Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Beiro, the Darro, the Genil and the Monachil. It sits at an elevation of 738 m above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held, about 3. 3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport, the Alhambra, a Moorish citadel and palace, is in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Andalusian Islamic historical legacy with its cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the touristic cities of Spain. The Almohad influence on architecture is preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Moorish.
Granada is well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has about 80,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city, the pomegranate is the heraldic device of Granada. The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 BC and experienced Roman, the most ancient ruins found in the city belongs to an Iberian oppidum called Ilturir, in the region known as Bastetania. This oppidum eventually changed its name to Iliberri, and after the Roman conquest of Iberia, the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in AD711, brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established Al-Andalus. In the early 11th century, after a war that ended the Caliphate, the Berber, Zawi ben Ziri, established an independent kingdom for himself. Jewish people were established in another close to Illiberis, called Gárnata or Gárnata al-Yahūd. Granadas historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة, the word Gárnata possibly means hill of strangers.
Because the city was situated on a low plain and, as a result, difficult to protect from attacks, in a short time this town was transformed into one of the most important cities of Al-Andalus. By the end of the 11th century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach the hill of the future Alhambra, the Almoravids ruled Granada from 1090 and the Almohad dynasty from 1166. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in 1236, according to some historians, Granada was a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile since that year. It provided connections with Muslim and Arab trade centers, particularly for gold from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb, the Nasrids supplied troops from the Emirate and mercenaries from North Africa for service to Castile. Ibn Battuta, a traveler and an authentic historian, visited the Kingdom of Granada in 1350
Royal Palace of Madrid
The Royal Palace of Madrid is the official residence of the Spanish Royal Family at the city of Madrid, but it is only used for state ceremonies. King Felipe VI and the Royal Family do not reside in the palace, the palace is owned by the Spanish State and administered by the Patrimonio Nacional, a public agency of the Ministry of the Presidency. The palace is located on Calle de Bailén in the part of downtown Madrid, east of the Manzanares River. Several rooms in the palace are open to the public except during state functions. An admission fee of €11 is required, after Madrid fell to Alfonso VI of Castile in 1083, the edifice was only rarely used by the kings of Castile. In 1329, King Alfonso XI of Castile convened the cortes of Madrid for the first time, Philip II moved his court to Madrid in 1561. The old Alcázar was built on the location in the 16th century, after it burned 24 December 1734, King Philip V ordered a new palace built on the same site. Charles III first occupied the new palace in 1764, the last monarch who lived continuously in the palace was Alfonso XIII, although Manuel Azaña, president of the Second Republic, inhabited it, making him the last head of state to do so.
During that period the palace was known as Palacio Nacional, there is still a room next to the Real Capilla, which is known by the name Office of Azaña. The palace has 135,000 square metres of floor space and it is the largest royal palace in Europe by floor area. The interior of the palace is notable for its wealth of art and the use of types of fine materials in the construction. These include paintings by such as Caravaggio, Francisco de Goya, and Velázquez, and frescoes by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Juan de Flandes, Corrado Giaquinto. Muhammad I, Umayyad Emir of Cordoba, between 860 and 880, after the Moors were driven out of Toledo in the 11th century, the castle retained its defensive function. Henry III of Castile added several towers and his son John II used it as a royal residence. However, during the War of the Castilian Succession the troops of Joanna la Beltraneja were besieged in the Alcázar, the only drawing of the castle from the Middle Ages is one made in 1534 by Cornelius Vermeyen.
Habsburg Emperor Charles V extended and renovated the castle in 1537, using the architects Alonso de Covarrubias, Philip II made Madrid his capital in 1561 and added a continued the renovations. Philip III added a southern facade between 1610 and 1636. Philip V of Bourbon renovated the apartments in 1700
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art
Plaza Mayor, Madrid
The Plaza Mayor was built during Philip IIIs reign and is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. It is located only a few Spanish blocks away from another famous plaza, the Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape, measuring 129 m ×94 m, and is surrounded by three-story residential buildings having 237 balconies facing the Plaza. It has a total of nine entrance ways, the Casa de la Panadería, serving municipal and cultural functions, dominates the Plaza Mayor. The origins of the Plaza go back to 1577 when Philip II asked Juan de Herrera, Juan de Herrera was the artist who designed the first project in 1560 to remodel the old Plaza del Arrabal but construction did not start until 1617, during Philip IIIs reign. The king asked Juan Gómez de Mora to continue with the project, giambolognas equestrian statue of Philip III dates to 1616, but it was not placed in the centre of the square until 1848. The name of the plaza has changed over time, originally it was called the Plaza del Arrabal but became known as the Plaza Mayor.
In 1812, following an all the major plazas of Spain were renamed Plaza de la Constitución. The plaza had this name until the restoration of the Borbón king in 1814 when it became known as the Plaza Real, the plaza once again held the name Plaza de la Constitución in the periods from 1820 to 1823,1833 to 1835, and 1840 to 1843. In 1873, the changed to Plaza de la República. The Plaza Mayor has been the scene of events, during the Spanish Inquisition were practicated the autos de fe against supposed heretics. The Plaza Mayor has a ring of old and traditional shops, celebrations for San Isidro, patron saint of Madrid, are held here. The Plaza Mayor is now a major tourist attraction, visited by thousands of tourists a year, there is a bronze statue of King Philip III at the center of the square, created in 1616 by Jean Boulogne and Pietro Tacca. 360° view of Plaza Mayor, Madrid Plaza Mayor and pictures Plaza Mayor Information, Plaza Mayor in English Visitor and student information, present day uses and photos
Convento de San Pascual, Aranjuez
The Convento de San Pascual is a royal monastery in Aranjuez, in the Community of Madrid, founded by King Charles III of Spain as a Franciscan monastery and built from 1765 to 1770. Under the reign of Isabel II of Spain, it was assigned to the Conceptionist nuns, the architect was the Italian Francesco Sabatini. The main altar has a painting by Anton Raphael Mengs and it was declared Bien de Interés Cultural in 1999
Barbara of Portugal
Barbara of Portugal was an Infanta of Portugal and Queen of Spain by marriage to Ferdinand VI of Spain. Born Maria Madalena Josefa Teresa Bárbara, Barbara was the eldest child of King John V of Portugal and his wife, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, the princess was baptised Maria Madalena Bárbara Xavier Leonor Teresa Antónia Josefa, her names honouring a number of saints and relatives. She was usually referred to as Bárbara or Maria Bárbara, a never before used among Portuguese royalty, in honour of Saint Barbara. She was a first cousin of the future Empress Maria Theresa as well as Maria Josepha of Austria, although her parents were married in 1708, they remained childless for nearly three years. The King made a promise to God that if an heir to the throne was born, on 4 December 1711 Barbara was born, and, as promised, the King had the Convent of Mafra built. Barbara was born as heiress-presumptive to the Portuguese throne, styled as Princess of Brazil and her status as heiress presumptive lapsed when the Queen gave birth to a son, two years later.
Pedro died at the age of two, though another son, born before Pedros death, prevented Barbara from ever being heiress-presumptive again, Barbara had a fine education and loved music. She was considered to marry Louis XV of France, in 1729 at the age 18, Barbara married the future Ferdinand VI of Spain, two years her junior. Her brother Joseph married Ferdinands half-sister, the Spanish Infanta Infanta Mariana Victoria, the double marriage was meant to repair the Portuguese-Spanish alliance. Scarlatti followed her to Madrid after her marriage and remained with her, during her husbands reign, Barbara presided over magnificent parties and concerts at the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, which was her favorite retreat. This gave Barbara the time to deepen her relationship with the timid Ferdinand, Barbara was well-educated, adept at languages, an avid reader of many varied subjects and had a love of music. Encouraged by Barbara, Ferdinand fired minister Villarias who was replaced by Carvajal, in contrast to her predecessor as queen, Barbara did not like to flaunt her influence over her spouse and the government policy, and she made a moderately positive impression upon the public.
In 1754, she was behind the fall of her previous ally Ensenada and Huascar presented the queen with a paper implying that minister Ensenada was making puppets of the royal couple. They succeeded to convince her to act against Ensenada, and in cooperation with Richard Wall and Huascar, the couple produced no viable children, with Barbara having a stillborn son in 1733. Barbara suffered from asthma for most of her life and became quite overweight in life. She died at the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, on the outskirts of Madrid on 27 August 1758, barbaras death was said to have broken her husbands heart. The Feminisation and Domestication of Politics in the Spanish Monarchy, 1701–1759, queenship in Europe 1660–1815, The Role of the Consort
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, a monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. These may include a hospice, a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing such as a barn. In English usage, the monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics, historically, a convent denoted a house of friars, now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in specific ways. The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, in England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community.
Most cathedrals were not monasteries, and were served by canons secular, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a time a cathedral, and was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St Georges Chapel, in most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a more specific definition of the term. Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara, viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple, in Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are often called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat, in Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be an abbey, or a priory and it may be a community of men or of women.
A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order, in Eastern Christianity, a very small monastic community can be called a skete, and a very large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra. The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the life of an anchorite. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most commonly an ashram, jains use the Buddhist term vihara
Royal Palace of Caserta
The Royal Palace of Caserta is a former royal residence in Caserta, southern Italy, constructed for the Bourbon kings of Naples. It is one of the largest palaces erected in Europe during the 18th century, in terms of volume, the Royal Palace of Caserta is the largest royal residence in the world with over 2 million m³ and covering an area of about 235,000 m². The construction of the palace was begun in 1752 for Charles VII of Naples, when Charles saw Vanvitellis grandly scaled model for Caserta, it filled him with emotion fit to tear his heart from his breast. The population of Caserta Vecchia was moved 10 kilometers to provide a work force closer to the palace, a silk manufactory at San Leucio resort was disguised as a pavilion in the immense parkland. To provide the king with suitable protection, troop barracks were housed within the palace, the Royal Palace of Madrid, where Charles had grown up, which had been devised by Filippo Juvarra for Charles father, Philip V of Spain, and Charlottenburg Palace provided models.
A spacious octagonal vestibule seems to have inspired by Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute in Venice. From 1923 to 1943 the palace was the location of the Accademia Aeronautica, from October 1943 the royal palace served as the Allied Force Headquarters in the Mediterranean area. In April 1945 the palace was the site of the signing of terms of the unconditional German surrender of forces in Italy, the agreement covered between 600,000 and 900,000 soldiers along the Italian Front, including troops in sections of Austria. The first Allied war crimes took place in the palace in 1945, German general Anton Dostler was sentenced to death and executed nearby. In the left hand arc behind the façade, a set of barracks were built, during World War II the soldiers of the US Fifth Army recovered here in a rest centre. The palace has 5 floors,1,200 rooms, including two state apartments, a large library, and a theatre modelled after the Teatro San Carlo of Naples. A monumental avenue that would run 20 kilometers between the palace and Naples was planned but never realized, the palace has a rectangular plan, measuring 247 ×184 m, and the four sides are connected by two orthogonal arms, forming four inner courts.
Each floor measures approximately 47,000 m2, but considering the five floors, of all the royal palaces in the world, Caserta is by far the largest in terms of volume, with more than 2 million m³. Behind the façades of its matching segmental ranges of outbuildings that flank the giant forecourt, as at Versailles, a large aqueduct was required to bring water for the prodigious water displays. Like its French predecessor, the palace was intended to display the power, a solecism at Caserta is that above the piano reale, the Kings floor, is another floor of equal magnificence. The enfilades of Late Baroque saloni were the heart and seat of government, Caserta provided a royal refuge from the dust and factions of the capital, just as Versailles had freed Louis XIV from Paris. The royal palace has more than 40 monumental rooms completely decorated with frescoes when, in comparison, the garden, a typical example of the baroque extension of formal vistas, stretches for 120 ha, partly on hilly terrain.
It is inspired by the park of Versailles, the park starts from the back façade of the palace, flanking a long alley with artificial fountains and cascades
Juan de Villanueva
Juan de Villanueva was a Spanish architect. Alongside Ventura Rodríguez, Villanueva is the best known architect of Spanish Neoclassicism and his father was the sculptor Juan de Villanueva and his brother, Diego de Villanueva was not only his protector, but his teacher. He entered into the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando as a pupil when he was years old. In 1758, he travelled to Rome to become a grant holder of the Academy to complete his studies, in 1765, he returned to Spain. A year later, he travelled through Córdoba and Granada, where he, together with José de Hermosilla, the drawings from these travels were published in 1804. He settled in Madrid, where he was appointed Academic of the Academy of San Fernando, in 1777, Charles III appointed him Architect of the Prince and the Infants. From to the end of his life he would work almost exclusively for the Royal House, in 1781, he was appointed Architect of the Royal Monastery of El Escorial, and Charles IV appointed him Major Architect.
Nevertheless, his masterpiece is the Prado Museum, projected in 1785 and 1787. It was constructed as a Museum of Natural History, a School of Natural History, and it was transformed into the Museum of Art in 1814, and today it is known as Edificio Villanueva. He was an architect and he displayed the majority of his work in Madrid, buildings like the Academy of History, the Caballero de Gracia oratory. With his interventions in the Plaza Mayor, both after the fire of 1790 and in the Major House among others, he collabored in the renovation of the image of the city. With his personal style and with his strong local influences, he was the architect who best brought the theorical basis of European Neoclassicism to Spain