Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I of Poland, of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548. Earlier, Sigismund had been invested as Duke of Silesia. A successful monarch and a great patron of arts, he established Polish suzerainty over Ducal Prussia and incorporated the duchy of Mazovia into the Polish state, securing the nation's wealth and power. Sigismund I, the fifth son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Habsburg, had ruled Głogów, since 1499 and became margrave of Lusatia and governor of all Silesia in 1504. In a short time his judicial and administrative reforms transformed those territories into model states, he succeeded his brother Alexander I as grand prince of Lithuania and king of Poland in 1506. Although he established fiscal and monetary reforms, he clashed with the Polish Diet over extensions of royal power. At the Diet’s demand he married Barbara, daughter of Prince Stephen Zápolya of Hungary, in 1512, to secure a defense treaty and produce an heir.
She died three years however, leaving only daughters. In 1518 Sigismund married the niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, Bona Sforza of Milan, by whom he had one son, Sigismund II Augustus, four daughters, his daughter Catherine married John III of Sweden, from whom the Vasa kings of Poland were descended. In 1521 Sigismund made peace with his nephew Albert, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, a paramilitary religious order that ruled East Prussia. Albert became a Lutheran and converted the Teutonic state to Protestantism in 1525, defecting from both the Papacy and Holy Roman Emperor and agreeing to do public homage to Sigismund in return for being granted the title of secular duke of Prussia and Ducal Prussia coming under Polish suzerainty. Sigismund added the Duchy of Masovia to the Polish state in 1529, after the death of Janusz III, the last of its Piast dynasty rulers. Under the command of Jan Tarnowski, Sigismund’s army defeated the invading forces of Moldavia at Obertyn in 1531 and of Muscovy in 1535, thereby safeguarding Poland’s eastern borders.
Sigismund, influenced by his wife, brought Italian artists to Kraków and promoted the development of the Polish variety of the Italian Renaissance. Although a devout Catholic, he accorded religious toleration to Greek Orthodox Christians and royal protection to Jews. At first he vigorously opposed Lutheranism but resigned himself to its growing power in Poland. Sigismund I was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece; the son of King Casimir IV Jagiellon and Elisabeth of Austria, Sigismund followed his brothers John Albert and Alexander to the Polish throne. Their eldest brother Vladislaus became king of Bohemia and Croatia. Sigismund was christened as the namesake of his Habsburg maternal great-grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. After his father's death, Sigismund was the only son. In the years 1495–1496, he addressed his older brother, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander, demanded the separation of a domain from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but was refused. Queen Dowager Elisabeth Habsburg tried without success to ensure the succession of her son to the throne of Austria.
And the disastrous and unsuccessful invasion of Bukovina led by his older brother King John I Albert dispelled the plans for placing Sigismund on the Moldavian throne. Sigismund came under the care of his eldest brother Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, from whom he received the duchies of Głogów and Opava, in 1504 became governor of Silesia and Lower Lusatia. After the death of King Alexander I, Sigismund arrived in Vilnius, where he was elected by the Lithuanian Ducal Council on 13 September 1506 as Grand Duke of Lithuania, contrary to the Union of Mielnik, which proposed a joint Polish-Lithuanian election of a monarch. On 8 December 1506, during the session of the Polish Senate in Piotrków, Sigismund was elected King of Poland, he arrived in Kraków on 20 January 1507 and was crowned four days in Wawel Cathedral by Primate Andrzej Boryszewski. The internal situation in Poland was characterised by broad authorisation of the Chamber of Deputies and extended in the constitution of Nihil novi.
During Alexander's reign, the law of Nihil novi had been instituted, which forbade kings of Poland from enacting laws without the consent of the Sejm. Sigismund had little control over the act, unlike the senators, whom he appointed. During his reign, Sigismund benefited from the advice of the local nobility, competent ministers in charge of the royal judiciary system, the wealthy and influential treasurers of Kraków. Although he was reluctant to the parliamentary system and political independence of the nobility, he recognised the authority of legal norms, supported legalism and summoned annual sessions of the Sejm obtaining funds on state defence; however he was unsuccessful at attempting to create a permanent fund for defence from the annual income tax. Despite this "Achilles heel", in 1527 he established a conscript army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it, he set up the legal codes that formalised serfdom in Poland, locking the peasants into the estates of nobles. Related to tax matters was an unsuccessful attempt on the life of the king, made on 5 May 1523.
The identity of the would-be assassin - who shot the ruler while he was strolling in the evening around the cloisters of the Wawel castle - and his potential supporters was never established. Unclear motives remained after the assassination attempt; the only clue was the fact that three weeks before the event, Sigismund I introduced a new edict, unfav
Bartolommeo Berrecci was an Italian renaissance architect who spent most of his career in Poland. He learned architecture in Florence, first through apprenticeship with his father, an architect, he was probably taught by Andrea Ferrucci, his father's fellow Florentine architect. He moved to Poland in 1516 at the invitation of the bishop Jan Łaski to take over the work of rebuilding the Wawel Royal Castle in Kraków after the death of Francesco Fiorentino, working with Benedykt from Sandomierz; the castle had burnt down in 1499, the rebuilding was commissioned by Sigismund I of Poland. He took over Florentino's workshop, with the artists Bernardino di Gianotis, Giovanni Cini from Siena, Mikołaj Castiglione, five members of the Soli family, he worked in Kraków, Niepołomice, Poznań, Tarnów and most in Vilnius where the Royal Palace of Lithuania was reconstructed. He became rich in Poland, owning a number of houses in Kraków and a brickyard, he was murdered in 1537 by another jealous Italian artist in Kraków and was buried in the Corpus Christi Basilica in Kazimierz by Kraków.
The most important work of Berrecci is the chapel of the last Jagiellonians, the Sigismund Chapel for King Sigismund I the Old at the Wawel in Kraków. Some years Santi Gucci built the tombs of King Sigismund II Augustus and Queen Anna Jagiellon inside the chapel, his death in 1537 was the result of an infection caused by a worksite accident during work on the tomb of Piotr Tomicki. Berrecci's other works include: rebuilding the Wawel royal castle extension of the Niepołomice Castle baldachin for the tomb of Władysław II Jagiełło tomb for the bishops Jan Konarski and Piotr Tomicki in the Wawel Cathedral tomb of Barbara Tarnowska and the tombs of the three Jans in the Cathedral in Tarnów, he is one of the characters on the famous painting by Prussian Homage. Polish sylwetka Polish
Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV KG of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death. He was one of the most active Polish rulers, under whom Poland, by defeating the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years' War recovered Pomerania, the Jagiellonian dynasty became one of the leading royal houses in Europe, he was a strong opponent of aristocracy, helped to strengthen the importance of Parliament and the Senate. The great triumph of his reign was bringing Prussia under Polish rule; the long and brilliant rule of Casimir corresponded to the age of “new monarchies” in western Europe. By the 15th century Poland had narrowed the distance separating it from western Europe and become a significant factor in international relations; the demand for raw materials and semi-finished goods stimulated trade, producing a positive balance, contributed to the growth of crafts and mining in the entire country. He was a recipient of the English Order of the Garter, the highest order of chivalry and the most prestigious honour in England.
Casimir Jagiellon was the third and youngest son of King Władysław II Jagiełło and his fourth wife, Sophia of Halshany. His father was 65 at the time of Casimir’s birth, his brother Władysław III, three years his senior, was expected to become king before his majority. Strangely, little was done for his education, he relied on his instinct and feelings and had little political knowledge, but shared a great interest in the diplomacy and economic affairs of the country. Throughout Casimir's youth, Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki was his mentor and tutor, the cleric felt a strong reluctance towards him, believing that he would be an unsuccessful monarch following Władysław's death; the sudden death of Sigismund Kęstutaitis left. The Voivode of Trakai, Jonas Goštautas, other magnates of Lithuania, supported Casimir as a candidate to the throne; however many Polish noblemen hoped that the thirteen-year-old boy would become a Vice-regent for the Polish King in Lithuania. Casimir was invited by the Lithuanian magnates to Lithuania, when he arrived in Vilnius in 1440, he was proclaimed as the Grand Duke of Lithuania on 29 June 1440 by the Council of Lords, contrary to the wishes of the Polish noble lords—an act supported and coordinated by Jonas Goštautas.
When the news arrived in the Kingdom of Poland concerning the proclamation of Casimir as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, it was met with hostility to the point of military threats against Lithuania. Since the young Grand Duke was underage, the supreme control over the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was in the hands of the Council of Lords, presided by Jonas Goštautas. Casimir had been taught Lithuanian language and the customs of Lithuania by appointed court officials. During Casimir's rule the rights of the Lithuanian nobility—dukes and boyars, irrespective of their religion and ethnicity—were put on an equal footing to those of the Polish szlachta. Additionally, Casimir promised to protect the Grand Duchy's borders and not to appoint persons from the Polish Kingdom to the offices of the Grand Duchy, he accepted that decisions on matters concerning the Grand Duchy would not be made without the Council of Lords' consent. He granted the subject region of Samogitia the right to elect its own elder. Casimir was the first ruler of Lithuania baptised at birth, becoming the first native Roman Catholic Grand Duke.
Casimir succeeded his brother Władysław III as King of Poland after a three-year interregnum on 25 June 1447. In 1454, he married Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of the late King of the Romans Albert II of Habsburg by his late wife Elisabeth of Bohemia, a female-line descendant of Casimir III of Poland, her distant relative Frederick of Habsburg became Holy Roman Emperor and reigned as Frederick III until after Casimir's own death. The marriage strengthened the ties between the house of Jagiellon and the sovereigns of Hungary-Bohemia and put Casimir at odds with the Holy Roman Emperor through internal Habsburg rivalry; that same year, Casimir was approached by the Prussian Confederation for aid against the Teutonic Order, which he promised, by making the separatist Prussian regions a protectorate of the Polish Kingdom. However, when the insurgent cities rebelled against the Order, it resisted and the Thirteen Years' War ensued. Casimir and the Prussian Confederation defeated the Teutonic Order, entering its abandoned capital at Marienburg.
In the Second Peace of Thorn, the Order recognized Polish sovereignty over the seceded western Prussian regions, Royal Prussia, the Polish crown's overlordship over the remaining Teutonic Monastic State, transformed in 1525 into a duchy, Ducal Prussia. Elisabeth's only brother Ladislaus, king of Bohemia and Hungary, died in 1457, after that Casimir and Elisabeth's dynastic interests were directed towards her brother's former kingdoms. King Casimir IV died on 7 June 1492 in the Old Grodno Castle in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in a personal union with Poland; the intervention of the Roman curia, which hitherto had been hostile to Casimir because of his steady and patriotic resistance to papal aggression, was due to the permutations of European politics. The pope was anxious to get rid of the Hussite King of Bohemia, George Podebrad, as the first step towards the formation of a league against the Turk. Casimir was to be a leading factor in t
Bernardo di Matteo del Borra Gamberelli, better known as Bernardo Rossellino, was an Italian sculptor and architect, the elder brother of the sculptor Antonio Rossellino. As a member of the second generation of Renaissance artists, he helped to further define and popularize the revolution in artistic approach that characterized the new age. Bernardo Rossellino was born into a family of farmers and quarry owners in the mountain village of Settignano, overlooking the Arno river valley and the city of Florence, his uncle, Jacopo di Domenico di Luca del Borra Gamberelli may have given him his first lessons in stonemasonry. By 1420, Bernardo was down in Florence and apprenticed to one of that city's better-known sculptors Nanni di Bartolo, called "il Rosso"; such a relationship might explain the nickname of "Rossellino given to Bernardo and applied to his brothers, Antonio and Giovanni. Curiously, there is no record of Bernardo's entry into Florence's Guild of Stone and Woodworkers, although matriculation information exists for his brothers.
More than from any single master, Bernardo learned from the experimental atmosphere that suffused Florence in the 1420s. He seems to have been captivated by the "new wave" approaches being put into practice by Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio. More faithfully than their other followers, Bernardo Rossellino embraced and held true to the classical revival in both sculpture and architecture. Celebrated for his sculpture, he achieved particular distinction through his expanding role as an architect, achieving lasting fame for the work done or planned in Rome for Pope Nicholas V and for the rebuilding of the town of Pienza for Pope Pius II. Part of his artistic importance lay in his entrepreneurial skills which enabled him to assemble a large and successful workshop that dominated the stoneworking field in Florence during the 1450s and 1460s. In 1433, Bernardo is recorded as being in Arezzo, employed by the Fraternita di Santa Maria della Misericordia to complete the facade of the Misericordia's headquarters.
His first job presented a considerable challenge. The lower storey of this palace had been completed a half century earlier in the popular Gothic style, thus the problem confronting Bernardo was similar to that which Alberti encountered a quarter century when asked to complete the facade of Santa Maria Novella. Bernardo's solution for the unfinished second storey was a three bay design which used a Gothic mixed-element frame in the central bay flanked by classical paired pilasters and aediculae, the features of which were taken from the most progressive sources available. Set within the Gothic frame of this second storey is a relief of the Madonna of Mercy, the protectress of Arezzo, spreading her mantle out over the community's citizenry, she is flanked by the kneeling saints Persentinus. Bernardo received his final payment for the project in June 1435 for the two free standing figures of Saints Gregory and Donatus which occupy the aediculae on either side of the Misericordia relief. Rossellino's solution for the Arezzo palace facade fused Gothic and Renaissance elements in a deft, if somewhat awkward, combination aimed at achieving the Renaissance goal of unified harmony.
He clearly displayed, in this initial effort at both sculpture and architecture, a genius for the sort of creative eclecticism that became a major feature of the "Rossellino manner." Bernardo Rossellino was back in Florence in 1436 to establish his own workshop and to join a crew of stonemasons at work constructing the Aranci Cloister of the Badia. Payment records, supported by stylistic evidence, indicate that his principal contributions to this project included a handsome stone doorframe and an unusual cross window, both of which are identifiable today, it is possible that he proposed the addition of the pilaster strips which divide the surfaces of the loggias of the two-storey courtyard into a systematic grid. Documents indicate that Bernardo assumed a more decisive role at the suburban monastery of Santa Maria alle Campora whose cloister challenges that of Michelozzo at San Marco as the first such structure to have been erected in accordance with a Renaissance aesthetic. In 1444, he received a commission to sculpt two altar figures for the oratory of the Annunciation in the church of St. Stephen in Empoli.
In these two representations of the Virgin Annunciate and of the Archangel Gabriel, we find a further development of the artist's decoratively graceful and classical style as well as a recognition of the sculptural styles of Donatello and Michelozzo. Although the stock in trade of the Rossellino shop would have been the supply of building material and simple tasks of stonemasonry, several projects, combining sculptural and architectural features, were of particular significance during the 1440s. One, undertaken in the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena called upon him to design a grand entry way into the Sala del Concistoro; this richly decorated and gracefully classical doorframe is arguably the finest example of the type done in the first half of the fifteenth century and it is one of the most sumptuously elegant of the entire Renaissance. Another project was the triumphal arch wall tomb erected in Florence's church of Santa Croce for the historian and humanist scholar Leonardo Bruni, who had served as the State Chancellor of Florence.
No documentation survives for the tomb, but two early 16th-century sources credit Bernardo Rossellino for the project and his authorship has been accepted. There, has been debate concerning the dating of the tom
Elizabeth of Luxembourg
Elizabeth of Luxembourg was queen consort of Germany and Bohemia. The only child of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Elizabeth was expected to ascend his thrones along with her husband, Albert of Austria, her rights were ignored by the Hungarian nobility when Sigismund died in 1437 and only her husband was accepted as monarch, with Elizabeth as mere consort. Albert died in 1439, leaving Elizabeth a pregnant dowager with two daughters and Elizabeth. Bohemian nobility proclaimed an interregnum, while King Vladislaus III of Poland was crowned new king of Hungary in May 1440, three months after Queen Elizabeth delivered a son, Ladislaus the Posthumous, she was determined to contend for her patrimony on her son's behalf, which led to a civil war between hers and Vladislaus' supporters. The conflict ended with the queen's death at the age of 33. Vladislaus himself died in battle in 1444, opening the path for Elizabeth's son to be recognized as king of Hungary, her real birth date can be calculated by virtue of a letter of King Sigismund to Kéméndi Péter fia János, Lord-lieutenant of Zala County dated 26 April 1410 at Végles and sealed with Queen Barbara's seal, who stayed there and in which the king informs him about his daughter's birth alias circa festum beati Francisci confessoris.
Because this feast falls on 4 October, it must have happened in the previous year, that is, 1409 and in October. Baranyai argues that the usage of circa can allow some variations towards September but if it had occurred in September, he would have referred to the feast of Saint Michael which falls on 29 September instead of that of Francis of Assisi; the only remaining question, namely the exact day is educed from the engagement date of his daughter to Archduke Albert, held on 7 October 1411, Pozsony and may have adjusted to a former important event because it belongs to no religious feasts. The birthplace is inferential and is traced back to the traditional place for the queen's labours, in Visegrád and, referred to in her Memoirs by Helene Kottannerin in the case of Queen Elisabeth advanced in pregnancy with Ladislas V in early 1440. In addition, Itinerary of King Sigismund shows that he stayed in Visegrad between 9–19 October 1409. In the end one concludes that her birth in Prague, on 28 February 1409 to the date of 27 November this year which in reality was her christening day, is based on false sources.
Elizabeth was born into the powerful House of Luxembourg. Her parents were the 41-year-old King Sigismund of Hungary and his second wife, the 17-year-old Barbara of Cilli. Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, the rebellious baron with whom Sigismund had come to terms, was the infant's godfather; the year after her birth, Elizabeth's father was elected King of the Romans. As the king's only child, Elizabeth was seen as de facto heir presumptive to the throne, or at least as the princess whose eventual marriage would provide a king. In 1411, Sigismund managed to have the Hungarian estates promise that they would recognize Elizabeth's right to the Holy Crown of Hungary and elect her future husband as king –an agreement that would have great consequences after Sigismund's death. Elizabeth's hereditary right was in fact rather slim, as her father had acquired it by marrying his first wife, Queen Mary, from whom Elizabeth was not descended; the same year, Sigismund betrothed Elizabeth to the Habsburg Duke Albert V of Austria aged 14.
Queen Barbara was unpopular among the nobility, who resented her sympathy for the Hussites, forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. In 1418, they accused her of having committed adultery while her husband was attending the Council of Constance; the resulting strain in the royal marriage led to the queen's banishment and confinement, first in Várad and subsequently in Szakolca, between 1418 and 1419. The fact that Elizabeth accompanied her mother into the exile and endured the same harsh treatment despite being recognized as heiress to the throne suggests that Sigismund may have doubted her paternity during that period. Sigismund negotiated her marriage to the Habsburg Duke Albert V of Austria; the Habsburgs, Sigismund's long-standing friends and allies, evidently did not question Elizabeth's legitimacy or, at least, were not deterred by the accusations made against her mother. Sigismund reconciled with Barbara in 1419 and Elizabeth returned to his favour along with her mother; the same year, he inherited the Bohemian crown from his elder brother, King Wenceslaus IV.
On 28 September 1421, the enduring friendship between King Sigismund and the House of Habsburg culminated in a marriage treaty signed in Vienna. The treaty confirmed Elizabeth's status as heiress presumptive of both Hungary and Bohemia, but only for as long as she remained Sigismund's only child, it stipulated that the birth of another daughter would leave Elizabeth with the right to choose one of her father's kingdoms, while the younger sister would inherit the other. Should she gain a brother, she would be deprived of both crowns in his favour; the Margraviate of Moravia was ceded to Albert as Elizabeth's dowry. The treaty was controversial in both Hungary and Bohemia, as the nobility of both countries claimed the right to elect their monarch though their choice was the heir-in-blood. Elizabeth formally married Albert in a splendid ceremony held on 19 April 1422 in Vienna. Elizabeth, now duchess of Austria, moved to the Viennese court of her husband; the papal dispensation for the marriage, necessary due to the couple's common descent from Wenceslaus II of Bohemia a
Pontassieve is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 14 kilometres east of Florence, nearby Fiesole, at the confluence of the Arno and Sieve rivers. The first rulers of the area were the Quona nobles, whose Lordship is documented from the 11th century. These, a branch of whom at a date appeared under the name of Filicaia, settled in Florence at the end of the 12th century and in 1207 sold a large part of its territory of jurisdiction to the Bishopric of Florence. In 1375 Florence had a castle erected here for an strategic use on the land of Pontassieve. First the town took the name of "Castel Sant’Angelo" obtaining the current referring to the importance of the bridge on the river, the main way joining the Republic of Florence to the territories of the Mugello and the city of Arezzo. At the end of the 18th century the new House of Lorraine’s Dukes gave a great impulse to the town economy. Thanks to the Ducal works for the reclamation of the territory and the opening of two new roads, that joined Pontassieve to the Casentino and Emilia, Pontassieve lived a remarkable economic growth.
Under the Lorenese domination Pontassieve was elevated to the rank of Vicarship’s Town Hall comprising part of the territories belonging to the Arno and Sieve valleys. In 1859 the construction of a Florence-Rome railway gave an additional impulse to the town's economy, turning it into an industrial hub. In 1861 Pontassieve was annexed to the newly formed Kingdom of Italy. During World War II Pontassieve, for its importance as a rail junction, suffered substantial damage: the railways and the town itself were bombed by Allied planes, which destroyed it entirely; the town's present day aspect is due, to the post war reconstruction. Though, the town has kept its original medieval look in the city center; the economy of the town is based on the industrial activities including food and electronic industries, on the manufacture of glass and pottery. Flourishing is the artisan manufacture of leathers, remarkable are the productions of the "Vino Chianti Putto" and of a valuable oil. Among the several celebrations periodically taking place in Pontassieve we remind here the traditional "Toscanello d'oro" held yearly on May.
The celebration consists of a show-market where it is possible to taste and buy valuable local wines and typical courses of Pontassieve. Church of Sant'Eustachio, at Acone referred to as Sant'Eustachio in Jerusalem, used to be the mother church of the vast Acone parish. Church of Santa Maria at Acone, its foundation dates to 925. Protectors of the church were, among many, the Donati family and the San Matteo Hospital in Florence. Church of Sant'Andrea, at Doccia. Mentioned for the first time in 1024 in official Vatican papers by bishop Ildebrand, as a property of San Miniato al Monte monastery. Pieve of San Giovanni a Remole in Le Sieci, dating to 955, it was head of a parish extending on both sides of the Arno river. Pieve of Santi Gervasio e Martino, at Lobaco; the old church, dedicated to San Gervasio is located in Alpiniano, dates back to the 11th century. Sanctuary of Madonna delle Grazie; this sanctuary is known as "Madonna del Sasso" because of a series of apparitions of the Virgin Mary in 1484.
The building was erected in 1490, taking the place of a medieval oratory. Church of San Martino at Molino del Piano, first documented in the 13th century, it was owned by the bishop of the Saltarelli family. Pieve of San Lorenzo, at Montefiesole. Existing since 1190 but transormed into a parish in 1461, it lies next to the ruins of the castle belonging to the bishop of Florence, who ruled these lands. Prepository of San Michele Arcangelo, documented since the beginning of the 13th century. Rebuilt in the 18th century, it was consecrated in 1788. Church of Santi Martino e Giusto, at Quona. Dedicated to San Martino called San Giusto after the first church was demolished. Church of Santa Brigida, in Pontassieve town. Built, according to tradition, on the cave chosen by the saint for meditation in the 10th century, it has been enlarged throughout the 16th-17th centuries and restored and modified in 1938 and 1954. Church of San Giovanni Battista at Monteloro. Documented since 1102, the small building lies next to the ruins of the eponymous castle, which was, since the 9th century, a fief of the Fiesole bishop.
Villa Martelli, at Gricigliano in the località of Sieci. It has been converted into a seminary of The Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest and of Sisters Adorers of the Royal Heart of Jesus Christ Sovereign Priest. Castello Del Trebbio constructed in 1184 by the noble Florentine banking family called Pazzi. Across the street is the wine country restaurant La Sosta del Gusto the building in, house pre-dates the Castello Griesheim, Germany Saint-Genis-Laval, France Tifariti, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Znojmo, Czech Republic Official website
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc