late reformers. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199242184. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Inequality and poverty in an era of liberalization and globalization. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780199271412. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Pro-Poor Macroeconomics: Potential and Limitations. London New York: Palgrave. Cornia, Giovanni A.. AIDS, child well-being and public policy. Florence: UNICEF-IRC. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Falling Inequality in Latin America: Policy Changes and Lessons. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. Cornia, Giovanni A.. Towards human development: new approaches to macroeconomics and inequality. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198706083. Personal profile: Giovanni Andrea Cornia Università degli Studi di Firenze Personal profile: Giovanni Andrea Cornia United Nations University - UNU-WIDER
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level; this may involve restructuring market incentives or using mathematical methods such as intertemporal optimization for project analysis, or it may involve a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. Unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans. Unlike many other fields of economics, there is no consensus on what students should know.
Different approaches may consider the factors that contribute to economic convergence or non-convergence across households and countries. The earliest Western theory of development economics was mercantilism, which developed in the 17th century, paralleling the rise of the nation state. Earlier theories had given little attention to development. For example, the dominant school of thought during medieval feudalism, emphasized reconciliation with Christian theology and ethics, rather than development; the 16th- and 17th-century School of Salamanca, credited as the earliest modern school of economics did not address development specifically. Major European nations in the 17th and 18th century all adopted mercantilist ideals to varying degrees, the influence only ebbing with the 18th-century development of physiocrats in France and classical economics in Britain. Mercantilism held that a nation's prosperity depended on its supply of capital, represented by bullion held by the state, it emphasised the maintenance of a high positive trade balance as a means of accumulating this bullion.
To achieve a positive trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs and subsidies to home industries were advocated. Mercantilist development theory advocated colonialism. Theorists most associated with mercantilism include Philipp von Hörnigk, who in his Austria Over All, If She Only Will of 1684 gave the only comprehensive statement of mercantilist theory, emphasizing production and an export-led economy. In France, mercantilist policy is most associated with 17th-century finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, whose policies proved influential in American development. Mercantilist ideas continue in the theories of economic neomercantilism. Following mercantilism was the related theory of economic nationalism, promulgated in the 19th century related to the development and industrialization of the United States and Germany, notably in the policies of the American System in America and the Zollverein in Germany. A significant difference from mercantilism was the de-emphasis on colonies, in favor of a focus on domestic production.
The names most associated with 19th-century economic nationalism are the American Alexander Hamilton, the German-American Friedrich List, the American Henry Clay. Hamilton's 1791 Report on Manufactures, his magnum opus, is the founding text of the American System, drew from the mercantilist economies of Britain under Elizabeth I and France under Colbert. List's 1841 Das Nationale System der Politischen Ökonomie, which emphasized stages of growth, proved influential in the US and Germany, nationalist policies were pursued by politician Henry Clay, by Abraham Lincoln, under the influence of economist Henry Charles Carey. Forms of economic nationalism and neomercantilism have been key in Japan's development in the 19th and 20th centuries, the more recent development of the Four Asian Tigers, most China. Following Brexit and the United States presidential election, 2016, some experts have argued a new kind of "self-seeking capitalism" popularly known as Trumponomics could have a considerable impact on cross-border investment flows and long-term capital allocation The origins of modern development economics are traced to the need for, problems with the industrialization of eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War II.
The key authors are Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Kurt Mandelbaum, Ragnar Nurkse, Sir Hans Wolfgang Singer. Only after the war did economists turn their concerns towards Asia and Latin America. At the heart of these studies, by authors such as Simon Kuznets and W. Arthur Lewis was an analysis of not only economic growth but structural transformation. An early theory of development economics, the linear-stages-of-growth model was first formulated in the 1950s by W. W. Rostow in The Stages of Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, following work of Marx and List; this theory modifies Marx's stages theory of development and focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, development. The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five consecutive stages of development which all countries must go through during the process of development.
These stages are "the traditional society, the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, the age of high mass-consumption" Simple versi
Long Road Sixth Form College
Long Road Sixth Form College is a public sector co-educational sixth form college in Cambridge, England. It is situated on Long Road, from which it draws its name, is located next to the Cambridge Bio-Medical Campus which encompasses Addenbrooke's Hospital; the college provides full-time A level courses in addition to Level 3 Diploma courses, Level 2 Diploma courses and GCSE consolidation courses. The college occupies a 23-acre site. Prior to this it was the Cambridgeshire High School for a girls' grammar school. A significant proportion of the college's current buildings date from this period, although there has been extensive renovation and the construction of three new buildings, as well as a new sports centre that opened in 2005. Other recent renovation projects included the expansion of the Learning Resource Centre, state of the art Performing Arts studios and the Student Centre. Science laboratories were updated in August 2013 and new teaching spaces for Media Diploma and Business Diploma courses opened in August 2013.
Additional classroom space has been provided for Sociology and for the Level 4 Foundation in Art & Design. There are extended classrooms for the Criminology Diploma; the college has 2,300 full-time students, who are between the ages of 16 and 19. Most of these students study on A level courses, although an increasing number are taking Level 3 Diploma courses, many study on one-year GCSE courses or Level 2 Diploma courses. Around 75% of students go on to higher education each year, they apply to a broad range of different universities. A significant proportion of students each year go onto full-time apprenticeships, including degree apprenticeships. Others take a gap year before further study or work; the college is in the top 25% in the country for helping students achieve better grades than were predicted when they joined the college. A wide range of A level subjects and Diplomas are offered, in addition to Level 2 subjects. From 2018 the following subjects will be available: A levels: Art and Design.
Dan Gresham and Bass producer was a teacher of Music Technology. P. D. James, Crime writer Margaret Spufford, Historian Frances Stewart, Development economist Heather Craney, Actor who has appeared in Vera Drake, Life of Riley and Torchwood Everton Fox, Weather presenter who presented for BBC Weather Emerald O'Hanrahan, Actor who plays Emma Carter in The Archers Nick Mulvey, twice nominated for the Mercury Music Prize Thomas Ridgwell, known for his internet videos under the name TomSka Rowan Robertson, recruited to play guitar for Dio at age 17