Newcastle-upon-Tyne (UK Parliament constituency)
Newcastle-upon-Tyne was a borough constituency in the county of Northumberland of the House of Commons of England to 1706 of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. It returned two Members of Parliament, elected by the bloc vote system; the constituency was abolished in 1918. The constituency was based upon the town city, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In 1848, the constituency boundaries were described in A Topographical Dictionary of England The borough first exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd of Edward the First, since which time it has returned two members to parliament: the present electoral limits are co-extensive with those of the county of the town, comprising 5730 acres; when the House of Commons debated the boundaries to be used from 1832, the Tory Party suggested including Gateshead and South Shields within the Newcastle-upon-Tyne constituency. The Whigs resisted this idea, so these two neighbouring settlements were not incorporated into this seat.
The boundaries of the parliamentary borough, as defined by the Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1832, remained unchanged from 1832 until the area was divided into single member constituencies in 1918. These were not identical to the boundaries used for local government purposes. In the period after 1885, the constituency was surrounded by Wansbeck to the west and north, Tyneside to the north ease and east, Jarrow to the south east, Gateshead to the south, Chester-le-Street to the south west. Party affiliations are derived from Stook Craig. Tory is used prior to Conservative from that time. Liberal candidates before the formal creation of the party, shortly after the 1859 general election, are listed as Whig or Radical if the information is available in the work by Stooks Smith. MPs, who were known by the same name, are distinguished in the table below and the election results by a number in brackets after the name, it is not suggested. The bloc vote electoral system was used in elections to fill two seats and first past the post for single member by-elections.
Each voter had up to as many votes. Votes had to be cast in public, at the hustings. Note on percentage change calculations: Where there was only one candidate of a party in successive elections, for the same number of seats, change is calculated on the party percentage vote. Where there was more than one candidate, in one or both successive elections for the same number of seats change is calculated on the individual percentage vote; the reference to some candidates as Non Partisan does not mean that they did not have a party allegiance. It means. Before the Representation of the People Act 1832, the borough had an electorate limited to its freemen. There were about 2,500 voters in the second half of the 18th century. Death of Blackett, in 1728 On petition Carr vice Blackett Death of Blackett Resignation of Brandling in December 1797 Ridley succeeded as the 3rd Baronet, upon the death of his father in 1813 Blackett resigned due to ill health, causing a by-election. Headlam was appointed Judge-Advocate General of the Armed Forces.
Ridley resigned after being appointed a Copyhold and Tithe Commissioner. Cowen's death caused a by-election. Dilke's resignation caused a by-election. Cowen lost the support of the local Liberal Association during the campaign period, Liberal supporters were urged to only vote for Morley. Morley was appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Morley is appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig Electoral Reform in England and Wales, by Charles Seymour The House of Commons 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith, second edition edited by F.
W. S. Craig Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume II 1886-1918, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "N"
The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679. It was the longest English Parliament, enduring for nearly 18 years of the quarter-century reign of Charles II of England. Like its predecessor, the Convention Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and is known as the Pensioner Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King; the first session of the Cavalier Parliament opened on May 8, 1661. Among the first orders of business was the confirmation of the acts of the previous year's irregular Convention of 1660 as legitimate. Parliament ordered the public burning of the Solemn League and Covenant by a common hangman, it repealed the 1642 Bishops Exclusion Act, thereby allowing Church of England bishops to resume their temporal positions, including their seats in the House of Lords. Other notable pieces of first session legislation include the Militia Act placing the armed forces unambiguously under the king's authority, the Sedition Act, it continued proceedings against the regicides of Charles I.
That same year, Parliament passed the Corporation Act, the first of a series of acts known as the Clarendon Code, to cement the episcopal Anglican church as the official church of England. The Clarendon code is given as the following four acts: the Corporation Act 1661 the Act of Uniformity 1662 the Conventicle Act 1664 the Five Mile Act 1665; the Quaker Act 1662 targeting Quakers, can be cited as part of the new religious'code'. In January 1661, the Fifth Monarchists, anticipating the arrival of Jesus Christ to claim the throne, led a succession of revolts under the command of Vavasor Powell and Thomas Venner. To silence radical agitators and pamphleteers, Parliament passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662, instituting government censorship of the press. On the economic legislation, the Cavalier parliament had a notable Mercantilist bent. To promote the English cloth industry, it outlawed the exportation of raw materials, such as wool, raw hides and fuller's clay and forbade the importation of finished materials like lace and embroidery.
It repealed old domestic restrictions on linen manufacturing. To encourage the development of the American colonies as raw-material producers and consumers of English manufactured goods, the Cavalier parliament confirmed and reinforced the Navigation Act passed by the prior parliament in 1660, with the new Staple Act in 1663, requiring foreigners trading with the American colonies to transship their goods through English ports. Old corn laws were adjusted to the advantage of English farmers: the old restrictions on the exportation of wheat was relaxed, exportation becoming free in 1670 and subsidized with bounties after 1673. Conversely, the importation of wheat was restricted, with the first prohibitive tariffs on the importation of grains introduced in 1663 in a two-tier system, adjusted into a three-tier system based on current price; the importation of Irish cattle into Britain was forbidden, giving English beef producers a protected home market. To facilitate the overseas operations of the charter companies, parliament inserted a clause into the 1663 Staple Act allowing the free exportation of coin and bullion - over the vigorous opposition of Arthur Annesley, the leading mercantilist in parliament.
To encourage the inflow of gold and silver from abroad and into circulation, the Coinage Act 1666 abolished seignorage, introduced free minting at the Royal Mint. The prior Convention of 1660 had promised King Charles II a generous annual revenue of £1.2 million, secured on customs duties and excise taxes. It was up to Cavalier parliament to ensure, but in the first few years, the revenue fell short of the promised amount, parliament had to look for new ways to make up for it. Parliament was responsible for the introduction of the controversial hearth tax, with its unpopular and intrusive method of assessment. Another problem emerged at this time: the sudden rise in the number of paupers, which had catapulted with the demobilization of the army, it was feared they would migrate en masse to the better-off parishes and swamp their social assistance programs. So, in another controversial piece of legislation, parliament changed the Elizabethan Poor Laws with the Act of Settlement and Removal restricting the poor to seeking assistance in their own home parish.
Other significant and curious pieces of early legislation include the first licensing of hackney carriages, an act against "excessive gaming" and a famous 1663 act authorizing the erection of toll gates on the Great North Road, the prelude to a series of acts to help finance road-building for highways. In 1664, the Cavalier parliament amended the old Triennial Act so that it was now only suggested that the king summon a parliamentary session at least once every three years. In 1665, parliament met in Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London; the next year, in the aftermath of the Great Fire of London which ravaged the city in September 1666, parliament set up a court to settle disputes between landlords and tenants of burned buildings, passed a series of acts setting down regulations for rebuilding of the city. Mercantilist agitation had prompted parliament to support the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1665, but when the war turned out poorly in 1667, parliament decided to lay the blame on Charles II's chief minis
House of Commons of England
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom; the Parliament of England developed from the Magnum Concilium that advised the English monarch in medieval times. This royal council, meeting for short periods, included ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties; the chief duty of the council was to approve taxes proposed by the Crown. In many cases, the council demanded the redress of the people's grievances before proceeding to vote on taxation. Thus, it developed legislative powers; the first parliament to invite representatives of the major towns was Montfort's Parliament in 1265. At the "Model Parliament" of 1295, representatives of the boroughs were admitted. Thus, it became settled practice that each county send two knights of the shire, that each borough send two burgesses.
At first, the burgesses were entirely powerless. Any show of independence by burgesses would thus be to lead to the exclusion of their towns from Parliament; the knights of the shire were in a better position, although less powerful than their noble and clerical counterparts in what was still a unicameral Parliament. The division of the Parliament of England into two houses occurred during the reign of Edward III: in 1341 the Commons met separately from the nobility and clergy for the first time, creating in effect an Upper Chamber and a Lower Chamber, with the knights and burgesses sitting in the latter, they formed what became known as the House of Commons, while the clergy and nobility became the House of Lords. Although they remained subordinate to both the Crown and the Lords, the Commons did act with increasing boldness. During the Good Parliament of 1376, the Commons appointed Sir Peter de la Mare to convey to the Lords their complaints of heavy taxes, demands for an accounting of the royal expenditures, criticism of the King's management of the military.
The Commons proceeded to impeach some of the King's ministers. Although Mare was imprisoned for his actions, the benefits of having a single voice to represent the Commons were recognized, the office which became known as Speaker of the House of Commons was thus created. Mare was soon released after the death of King Edward III and in 1377 became the second Speaker of the Commons. During the reign of the next monarch, Richard II, the Commons once again began to impeach errant ministers of the Crown, they began to insist that they could control public expenditures. Despite such gains in authority, the Commons still remained much less powerful than the Lords and the Crown; the influence of the Crown was increased by the civil wars of the late fifteenth century, which destroyed the power of the great noblemen. Both houses of Parliament held little power during the ensuing years, the absolute supremacy of the Sovereign was restored; the domination of the monarch grew further under the House of Tudor in the sixteenth century.
This trend, was somewhat reversed when the House of Stuart came to the English throne in 1603. The first two Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, provoked conflicts with the Commons over issues such as taxation and royal powers; the differences between Charles I and Parliament were great, resulted in the English Civil War, in which the armed forces of Parliament were victorious. In December 1648 the House of Commons was purged by the New Model Army, supposed to be subservient to Parliament. Pride's Purge was the only military coup in English history. Subsequently, King Charles I was beheaded and the Upper House was abolished; the unicameral Parliament that remained was referred to by critics as the Rump Parliament, as it consisted only of a small selection of Members of Parliament approved by the army - some of whom were soldiers themselves. In 1653, when leading figures in this Parliament began to disagree with the army, it was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell. However, the monarchy and the House of Lords were both restored with the Commons in 1660.
The influence of the Crown had been decreased, was further diminished after James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the Bill of Rights 1689 was enacted. Duration of English Parliaments before 1660 History of borough status in England and Wales Lex Parliamentaria List of Acts of the Parliament of England List of Parliaments of England List of Speakers of the House of Commons of England Modus Tenendi Parliamentum John Cannon, Parliamentary Reform 1640-1832 J. E. Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons