The King's Observatory is a Grade I listed building in Richmond, London. Now a private dwelling, it housed an astronomical and terrestrial magnetic observatory founded by King George III; the architect was Sir William Chambers. The observatory and its grounds are located within the grounds of the Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club, part of the Old Deer Park of the former Richmond Palace in Richmond in Surrey and now in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames; the former royal manor of Kew lies to the immediate north. The observatory grounds overlie to the south the site of the former Sheen Priory, the Carthusian monastery established by King Henry V in 1414; the observatory is not publicly accessible, obscuring woodlands mean that it cannot be viewed from outside the golf course, not open to the general public. Directors of the observatory included Stephen Demainbray, Francis Ronalds, John Welsh, Balfour Stewart, Francis John Welsh Whipple, Charles Chree, George Clarke Simpson; the observatory was completed in 1769, in time for King George III's observation of the transit of Venus that occurred on 3 June in that year.
In 1842, the by empty building was taken on by the British Association for the Advancement of Science and became known as the Kew Observatory. Francis Ronalds was the inaugural Honorary Director for the next decade and founded the observatory's enduring reputation. Responsibility for the facility was transferred to the Royal Society in 1871; the National Physical Laboratory was established there in 1900 and from 1910 it housed the Meteorological Office. The Met Office closed the observatory in 1980; the geomagnetic instruments had been relocated to Eskdalemuir Observatory in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland in 1908 after the advent of electrification in London led to interference with their operations. A contemporary report by Stephen Demainbray, the superintendent of the observatory, says: "His Majesty the King who made his observation with a Shorts reflecting telescope, magnifying Diameters 170 Times, was the first to view the Penumbra of Venus touching the Edge of the Sun's Disk; the exact mean time was attended to by Stephen Demainbray, appointed to take exact time by Shelton's Regulator regulated by several astronomical observations."
Francis Ronalds invented many meteorological and electrical instruments at Kew, which saw long-term use around the world. These included the first successful cameras in 1845 to record the variations of parameters such as atmospheric pressure, humidity, atmospheric electricity and geomagnetism through the day and night, his photo-barograph was used by Robert Fitzroy from 1862 in making the UK's first official weather forecasts at the Meteorological Office. The network of observing stations set-up in 1867 by the Met Office to assist in understanding the weather was equipped with his cameras – some of these remained in use at Kew until the observatory's closure in 1980. Ronalds established a sophisticated atmospheric electricity observing system at Kew with a long copper rod protruding through the dome of the observatory and a suite of novel electrometers and electrographs to manually record the data, he supplied this equipment to facilities in England, France, Italy and the Arctic with the goal of delineating atmospheric electricity on a global scale.
At Kew, two-hourly data was recorded in the Reports of the British Association between 1844 and 1847. An new system, providing continuous automatic recording, was installed by Lord Kelvin in the early 1860s; this device, based on Kelvin's water dropper potential equaliser with photographic recording, was known as the Kew electrograph. It provided the backbone of a long and continuous series of potential gradient measurements which finished in 1980. A secondary system of measurement, operating on different principles, was designed and implemented by the Nobel laureate CTR Wilson, from which records begin in 1906 until the closure of the Observatory; these measurements, which complement those of the Kelvin electrograph, were made on fine days at 1500 GMT. Beyond their applications in atmospheric electricity, the electrograph and Wilson apparatus have been shown to be useful for reconstructing past air pollution changes. In the early 1850s, the facility began performing a role in assessing and rating barometers, chronometers, watches and other scientific instruments for accuracy.
An instrument which passed the tests was awarded a hallmark of excellence. As marine navigation adopted the use of mechanical timepieces, their accuracy became more important; the need for precision resulted in the development of a testing regime involving various astronomical observatories. In Europe, the observatories at Neuchatel, Geneva and Kew were examples of prominent observatories that tested timepiece movements for accuracy; the testing process lasted for many days 45. Each movement was tested in five positions and two temperatures, in ten series of four or five days each; the tolerances for error were much finer than any other standard, including the modern COSC standard. Movements that passed the stringent tests were issued a certification from the observatory called a Bulletin de Marche, signed by the directeur of the observatory; the Bulletin de Marche stated the actual performance of the movement. A movement with a Bulletin de March
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century; the 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data, it was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology.
Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth's atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapour, mass flow, the variations and interactions of those variables, how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local and global levels. Meteorology, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology; the interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport and construction; the word meteorology is from the Ancient Greek μετέωρος metéōros and -λογία -logia, meaning "the study of things high in the air". The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural settlement if not earlier.
Early approaches to predicting weather were practiced by priests. Cuneiform inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between rain; the Chaldeans differentiated 46 ° halos. Ancient Indian Upanishads contain mentions of seasons; the Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed. Varāhamihira's classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides evidence of weather observation. In 350 BC, Aristotle wrote Meteorology. Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle; the book De Mundo noted If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt. They are all called ` swooping bolts'. Lightning is sometimes smoky, is called'smoldering lightning". At other times, it travels in crooked lines, is called forked lightning; when it swoops down upon some object it is called'swooping lightning'. The Greek scientist Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs.
The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather and in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a geographer for the Roman Empire, formalized the climatic zone system. According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat, in which he deals with the application of meteorology to agriculture during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, he describes the meteorological character of the sky, the planets and constellations, the sun and moon, the lunar phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa, atmospheric phenomena such as winds, lightning, floods, rivers, lakes. Early attempts at predicting weather were related to prophecy and divining, were sometimes based on astrological ideas. Admiral FitzRoy tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones. Ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. In 1021, Alhazen showed that atmospheric refraction is responsible for twilight.
St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop. Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow, he stated. In the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and explained the secondary rainbow. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by "magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth's magnetic field lines. In 1441, King Sejong's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge; these were sent throughout the Joseon dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics
Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics is the science of the motion of bicycles and motorcycles and their components, due to the forces acting on them. Dynamics falls under a branch of physics known as classical mechanics. Bike motions of interest include balancing, braking, suspension activation, vibration; the study of these motions continues today. Bicycles and motorcycles are both single-track vehicles and so their motions have many fundamental attributes in common and are fundamentally different from and more difficult to study than other wheeled vehicles such as dicycles and quadracycles; as with unicycles, bikes lack lateral stability when stationary, under most circumstances can only remain upright when moving forward. Experimentation and mathematical analysis have shown that a bike stays upright when it is steered to keep its center of mass over its wheels; this steering is supplied by a rider, or in certain circumstances, by the bike itself. Several factors, including geometry, mass distribution, gyroscopic effect all contribute in varying degrees to this self-stability, but long-standing hypotheses and claims that any single effect, such as gyroscopic or trail, is responsible for the stabilizing force have been discredited.
While remaining upright may be the primary goal of beginning riders, a bike must lean in order to maintain balance in a turn: the higher the speed or smaller the turn radius, the more lean is required. This balances the roll torque about the wheel contact patches generated by centrifugal force due to the turn with that of the gravitational force; this lean is produced by a momentary steering in the opposite direction, called countersteering. Countersteering skill is acquired by motor learning and executed via procedural memory rather than by conscious thought. Unlike other wheeled vehicles, the primary control input on bikes is steering torque, not position. Although longitudinally stable when stationary, bikes have a high enough center of mass and a short enough wheelbase to lift a wheel off the ground under sufficient acceleration or deceleration; when braking, depending on the location of the combined center of mass of the bike and rider with respect to the point where the front wheel contacts the ground, bikes can either skid the front wheel or flip the bike and rider over the front wheel.
A similar situation is possible. The history of the study of bike dynamics is nearly as old as the bicycle itself, it includes contributions from famous scientists such as Rankine and Whipple. In the early 19th century Karl von Drais, credited with inventing the two-wheeled vehicle variously called the laufmaschine, velocipede and dandy horse, showed that a rider could balance his device by steering the front wheel. In 1869, Rankine published an article in The Engineer repeating von Drais's assertion that balance is maintained by steering in the direction of a lean. In 1897, the French Academy of Sciences made understanding bicycle dynamics the goal of its Prix Fourneyron competition. Thus, by the end of the 19th century, Carlo Bourlet, Emmanuel Carvallo, Francis Whipple had showed with rigid-body dynamics that some safety bicycles could balance themselves if moving at the right speed. Bourlet won the Prix Fourneyron, Whipple won the Cambridge University Smith Prize, it is not clear to whom should go the credit for tilting the steering axis from the vertical which helps make this possible.
In 1970, David E. H. Jones published an article in Physics Today showing that gyroscopic effects are not necessary to balance a bicycle. Since 1971, when he identified and named the wobble and capsize modes, Robin Sharp has written about the behavior of motorcycles and bicycles. While at Imperial College, London, he worked with Simos Evangelou. In the early 1970s, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory was sponsored by the Schwinn Bicycle Company and others to study and simulate bicycle and motorcycle dynamics. Portions of this work have now been released to the public and scans of over 30 detailed reports have been posted at this TU Delft Bicycle Dynamics site. Since the 1990s, Cossalter, et al. have been researching motorcycle dynamics at the University of Padova. Their research, both experimental and numerical, has covered weave, chatter, vehicle modelling, tire modelling and minimum lap time maneuvering. In 2007, Meijaard, et al. published the canonical linearized equations of motion, in the Proceedings of the Royal Society A, along with verification by two different methods.
These equations assumed the tires to roll without slip, to say, to go where they point, the rider to be rigidly attached to the rear frame of the bicycle. In 2011, Kooijman, et al. published an article in Science showing that neither gyroscopic effects nor so-called caster effects due to trail are necessary for a bike to balance itself. They designed a two-mass-skate bicycle that the equations of motion predict is self-stable with negative trail, the front wheel contacts the ground in front of the steering axis, with counter-rotating wheels to cancel any gyroscopic effects, they constructed a physical model to validate that prediction. This may require some of the details provided below about steering geometry or stability to be re-evaluated. Bicycle dynamics was named 26 of Discover's 100 top stories of 2011. In 2013, Eddy Merckx Cycles was awarded over €150,000 with Ghent University to examine bicycle stability. If the bike and rider are considered to be a single system, the forces that act on that system and its components can be divided into two groups: internal a
Royal Meteorological Society
The Royal Meteorological Society is a long-established institution that promotes academic and public engagement in weather and climate science. Fellows of the Society must possess relevant qualifications, but Associate Fellows can be lay enthusiasts, its Quarterly Journal is one of the world's leading sources of original research in the atmospheric sciences. The Royal Meteorological Society traces its origins back to 3 April 1850 when the British Meteorological Society was formed as "a society the objects of which should be the advancement and extension of meteorological science by determining the laws of climate and of meteorological phenomena in general". Along with nine others, including James Glaisher, John Drew, Edward Joseph Lowe, The Revd Joseph Bancroft Reade, Samuel Charles Whitbread, Dr John Lee, an astronomer, of Hartwell House, near Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire founded in the library of his house the British Meteorological Society, which became the Royal Meteorological Society, it became The Meteorological Society in 1866, when it was incorporated by Royal Charter, the Royal Meteorological Society in 1883, when Her Majesty Queen Victoria granted the privilege of adding'Royal' to the title.
Along with 74 others, the famous meteorologist Luke Howard joined the original 15 members of the Society at its first ordinary meeting on 7 May 1850. As of 2008 it has more than 3,000 members worldwide; the chief executive of the Society is Professor Liz Bentley. There are four different membership categories: Honorary Fellow Fellow Associate Fellow Corporate member The society awards a number of medal and prizes, of which the Symons Gold Medal and the Mason Gold Medal are pre-eminent; the two medals are awarded alternately. Other awards include the Buchan Prize, the Hugh Robert Mill Award, the L F Richardson Prize, the Michael Hunt Award, the Fitzroy Prize, the Gordon Manley Weather Prize, the International Journal of Climatology Prize, the Society Outstanding Service Award and the Vaisala Award; the society has a number of regular publications: Atmospheric Science Letters: amonthly magazine that provides a peer reviewed publication route for new shorter contributions in the field of atmospheric and related sciences.
Weather: a monthly magazine with many full colour illustrations and photos for specialists and general readers with an interest in meteorology. It uses a minimum of technical language. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society: as one of the world's leading journals for meteorology publishes original research in the atmospheric sciences. There are eight issues per year. Meteorological Applications: this is a journal for applied meteorologists and users of meteorological services and has been published since 1994, it is aimed at a general readership and authors are asked to take this into account when preparing papers. International Journal of Climatology: has 15 issues a year and covers a broad spectrum of research in climatology. Atmospheric Science Letters: an electronic only publication for short communication. WIREs Climate Change: a journal about climate change Geoscience Data Journal: an online, open-access journal. All publications are available online but a subscription is required for some.
However certain "classic" papers are available on the Society's website. The society has several Local Centres across the UK. There are a number of Special Interest Groups which organise meetings and other activities to facilitate exchange of information and views within specific areas of meteorology; these are informal groups of professionals interested in specific technical areas of the profession of meteorology. The groups are a way of communicating at a specialist level. Source: List of atmospheric dispersion models UK Dispersion Modelling Bureau Met Office The RMetS website UK Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee web site