The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. It is defined by the headlands of the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Peninsula, since 1937, has been spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge; the entire shoreline and adjacent waters throughout the strait are managed by the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. During the last Ice Age, when sea level was several hundred feet lower, the waters of the glacier-fed Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River scoured a deep channel through the bedrock on their way to the ocean; the strait is well known today for powerful tidal currents from the Pacific Ocean. Many small whirlpools and eddies can form in its waters. With its strong currents, rocky reefs and fog, the Golden Gate is the site of over 100 shipwrecks; the Golden Gate is shrouded in fog during the summer. Heat generated in the California Central Valley causes air there to rise, creating a low pressure area that pulls in cool, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean.
The Golden Gate forms the largest break in the hills of the California Coast Range, allowing a persistent, dense stream of fog to enter the bay there. Although there is no weather station on Golden Gate proper, the area has a mediterranean climate with narrow temperature fluctuations, cool summers and mild winters. For the nearest weather station see the weatherbox of San Francisco; the Golden Gate Bridge being nearer the ocean and at elevation indicate it being cooler during summer days. Nearer the San Francisco urban core, the temperatures resemble the official NOAA weather station instead. Before the Europeans arrived in the 18th century, the area around the strait and the bay was inhabited by the Ohlone to the south and Coast Miwok people to the north. Descendants of both tribes remain in the area; the strait was elusive for early European explorers due to this persistent summer fog. The strait is not recorded in the voyages of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo nor Francis Drake, both of whom may have explored the nearby coast in the 16th century in search of the fabled Northwest Passage.
The strait is unrecorded in observations by Spanish galleons returning from the Philippines that laid up in nearby Drakes Bay to the north. These galleons passed east of the Farallon Islands, fearing the possibility of rocks between the islands and the mainland; the first recorded observation of the strait occurred nearly two hundred years than the earliest European explorations of the coast. In 1769, Sgt José Francisco Ortega, the leader of a scouting party sent north along the San Francisco Peninsula by Don Gaspar de Portolá from their expedition encampment in San Pedro Valley to locate the Point Reyes headlands, reported back to Portolá that he could not reach the location because of his encounter with the strait. On August 5, 1775 Juan de Ayala and the crew of his ship San Carlos became the first Europeans known to have passed through the strait, anchoring in a cove behind Angel Island, the cove now named in Ayala's honor; until the 1840s, the strait was called the "Boca del Puerto de San Francisco".
On July 1, 1846, before the discovery of gold in California, the entrance acquired a new name. In his memoirs, John C. Frémont wrote, "To this Gate I gave the name of'Chrysopylae', or'Golden Gate', he went on to comment that the strait was “a golden gate to trade with the Orient.” In the 1920s, no bridge spanned the watery expanse between San Francisco and Marin in California—so when the U. S. Post Office issued a postage stamp on May 1, 1923, celebrating The Golden Gate, the issue portrayed the scene without a bridge; the schooner sailing ship in the engraving is the USS Babcock, which served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919, is seen passing through the Golden Gate into San Francisco Bay, its port of call. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean; as part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County.
The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when completed in 1937, is an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and California in general. Since its completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges, it still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States, after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects; the Golden Gate strait serves as the primary access channel for nautical travel to and from the San Francisco Bay, one of the largest cargo ports in the United States. Commercial ports includes the Port of Oakland, the Port of Richmond, the Port of San Francisco. Commercial cargo ships use the Golden Gate to access the San Francisco Bay, as well as barges, fishing boats, cruise ships, owned boats, including wind-surfers and kite-boards. About 9000 ships moved through the Golden Gate in 2014, a similar amount in 2015.
The U. S Coast Guard maintains a Vessel Traffic Service to monitor and regulate vessel traffic through the Golden Gate. For navigational guidance, there are white and green lights on the center of the span of the Golden Gate Bridge. Lighthouses with beacons and foghorns provide alerts at Point Bonita, Point Diablo, Lime Point and Mile Rocks. Before th
War of the League of Cognac
The War of the League of Cognac was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the Kingdom of France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, the Kingdom of England, the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Florence. Shocked by the defeat of the French in the Italian War of 1521, Pope Clement VII, together with the Republic of Venice, began to organize an alliance to drive Charles V from Italy. Francis, having signed the Treaty of Madrid, was released from his captivity in Madrid and returned to France, where he announced his intention to assist Clement. Thus, in 1526, the League of Cognac was signed by Francis, Venice and the Sforza of Milan, who desired to throw off the Imperial hegemony over them. Henry VIII of England, thwarted in his desire to have the treaty signed in England, refused to join; the League seized Lodi, but Imperial troops marched into Lombardy and soon forced Sforza to abandon Milan.
The Colonna, organized an attack on Rome, defeating the Papal forces and seizing control of the city in September 1526. Charles V now gathered a force of landsknechts under Georg Frundsberg and a Spanish army under Charles of Bourbon. Francesco Guicciardini, now in command of the Papal armies, proved unable to resist them, his escape was made possible by the Swiss Guards' last stand. The looting of Rome, the consequent removal of Clement from any real role in the war, prompted frantic action on the part of the French. On 30 April 1527, Henry VIII and Francis signed the Treaty of Westminster, pledging to combine their forces against Charles. Francis, having drawn Henry VIII into the League, sent an army under Odet de Foix and Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto through Genoa—where Andrea Doria had joined the French and seized much of the Genoese fleet—to Naples, where it proceeded to dig itself in for an extended siege. Doria, soon deserted the French for Charles; the siege collapsed as plague broke out in the French camp, killing most of the army along with Foix and Navarro.
Andrea Doria's offensive in Genoa, together with the decisive defeat of a French relief force under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol at the Battle of Landriano, ended Francis's hopes of regaining his hold on Italy. Following the defeat of his armies, Francis sought peace with Charles; the negotiations began in July 1529 in the border city of Cambrai. The final terms mirrored those of the Treaty of Madrid three years earlier. Removed, were both the humiliating surrender of Burgundy itself and the various points dealing with Charles de Bourbon, having been killed two years prior, was no longer a candidate for leading an independent Kingdom of Provence; the final Treaty of Cambrai, signed on 5 August, removed France from the war, leaving Venice and the Pope alone against Charles. Charles, having arrived in Genoa, proceeded to Bologna to meet with the Pope. Clement promised to crown Charles. In return, he received Cervia. Francesco was permitted to return to Milan—Charles having abandoned his earlier plan to place Alessandro de' Medici on the throne, in part due to Venetian objections—for the sum of 900,000 scudi.
The Republic of Florence alone continued to resist the Imperial forces, which were led by the Prince of Orange. A Florentine army under Francesco Ferruccio engaged the armies of the Emperor at the Battle of Gavinana in 1530, although the Prince of Orange himself was killed, the Imperial army won a decisive victory and the Republic of Florence surrendered ten days later. Alessandro de' Medici was installed as Duke of Florence. Arfaioli, Maurizio; the Black Bands of Giovanni: Infantry and Diplomacy During the Italian Wars. Pisa: Pisa University Press, Edizioni Plus, 2005. ISBN 88-8492-231-3. Baumgartner, Frederic J. Louis XII. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. ISBN 0-312-12072-9. Black, Jeremy. "Dynasty Forged by Fire." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History 18, no. 3: 34–43. ISSN 1040-5992. Blockmans, Wim. Emperor Charles V, 1500–1558. Translated by Isola van den Hoven-Vardon. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-340-73110-9. Guicciardini, Francesco; the History of Italy. Translated by Sydney Alexander.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-691-00800-0. Hackett, Francis. Francis the First. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co. 1937. Hall, Bert. Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe: Gunpowder and Tactics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8018-5531-4. Hibbert, Christopher. Florence: The Biography of a City. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1993. ISBN 0-393-03563-8. Konstam, Angus. Pavia 1525: The Climax of the Italian Wars. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Baja California Peninsula
The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California; the peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has 3,000 km of coastline and 65 islands; the total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2. The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of the Colorado River. There are four main desert areas on the peninsula: the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert; the land of California existed as a myth among European explorers. The earliest known mention of the idea of California was in the 1510 romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; the book described the Island of California as being west of the Indies, "very close to the side of the Terrestrial Paradise.
Following Hernán Cortés' conquest of Mexico, the lure of an earthly paradise as well as the search for the fabled Strait of Anián, helped motivate him to send several expeditions to the west coast of New Spain in the 1530s and early 1540s. Its first expedition reached the Gulf of California and California, proved the Island of California was in fact a peninsula; the idea of the island persisted for well over a century and was included in many maps. The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula and lands to the north, including both Baja California and Alta California, the region that became parts of the present-day U. S. states of California, Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. 1532: Hernán Cortés sends three ships north along the coast of Mexico in search of the Island of California. The three ships disappear without a trace. 1533: Cortés sends a follow-up mission to search for the lost ships. Pilot Fortún Ximénez leads a mutiny and founds a settlement in the Bay of La Paz before being killed.
1539: Francisco de Ulloa explores both coasts. 1622: A map by Michiel Colijn of Amsterdam showed California as a peninsula rather than an island. Previous maps show the Gulf terminating in its correct location. 1690s–1800s: Spanish settlement and colonization in lower Las Californias, the first Spanish missions in Baja California are established by Jesuit missionaries. 1701: Explorations by Eusebio Kino expanded knowledge of the Gulf of California coast. Kino did not believe. 1767: Jesuits expelled. 1769: Franciscans go with the Portola expedition to establish new missions in Alta California. Control of the existing Baja missions passes to the Dominican Order. 1773: Francisco Palóu's line demarcates Franciscan and Dominican areas of mission control. 1804: Las Californias divided into Alta and Baja California, using Palóu's line. 1810–1821: Mexican War of Independence 1821: First Mexican Empire, Baja California Territory established, covering Baja California Peninsula. 1847: The Battle of La Paz and the Siege of La Paz occurs, as well as several other engagements.
1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Alta California to the United States. As a U. S. territory it receives the California Gold Rush, causing increased maritime traffic along the peninsula. 1850: California admitted to U. S. statehood. 1853: William Walker, with 45 men, captures the capital city of La Paz and declares himself President of the Republic of Lower California. Mexico forces him to retreat a few months later. 1930–31: The Territory of Baja California is further divided into Northern and Southern territories. 1952: The North Territory of Baja California becomes the 29th State of Mexico, Baja California. The southern portion, below 28°N, remains a federally administered territory. 1973: The 1,700 km long Trans-Peninsular Highway, is finished. It is the first paved road; the highway was built by the Mexican government to improve Baja California's economy and increase tourism. 1974: The South Territory of Baja California becomes the 31st state, Baja California Sur. The province of the Californias was united until 1804, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain, when it was divided into Alta and Baja California.
The two Californias division was kept after Mexican independence in 1821. The Spanish Baja California Province became Mexican Baja California Territory, remained a separate territory until 1836. In 1836, the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms reunited both Californias in the Departamento de las Californias. After 1848, the Baja California Peninsula again became a Mexican territory when Alta California was ceded to the United States. In 1931 Baja California Territory was divided into southern territories. In 1952, the "North Territory of Baja California" became the 29th State of Mexico as Baja California. In 1974, the "South Territory of Baja California" became the 31st state as Baja California Sur; the northern part is the state of Baja California. The citizens of Baja California are named bajacalifornianos. Mexicali is the capital; the southern part, below 28° north, is the state of Baja California Sur. The citizens of Baja California Sur are named sudcalifornianos. La Paz is its capital
Suppression of the Society of Jesus
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies, Parma, the Spanish Empire and Austria and Hungary is a complex topic. Analysis of the reasons is complicated by the political maneuvering in each country, not carried on in the open but has left some trail of evidence; the papacy reluctantly went along with the demands of the various Catholic kingdoms involved, advanced no theological reason for the suppression. The power and wealth of the Society of Jesus with its influential educational system was confronted by adversaries in this time of cultural change in Europe, leading to the revolutions that would follow. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too allied to the papacy, too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated. By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus, as a fait accompli and with no reasons given. Russia and the United States allowed the Jesuits to continue their work, Catherine the Great allowed the founding of a new novitiate in Russia.
Soon after their restoration by Pope Pius VII in 1814, the Jesuits began returning to most of the places from which they had been expelled. Prior to the eighteenth-century suppression of the Jesuits in many countries, there was an early ban in territories of the Venetian Republic between 1606 and 1656/7, begun and ended as part of disputes between the Republic and the Papacy, beginning with the Venetian Interdict. By the mid-18th century, the Society had acquired a reputation in Europe for political maneuvering and economic success. Monarchs in many European states grew progressively wary of what they saw as undue interference from a foreign entity; the expulsion of Jesuits from their states had the added benefit of allowing governments to impound the Society's accumulated wealth and possessions. However, historian Charles Gibson cautions, "ow far this served as a motive for the expulsion we do not know."Various states took advantage of different events in order to take action. The series of political struggles between various monarchs France and Portugal, began with disputes over territory in 1750 and culminated in suspension of diplomatic relations and dissolution of the Society by the Pope over most of Europe, some executions.
The Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies and the Spanish Empire were involved to one degree or another. The conflicts began with trade disputes, in 1750 in Portugal, in 1755 in France, in the late 1750s in the Two Sicilies. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported Jesuits from South America after relocating the Jesuits and their native workers, fighting a brief conflict, formally suppressing the order in 1759. In 1762 the Parlement Français, ruled against the Society in a huge bankruptcy case under pressure from a host of groups – from within the Church but secular notables and the king's mistress. Austria and the Two Sicilies suppressed the order by decree in 1767. There were long-standing tensions between the Portuguese crown and the Jesuits, which increased when the Count of Oeiras became the monarch's minister of state, culminating in the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759; the Távora affair in 1758 could be considered a pretext for the expulsion and crown confiscation of Jesuit assets.
According to historians James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, the Jesuits' "independence, wealth, control of education, ties to Rome made the Jesuits obvious targets for Pombal's brand of extreme regalism."Portugal's quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain. By a secret treaty of 1750, Portugal relinquished to Spain the contested Colonia del Sacramento at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata in exchange for the Seven Reductions of Paraguay, the autonomous Jesuit missions, nominal Spanish colonial territory; the native Guaraní, who lived in the mission territories, were ordered to quit their country and settle across the Uruguay. Owing to the harsh conditions, the Guaraní rose in arms against the transfer, the so-called Guaraní War ensued, it was a disaster for the Guaraní. In Portugal a battle escalated with inflammatory pamphlets denouncing or defending the Jesuits who for over a century had protected the Guarani from enslavement through a network of Reductions, as depicted in The Mission.
The Portuguese colonizers secured the expulsion of the Jesuits. On 1 April 1758, Pombal persuaded the aged Pope Benedict XIV to appoint the Portuguese Cardinal Saldanha to investigate allegations against the Jesuits. Benedict was skeptical as to the gravity of the alleged abuses, he ordered a "minute inquiry", but so as to safeguard the reputation of the Society, all serious matters were to be referred back to him. Benedict died the following month on May 3. On May 15 Saldanha, having received the papal brief only a fortnight before, declared that the Jesuits were guilty of having exercised "illicit and scandalous commerce," both in Portugal and in its colonies, he had not visited Jesuit houses as ordered, pronounced on the issues which the pope had reserved to himself. Pombal implicated the Jesuits in the Távora affair, an attempted assassination of the king on 3 September 1758, on the grounds of their friendship with some of the supposed conspirators. On 19 January 1759, he issued a decree sequestering the property of the Society in the Portuguese dominions and the following September deported the Portuguese fathers, about one thousand in number, to the Pontifical States, keeping the foreigners in prison.
Querétaro the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro, is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities, its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro. It is located in a region known as Bajío, it is bordered by the states of San Luis Potosí to the north, Guanajuato to the west, Hidalgo to the east, México to the southeast and Michoacán to the southwest. The state is one of the smallest in Mexico, but it is one of the most heterogeneous geographically, with ecosystems varying from deserts to tropical rainforest in the Sierra Gorda, filled with microecosystems; the area of the state was located on the northern edge of Mesoamerica, with both the Purépecha Empire and Aztec Empire having influence in the extreme south, but neither dominating it. The area the Sierra Gorda, had a number of small city-states, but by the time the Spanish arrived, these had all been abandoned, with only small agricultural villages and seminomadic peoples inhabiting the area. Spanish conquest was focused on the establishment of the Santiago de Querétaro, which still dominates the state culturally and educationally.
Querétaro is located in the north-central area of the country of Mexico, connecting the wetter climes of the south with the drier deserts of the north. The state is divided into 18 municipalities: Amealco de Bonfil, Arroyo Seco, Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Corregidora, El Marqués, Ezequiel Montes, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pedro Escobedo, Peñamiller, Pinal de Amoles, Querétaro, San Joaquín, San Juan del Río, Tequisquiapan and Tolimán. Three of Mexico’s geographic zones cover parts of the state; the Mesa del Centro is in the center-west of the state, consists of small mesas with an average altitude of 2,000 meters above sea level. A few elevations reach over 3,000 meters; the Sierra Madre Oriental occupies the northeast of the state and includes the cities of Huasteca area. The topography of this area is rugged, with narrow valleys. Elevations here range between 900 m and 3,000 m m ASL; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occupies about half of the state in the south. The area is volcanic rock with peaks and mesas between 200 m and 3,000 m and valleys between 1,800 m and 1,900 m ASL.
The state is divided into five geographical regions: The Sierra Gorda, El Semidesierto Queretano, Los Valles Centrales, El Bajío Queretano and La Sierra Queretana. The Sierra Gorda is located in the north of the state and is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental in a subprovince called the Huasteco Karst, it is found in the municipalities of Arroyo Seco, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and San Joaquín and covers an area of 3,789km2 or 32.2% of the state. The topography is rugged, with steep valleys, it is a conjunction of mountains and hills formed by limestone, with wide contrasts in climates and vegetation. They range from near desert conditions to forests of pine and holm oak to the tropical rainforests of the Huasteca area in the state of San Luis Potosí; the Sierra Gorda was made a biosphere reserve in 1997, the Reserva de la Biosfera de la Sierra Gorda, to protect its abundance of species and ecosystems. In 2001, the area was registered with the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO.
This area is managed by la Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources federal agency. El Semidesierto Queretano is a wide strip that crosses the state from east to west, dry due to the blocking of moist air from the Gulf by the Sierra Madre Oriental; the area is found in the municipalities of Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Peñamiller and Tolimán, with an area of 3,415.6km2 or 29% of the state. As it is near the mountain range, its topography is rugged. Los Valles Centrales is in the center of the state, overlapping all of the area formed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, with the exception of the north of the El Marqués municipality, in the Mesa del Centro; the continental divide runs through here marked by the Sierra Queretana, the El Macizo and El Zamoarano mountain chains. This area occupies the municipalities of Ezequiel Montes, El Marqués, Pedro Escobedo and San Juan del Río with an extension of 2,480.2kmw or 21.1% of the state.
El Bajío Queretano is in the western part of the state, a low elevation area that extends into neighboring Guanajuato. This area covers 1,005.7km2 or 8.5% of the state, contains low hills and small mountain chains that are part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. La Sierra Queretana is in the extreme south of the state, part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, it is found in the municipalities of Amealco de Bonfil and Huimilpan, covering an area of 1,078.3 km or 9.2% of the state. The area has high plains that narrow into valleys and canyons; some of the flat areas border the Lerma River. The state contains two river basins: the Pánuco; the first is represented by the Lerma and La Laja Rivers and the second is represented by the Tamuín and Moctezuma Rivers. Other important rivers include the San Juan; these rivers contain 16 dams, including the Santa Catarina, El Batán, Constitution de 1917 and the San Ildefonso. Most of the state is dry, with the exception of the north, temperate and rainy; the average temperature is 18 °C.
Three well-defined climate areas are in the state. The south has
Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U. S. state of California. The bay is south of the major cities of San Jose; the county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the north end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end; the Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The first European to discover Monterey Bay was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo on November 16, 1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition, he named the bay Bahía de los Pinos because of the forest of pine trees first encountered while rounding the peninsula at the southern end of the bay. Cabrillo's name for the bay was lost, but the westernmost point of the peninsula is still known as Point Pinos. On December 10, 1595, Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeño crossed the bay and bestowed the name Bahía de San Pedro in honor of Saint Peter Martyr.
The present name for the bay was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, tasked by the Spanish government to complete a detailed chart of the coast. He anchored in what is now the Monterey harbor on December 16, named it Puerto de Monterrey, in honor of the Conde de Monterrey viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is an alternate spelling of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain from which the viceroy and his father originated. All other place names in the vicinity containing Monterey were so named because of their proximity to the bay; this includes the Presidio of City of Monterey, County of Monterey and Monterey Canyon. The Monterey Canyon, one of the largest underwater canyons in the world, begins off the coast of Moss Landing, in the center of Monterey Bay, it is 249 miles long, although its shape changes because of currents and sediment being left in the area. The canyon is much like that of a continental slope. Monterey Bay is home to many species of marine mammals, including sea otters, harbor seals, bottlenose dolphins.
Killer whales are found along the coast when Gray whales migrate, as they hunt the whales during their migration north. Many species of fish, mollusks such as abalone and squid and sea turtles live in the bay. Several varieties of kelp grow in the bay, some becoming as tall as trees, forming what is known as a kelp forest. Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Area, Portuguese Ledge State Marine Conservation Area, Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area, Lovers Point State Marine Reserve, Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area and Asilomar State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas in Monterey Bay. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. Clockwise around the bay from north to south. Inland communities are indented: Santa Cruz Live Oak Capitola Soquel Aptos Rio del Mar La Selva Beach Corralitos Freedom Watsonville Pajaro Las Lomas Elkhorn Moss Landing Castroville Salinas Marina Seaside Fort Ord Sand City Del Rey Oaks Monterey New Monterey Pacific Grove Carmel Carmel Valley Carmel Highlands California State University, Monterey Bay Monterey Bay Aquarium Palumbi, Stephen R.
The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival. Island Press. ISBN 978-1610911900. Monterey Bay travel guide from Wikivoyage Live Monterey Bay Web Cam Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary website