Port of New York and New Jersey
The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district of the New York-Newark metropolitan area, encompassing the region within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. It includes the system of navigable waterways in the New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary, which runs along 650 miles of shoreline in the vicinity of New York City and northeastern New Jersey, as well as the region's airports and supporting rail and roadway distribution networks. Considered one of the largest natural harbors in the world, the port is by tonnage the third largest in the United States and the busiest on the East Coast; the port is the nation's top gateway for international flights and its busiest center for overall passenger and air freight flights. There are two foreign-trade zones within the port; the largest ship, the CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt to call at an East Coast port passed under the raised Bayonne Bridge in July 2017, signalling a new era of container capacity. Encompassing an area within an approximate 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, the port district comprises all or part of seventeen counties in the region.
The ten that are within the district are Hudson, Essex, Union and the five boroughs of New York City, which are coterminous with the counties of New York, Kings and Richmond. Abutting sections of Passaic, Monmouth and Somerset in New Jersey, Nassau and Rockland in New York are within the district. New York Harbor is one of the world's largest natural harbors; the Atlantic Ocean is to the southeast of the port. The sea at the entrance to the port is called the New York Bight. In Lower New York Bay and its western arm, Raritan Bay, vessels orient themselves for passage to the east into Arthur Kill or Raritan River or to the north to The Narrows. To the east lies the Rockaway Inlet, which leads to Jamaica Bay; the Narrows connects to the Upper New York Bay at the mouth of the Hudson River, sometimes called the North River. Large ships are able to navigate upstream to the Port of Albany-Rensselaer. To the west lies Kill van Kull, the strait leading to Newark Bay, fed by the Passaic River and Hackensack River, the northern entrance of Arthur Kill.
The Gowanus Canal and Buttermilk Channel are entered from the east. The East River is a broad strait that travels north to Newtown Creek and the Harlem River, turning east at Hell Gate before opening to Long Island Sound, which provides an outlet to the open sea; the port consists of a complex of 240 miles of shipping channels, as well as anchorages and port facilities. Most vessels require pilotage, larger vessels require tugboat assistance for the sharper channel turns; the Ambrose leads from the sea to the Upper Bay. Connecting channels are the Bay Ridge, the Red Hook, the Buttermilk, the Claremont, the Port Jersey, the Kill Van Kull, the Newark Bay, the Port Newark, the Elizabeth, the Arthur Kill. Anchorages are known as Bay Ridge and Gravesend; the natural depth of the harbor is about 17 feet, but it was deepened over the years, to a controlling depth of about 24 feet in 1880. By 1891, the Main Ship Channel was minimally 30 feet deep. In 1914, Ambrose Channel became the main entrance at 40 feet deep and 2,000 feet wide.
During World War II the main channel was dredged to 45 feet deep to accommodate larger ships up to Panamax size. In 2016, the Army Corps of Engineers completed a $2.1 billion dredging project, deepening harbor channels to 50 feet in order to accommodate Post-Panamax container vessels, which can pass through the widened Panama Canal as well as the Suez Canal. This has been a source of environmental concern along channels connecting the container facilities in Port Newark to the Atlantic. PCBs and other pollutants lay in a blanket just underneath the soil. In June 2009 it was announced that 200,000 cubic yards of dredged PCBs would be "cleaned" and stored en masse at the site of the former Yankee Stadium and at Brooklyn Bridge Park. In many areas the sandy bottom now requires blasting. Dredging equipment picks up the rock and disposes of it. At one point in 2005, there were 70 pieces of dredging equipment working to deepen channels, the largest fleet of dredging equipment anywhere in the world.
The channel of the Hudson is the Anchorage Channel and is 50 feet deep in the midpoint of Upper Bay. A project to replace two water mains between Brooklyn and Staten Island, which will allowing for dredging of the channel to nearly 100 feet, was begun in April 2012; the Army Corps has recommended. Dredging of the canals to 50 feet was completed in August 2016; the channels include bridges that limit the heights of vessels that can use the harbor. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge has a clearance of 228 feet at mean high water; the Brooklyn Bridge has 135 feet of clearance, while the Bayonne Bridge has been raised from 155 feet to 215 feet. The Sandy Hook Pilots are licensed maritime pilots that go aboard oceangoing vessels, passenger liners and tankers and are responsible for the navigation of larger ships through port district; the estuary was the territory of the Lenape, a seasonally migrational people who would relocate summer encampments along its shore and use its waterways for transport and fishing.
Many of the tidal salt marshes supported vast oyster banks that remained a major source of food for the region unti
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, situated along right bank of the Upper Rhine. The margraves of Baden originated from the house of Zähringen. Baden is named after Hohenbaden Castle in Baden-Baden. Hermann II of Baden first claimed the title of Margrave of Baden in 1112. A united Margraviate of Baden existed from this time until 1535, when it was split into the two Margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. Following a devastating fire in Baden-Baden in 1689, the capital was moved to Karlsruhe; the two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden; the Grand Duchy of Baden was a state within the German Empire until 1918, succeeded by the Republic of Baden within the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. During 1945–1952, South Baden and Württemberg-Baden were territories under French and American occupation, respectively.
They were united with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the modern Federal State of Baden-Württemberg in 1952. History of Baden-Württemberg List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Baden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
New York's 17th congressional district
New York's 17th Congressional District is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives located in Southern New York. It includes all of Rockland County, portions of central and northwestern Westchester County, including the city of White Plains and the Tappan Zee Bridge; the district is represented by Democrat Nita Lowey. From 2003-2013, the 17th district encompassed portions of the Bronx, Westchester County, Rockland County, it included the neighborhoods of Norwood, Wakefield and Woodlawn in the Bronx, the city of Mount Vernon and parts of Yonkers in Westchester, as well as Monsey, Pearl River, Suffern in Rockland County. 2013–present: map All of Rockland Part of Westchester2003-2013: Parts of Bronx, Westchester.1993-2003: Parts of Bronx, Westchester.1983-1993: Parts of Bronx, Manhattan.1973-1983: All of Staten Island. Parts of Manhattan.1913-1973: Parts of Manhattan.1843-1853: MontgomeryVarious New York districts have been numbered "17" over the years, including areas in New York City and various parts of upstate New York.
The District was the East Side Manhattan district. In the 1970s it was a Staten Island seat, it became the west side Manhattan seat in the 1980s. It became a Bronx-based seat in the 1992 remap and was shifted north into Rockland county in 2002 to absorb terrain from the deconstruction of the old 20th District; the 19th District covered much of the Bronx portion of the seat in the 1980s. From 1833 to 1843, two seats were apportioned to the 17th district, elected at-large on a general ticket. Note that in New York State electoral politics there are numerous minor parties at various points on the political spectrum. Certain parties will invariably endorse either the Republican or Democratic candidate for every office, hence the state electoral results contain both the party votes, the final candidate votes. List of United States congressional districts New York's congressional districts United States congressional delegations from New York Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2004 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 2002 House election data " 2000 House election data " 1998 House election data " 1996 House election data "
Treasurer of the United States
The Treasurer of the United States is an official in the United States Department of the Treasury, charged with the receipt and custody of government funds, though many of these functions have been taken over by different bureaus of the Department. Responsibility for oversight of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the United States Mint, the United States Savings Bonds Division was assigned to the Treasurer in 1981; as of 2002 the Office of the Treasurer underwent a major reorganization. The Treasurer now advises the Director of the Mint, the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Deputy Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury on matters relating to coinage and the production of other instruments by the United States; the Treasurer's signature, as well as the Treasury Secretary's, appear on Federal Reserve Notes. President Harry S. Truman appointed Georgia Neese Clark as the first woman Treasurer in 1949. Since every subsequent Treasurer has been a woman, seven of the past eleven Treasurers have been Hispanic.
Requirement for Senate confirmation for the appointment was dropped as of August 10, 2012. Since 1949, the length of time the office has been vacant totals more than 10 years. Register of the Treasury Treasurers of the United States United States Department of the Treasury
Amsterdam (city), New York
Amsterdam is a city in Montgomery County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 18,620; the city is named for Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam is surrounded on the north and west sides by the town of Amsterdam; the city developed with the majority located on the north bank. The Port Jackson area on the south side is part of the city; the city is within the original, now defunct town of Caughnawaga. The first Europeans to settle here were Dutch immigrants about 1710, they called the community Veeders Veedersburgh after Albert Veeder, an early mill owner. After the American Revolutionary War, many settlers came from New England. Anglo-American residents changed the name to Amsterdam in 1803. In 1773, Guy Johnson built a stone Georgian mansion. A Loyalist, he fled to Canada during the Revolution; the mansion has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was incorporated as a village on April 1830 from a section of the Town of Amsterdam.
New charters in 1854, 1865, 1875 increased the size of the village. In 1885, Amsterdam became a city, which subsequently increased in size by annexation of the former village of Port Jackson on the south side of the Mohawk River; the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 was an economic boon to the city, which became an important manufacturing center. It was known for its carpets. In 1865, the population of Amsterdam was 5,135. By 1920, it was 33,524. Through the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was a destination for immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, who worked in the factories. Amsterdam experienced serious flooding damage in the aftermath of Hurricane Irene in late August 2011; this flooding threatened properties at the river's edge due to water damage. Most of the downtown was destroyed by misguided urban renewal efforts. A few historic buildings and sites from the 19th and 20th centuries remain, including the Amsterdam Armory, Amsterdam City Hall, Gray-Jewett House, Green Hill Cemetery, Greene Mansion, Guy Park, Guy Park Avenue School, Saint Stanislaus Roman Catholic Church Complex, Temple of Israel, United States Post Office, Vrooman Avenue School, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Chalmers Knitting Mills was added in 2010. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.3 square miles, of which, 5.9 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. The total area is 5.41% water. The city developed on both sides of the Mohawk Erie Canal; the Chuctanunda River flows into the Mohawk from the north at Amsterdam. New York State Route 30, a north-south highway called Market Street in part, crosses the Mohawk River to link the main part of Amsterdam to the New York State Thruway. NY-30 intersects east-west highways New York State Route 5 and New York State Route 67 in the city. New York State Route 5S passes along the south side of the Mohawk River. Amsterdam is within New York's 20th congressional district; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,620 people, 8,324 households, 4,721 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,176.4 people per square mile. There were 9,218 housing units at an average density of 1,573 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 80.4% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander and 3.4% from two or more races. 26.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,146 households in the city; the average household size was 2.24. In the city, 25.0 % of the people were under the age of 15.8 % were age 65 or older. The median income for a household in the city, based on data from 2007 to 2011, was $38,699. In the 19th century, the city of Amsterdam was known for carpet and pearl button manufacturing, it continued to be a center for carpet-making in the 20th century, when the Bigelow-Sanford and Mohawk Mills Carpet companies both were located in Amsterdam, but these companies have relocated to other regions. Amsterdam was the home of Coleco, makers of the ColecoVision, Cabbage Patch Kids and the Coleco Adam. Founded in 1932 as the Connecticut Leather Company, Coleco went bankrupt in 1988 after a failed attempt to enter the electronics market, pulled out of Amsterdam, as well as its other North American manufacturing sites.
The enclosed shopping center is named the Amsterdam Riverfront Center. Once filled with clothing shops, the mall complex has been adapted for offices of doctors, public assistance services, community organizations, a radio station WCSS, an off-track betting site. Media in Amsterdam includes one print newspaper, The Recorder, an online newspaper, The Mohawk Valley Compass, two AM radio stations, WVTL and WCSS. Amsterdam is at the convergence of State Routes 5, 30 and 67; the New York State Thruway/Interstate 90 is a little over one kilometer to the southwest of the city. Amtrak passenger trains Maple Leaf and two unnamed trains in each direction to and from Niagara Falls, New York make stops at the Amsterdam station. Amsterdam's former National Guard Armory, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, has been adapted for use as a bed and breakfast inn called Amsterdam Castle. Amsterdam's municipal golf course was designed by Robert Trent Jones; the city is home to the Amsterdam Mohawks baseball team of the Perfect Game Collegiate Baseball League.
The team plays at Shuttleworth Park. The Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame was located in Amsterdam until November 2015, when it relocated to Wichita Falls, Texas; the Mohawk Valley