In typography, a typeface is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, condensation, slant, italicization and designer or foundry. For example, "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond, it is a different font from "ITC Garamond Condensed Italic" and "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed", but all are fonts within the same typeface, "ITC Garamond". ITC Garamond is a different typeface from "Adobe Garamond" or "Monotype Garamond". There are thousands of different typefaces with new ones being developed constantly; the art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers and are employed by type foundries. In digital typography, type designers are sometimes called font developers or font designers; every typeface is a collection of glyphs, each of which represents an individual letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol.
The same glyph may be used for characters from different scripts, e.g. Roman uppercase A looks the same as Cyrillic uppercase А and Greek uppercase alpha. There are typefaces tailored for special applications, such as map-making or astrology and mathematics; the term typeface is confused with the term font. Before the advent of digital typography and desktop publishing, the two terms had more understood meanings. In professional typography, the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, because the term font has been defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. For example, 8-point Caslon Italic was one font, 10-point Caslon Italic was another. Fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided; the design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight and stylistic variants have led to font families, collections of related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles.
A font family is a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, width, etc. but not design. For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Font families include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts; the distinction between font and typeface is that a font designates a specific member of a type family such as roman, boldface, or italic type, while typeface designates a consistent visual appearance or style which can be a "family" or related set of fonts. For example, a given typeface such as Arial may include roman and italic fonts. In the metal type era, a font meant a specific point size, but with digital scalable outline fonts this distinction is no longer valid, as a single font may be scaled to any size; the first "extended" font families, which included a wide range of widths and weights in the same general style emerged in the early 1900s, starting with ATF's Cheltenham, with an initial design by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, many additional faces designed by Morris Fuller Benton.
Examples include Futura, Lucida, ITC Officina. Some became superfamilies as a result such as Linotype Syntax, Linotype Univers. Typeface superfamilies began to emerge when foundries began to include typefaces with significant structural differences, but some design relationship, under the same general family name. Arguably the first superfamily was created when Morris Fuller Benton created Clearface Gothic for ATF in 1910, a sans serif companion to the existing Clearface; the superfamily label does not include quite different designs given the same family name for what would seem to be purely marketing, rather than design, considerations: Caslon Antique, Futura Black and Futura Display are structurally unrelated to the Caslon and Futura families and are not considered part of those families by typographers, despite their names. Additional or supplemental glyphs intended to match a main typeface have been in use for centuries. In some formats they have been marketed as separate fonts. In the early 1990s, the Adobe Systems type group introduced the idea of expert set fonts, which had a standardized set of additional glyphs, including small caps, old style figures, additional superior letters and ligatures not found in the main fonts for the typeface.
Supplemental fonts have included alternate letters such as swashes and alternate character sets, complementing the regular fonts under the same family. However, with introduction of font formats such as OpenType, those supplemental glyphs were merged into the main fonts, relying on specific software capabilities to access the alternate glyphs. Since Apple's and Microsoft's operating systems supported different character sets in the platform related fonts, some foundries used expert fonts in a different way; these fonts included the characters which were missing on either Macintosh or Windows computers, e.g. fractions, ligatures or some accented glyphs. The goal was to deliver t
Cursive is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts; the writing style can be further divided as "looped", "italic" or "connected". The cursive method is used with many alphabets due to its improved writing speed and infrequent pen lifting. In some alphabets, many or all letters in a word are connected, sometimes making a word one single complex stroke. Cursive is a style of penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in a conjoined and/or flowing manner for the purpose of making writing faster; this writing style is distinct from "printscript" using block letters, in which the letters of a word are unconnected and in Roman/Gothic letterform rather than joined-up script. Not all cursive copybooks join all letters: formal cursive is joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts.
In the Arabic, Syriac and Cyrillic alphabets, many or all letters in a word are connected, sometimes making a word one single complex stroke. In Hebrew cursive and Roman cursive, the letters are not connected. In Maharashtra, there is a version of Cursive called'Modi' Ligature is writing the letters of words with lines connecting the letters so that one does not have to pick up the pen or pencil between letters; some of the letters are written in a looped manner to facilitate the connections. In common printed Greek texts, the modern small letter fonts are called "cursive" though the letters do not connect. In looped cursive penmanship, some ascenders and descenders have loops; this is what people refer to when they say "cursive". Cursive italic penmanship -- derived from chancery cursive -- uses no joins. In italic cursive, there are no joins from g, j, q or y, a few other joins are discouraged. Italic penmanship became popular in the 15th-century Italian Renaissance; the term "italic" as it relates to handwriting is not to be confused with italic typed letters that slant forward.
Many, but not all, letters in the handwriting of the Renaissance were joined, as most are today in cursive italic. The origins of the cursive method are associated with practical advantages of writing speed and infrequent pen-lifting to accommodate the limitations of the quill. Quills are fragile broken, will spatter unless used properly, they run out of ink faster than most contemporary writing utensils. Steel dip pens followed quills; the individuality of the provenance of a document was a factor as opposed to machine font. Cursive was favored because the writing tool was taken off the paper; the term cursive derives from the 18th century Italian corsivo from Medieval Latin cursivus, which means running. This term in turn derives from Latin currere. In Bengali cursive script the letters are more to be more curvy in appearance than in standard Bengali handwriting; the horizontal supporting bar on each letter runs continuously through the entire word, unlike in standard handwriting. This cursive handwriting used by literature experts differs in appearance from the standard Bengali alphabet as it is free hand writing, where sometimes the alphabets are complex and appear different from the standard handwriting.
Roman cursive is a form of handwriting used to some extent into the Middle Ages. It is customarily divided into old cursive, new cursive. Old Roman cursive called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, by emperors issuing commands. New Roman called minuscule cursive or cursive, developed from old cursive, it was used from the 3rd century to the 7th century, uses letter forms that are more recognizable to modern eyes. The Greek alphabet has had several cursive forms in the course of its development. In antiquity, a cursive form of handwriting was used in writing on papyrus, it employed slanted and connected letter forms as well as many ligatures. Some features of this handwriting were adopted into Greek minuscule, the dominant form of handwriting in the medieval and early modern era. In the 19th and 20th centuries, an new form of cursive Greek, more similar to contemporary Western European cursive scripts, was developed.
During the Middle Ages, the flowing, connected cursive script of the Arabic language inspired Western Christian scholars to develop similar cursive scripts for Latin. These scripts became the basis for all of the Latin-based cursive scripts used in Europe. Cursive writing was used in English before the Norman conquest. Anglo-Saxon Charters include a boundary clause written in Old English in a cursive script. A cursive handwriting style—secretary hand—was used for both personal correspondence and official documents in England from early in the 16th century. Cursive handwriting developed into something approximating its current form from the 17th century, but its use was neither uniform, nor standardized either in England itself or elsewhere in the British Empire. In the English colonies of the early 17th century, most of the letters are separated
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bembo is a serif typeface created by the British branch of the Monotype Corporation in 1928-9 and most used for body text. It is a member of the "old-style" of serif fonts, with its regular or roman style based on a design cut around 1495 by Francesco Griffo for Venetian printer Aldus Manutius, sometimes generically called the "Aldine roman". Bembo is named for Manutius's first publication with it, a small 1496 book by the poet and cleric Pietro Bembo; the italic is based on work by Giovanni Antonio Tagliente, a calligrapher who worked as a printer in the 1520s, after the time of Manutius and Griffo. Monotype created Bembo during a period of renewed interest in the printing of the Italian Renaissance, under the influence of Monotype executive and printing historian Stanley Morison, it followed a previous more faithful revival of Manutius's work, whose reputation it eclipsed. Monotype created a second, much more eccentric italic for it to the design of calligrapher Alfred Fairbank, which did not receive the same attention as the normal version of Bembo.
Since its creation, Bembo has enjoyed continuing popularity as an legible book typeface. Prominent users of Bembo have included Penguin Books, the Everyman's Library series, Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, the National Gallery, Yale University Press and Edward Tufte. Bembo has been released in versions for phototypesetting and in several revivals as digital fonts by Monotype and other companies; the regular style of Bembo is based on Griffo's typeface for Manutius. Griffo, sometimes called Francesco da Bologna, was an engraver who created designs by cutting punches in steel; these were used as a master to stamp matrices, the moulds used to cast metal type. Manutius at first printed works only in Greek, his first printing in the Latin alphabet, in February 1496, was a book entitled Petri Bembi de Aetna Angelum Chabrielem liber. This book now called De Aetna, was a short 60-page text about a journey to Mount Etna, written by the young Italian humanist poet Pietro Bembo, who would become a Cardinal, secretary to Pope Leo X and lover of Lucrezia Borgia.
Griffo was the one of the first punchcutters to express the character of the humanist hand that contemporaries preferred for manuscripts of classics and literary texts, in distinction to the book hand humanists dismissed as a gothic hand or the everyday chancery hand. One of the main characteristics that distinguished Griffo's work from most of the earlier "Venetian" tradition of roman type by Nicolas Jenson and others is the now-normal horizontal cross-stroke of the "e", a letterform which Manutius popularised. Modern font designer Robert Slimbach has described Griffo's work as a breakthrough leading to an "ideal balance of beauty and functionality", as earlier has Harry Carter; the type is sometimes known as the "Aldine roman" after Manutius' name. In France, his work inspired many French printers and punchcutters such as Robert Estienne and Claude Garamond from 1530 onwards though the typeface of De Aetna with its original capitals was used in only about twelve books between 1496 and 1499.
Historian Beatrice Warde suggested in the 1920s that its influence may have been due to the high quality of printing shown in the original De Aetna volume created as a small pilot project. De Aetna was printed using a mixture of alternate characters as an experiment, which included a lower-case p in the same style as the capital letter with a flat top. In 1499, Griffo recut the capitals; this version was used to print Manutius' famous illustrated volume Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. Griffo's roman typeface, with several replacements of the capitals, continued to be used by Manutius's company until the 1550s, when a refresh of its equipment brought in French typefaces, created by Garamond, Pierre Haultin and Robert Granjon under its influence. UCLA curators, who maintain a large collection of Manutius's printing, have described this as a "wholesale change... the press followed precedent. Old-style fonts like all of these fell out of use with the arrival of the much more geometric Didone types of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
They returned to popularity in the century, with the arrival of the Arts and Crafts movement. In 1500, Manutius released the first books printed using italic type, again designed by Griffo; this was not intended as a complementary design, as is used today, but rather as an alternative, more informal typeface suitable for small volumes. Bembo's italic is not based directly on the work of Griffo, but on the work of calligrapher and handwriting teacher Giovanni Antonio Tagliente, he published a writing manual, The True Art of Excellent Writing, in Venice in 1524, after the time of Manutius and Griffo, with engravings and some text set in an italic typeface based on his calligraphy. It too was imitated with imitations appearing from 1528 onwards. Another influential italic type created around this time was that of Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi a calligrapher who became involved in printing, his upright italic design was imitated in France and would become influential to twentieth-century font designs.
Monotype Bembo is one of the most famous revivals of the Aldine typeface of 1495. It was created under the influence of Monotype executive and printing historian Stanley Morison by the design team at the Monotype factory
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Robert Joseph Slimbach is Principal Type Designer at Adobe, Inc. where he has worked since 1987. He has won many awards for his digital typeface designs, including the awarded Prix Charles Peignot from the Association Typographique Internationale, the SoTA Typography Award, repeated TDC2 awards from the Type Directors Club, his typefaces are among those most used in books. Slimbach was born in Evanston, Illinois in 1956. Shortly after, he moved to Southern California where he spent his youth. After attending UCLA on an athletics scholarship, he developed an interest in graphic design and typefaces while running a small screen printshop for manufacturing posters and greeting cards; this work brought him into contact with Autologic Incorporated in California. After training from 1983 to 1985, Slimbach worked as a type designer with Autologic Incorporation. There he received further training, not just as a type designer but as a calligrapher. Slimbach was self-employed for two years as a freelance type designer, during which developed the two typefaces ITC Slimbach and ITC Giovanni for the International Typeface Corporation.
He commented of this period that "I wasn’t making enough money to live on."In 1987 he joined Adobe Systems. Since he has concentrated on designing typefaces for digital technology drawing inspiration from classical sources, he has developed many new fonts for the Adobe Originals program. Among his early projects at Adobe were the Utopia, Adobe Garamond and Poetica families. In 1991, he received the Prix Charles Peignot from the Association Typographique Internationale for excellence in type design. More Slimbach's own calligraphy formed the basis for his typeface Brioso. Slimbach has described himself as being interested in humanist and serif projects, calling his work on the neo-grotesque Acumin, in the Swiss modernist style, as being "outside of the design realm I prefer."Since 2000, the rate of Slimbach's new typefaces has slowed, as he has taken advantage of the new linguistic and typographic capabilities offered by the OpenType format. Where in the 1990s a given typeface design might be instantiated in one or two fonts, with 200-500 glyphs, a typical new Slimbach work post-2000 has 1500-3000 glyphs.
Reviewing Slimbach's 2007 project Arno, font designer Mark Simonson noted that it'almost becomes a different typeface' when italic alternates are enabled. A hallmark of Slimbach's designs is his use of a'Th' ligature. In 2004, Adobe released Garamond Premier Pro, a new take on the Garamond designs, which Slimbach had been working on for 15 years, since he first completed Adobe Garamond in 1989. Outside of work for public use, Slimbach has designed Adobe's corporate font, Adobe Clean Sans and Adobe Clean Serif, which are used by Adobe in branding and user interfaces, he designed Adobe Hand B, based on his handwriting, for use in Acrobat's digital signature feature. Slimbach has notable skills in several fields other than type design: he went to college on a gymnastics scholarship, he is an accomplished calligrapher and photographer, his photographic work uses black & white film, is portraits that examine human foibles and idiosyncrasies. Before Slimbach came to Adobe, he designed two fonts for the International Typeface Corporation: ITC Slimbach and ITC Giovanni.
Slimbach typefaces designed before the 2000s were first released in the PostScript Type 1 format, re-released in the more capable OpenType format. Adobe Hand B — 2014 Modern Cyrillic winner Adobe Text Pro — 2014 Modern Cyrillic winner Arno Pro — TDC2 2007 winning entry Brioso Pro — TDC2 2002 winning entry Caflisch Script Pro — bukva:raz! 2001 winner Frederick W. Goudy Award — 2018 Garamond Premier Pro — TDC2 2006 winning entry Minion Pro — bukva:raz! 2001 winner Myriad Pro — TDC2 2000 winning entry and bukva:raz! 2001 winner Trajan Sans Pro — 2014 Modern Cyrillic winner Warnock Pro — TDC2 2001 winning entry Adobe's biography of Robert Slimbach Adobe Originals Robert Slimbach - Luc Devroye's collection of information on Slimbach and his work
Cloister is a serif typeface, designed by Morris Fuller Benton and published by American Type Founders from around 1913. It is loosely based on the printing of Nicolas Jenson in Venice in the 1470s, in what is now called the "old style" of serif fonts. American Type Founders presented it as an attractive but usable serif typeface, suitable both for body text and display use. To ensure its versatility, Cloister was released in a wide selection of weights; this included an italic with swash capitals, an inline style and Cloister Initials, a set of initial capitals by Frederic Goudy to match. The practice of creating a wide range of variants of a successful face was a standard ATF practice in order to capitalise on a successful typeface's popularity and allow coherent layout and graphic design; this meant that it was cast with the area of the typeface above the baseline smaller than normal, so the descenders could be at a long accurate length. ATF released a blackletter design under the name of "Cloister Black".
Cloister was released on hot metal typesetting machines such as that of Linotype and Monotype, additional weights were created for these. Cloister was somewhat variably named by printers in the metal type period, with "Cloister Old Style", "Cloister Oldstyle", "Cloister Old Face" and "Cloister Oldface" all used to refer to it. Cloister's release in metal type included the following: Cloister Old Style roman Cloister Italic Cloister Cursive Cloister Bold Cloister Bold Italic Cloister Title Cloister Bold Title Cloister Bold Condensed Cloister Lightface Cloister Lightface Italic Cloister Cursive Handtooled A digitisation has been released by P22 and another by URW. Goudy's Cloister Initials, much esteemed in their own right, have been digitised by P22 and by Dieter Steffmann. Cloister Black has been digitised separately. Centaur Golden Type Hightower Text ATF's 1923 specimen book, showing Cloister on pp. 66–81. Specimen sheet ATF 1912 specimen book - shows Cloister Black and Cloister Borders