Middle Atlantic coastal forests
The Middle Atlantic coastal forests are a temperate coniferous forest mixed with patches of evergreen broadleaved forests along the coast of the southeastern United States. The Middle Atlantic coastal forests stretch along the Southern Atlantic coast of the United States from extreme Southern New Jersey south to the Georgia coast, they cover the lower Atlantic coastal plain and are bordered on the west by the Southeastern mixed forests. The habitats of the ecoregion are modified by natural processes; the bottomlands, coastal plains, maritime areas are vulnerable to tropical cyclones and floods. The drier areas with porous sandy soils are susceptible to fires and drought. Fire return intervals of 1 to 3 years favor herbaceous plants; this ecoregion has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and mild winters, with the heaviest precipitation concentrated in the warmest months. Two basic types of forests are found in this region; the mixed pine-oak forests occur in areas exposed to occasional fires.
Longleaf pine, superbly adapted to fire-prone environments, was the principal tree in many of these forests. Loblolly pine and shortleaf pine are still dominant in this ecosystem. Loblolly is planted on millions of acres of plantation forest's across the southeastern US. On moist soils or where fires are infrequent, hardwoods overtake the pines; these hardwoods include turkey oak, post oak, myrtle oak, Spanish oak, southern catalpa. Evergreen broadleaved forests occur close to the coast in localized areas as either evergreen Maritime oak forests or as more localized evergreen hammocks; these forests consist of evergreen broadleaved canopy trees, such as Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia virginiana, Persea borbonia, Gordonia lasianthus and several evergreen oaks such as Quercus myrtifolia, the iconic Quercus virginiana or southern Live Oak covered with Spanish moss. The understory is often evergreen in these forests, with Myrica cerifera and Osmanthus americanus common, while several evergreen species of Ericaceae and scrub palms are common on more moist sites.
In the open areas near sandy beaches and coastal areas, large endemic populations of Yucca and cactus thrive in the hot sun and sandy soils. The Middle Atlantic coastal forests contain the most diverse assemblage of freshwater wetland communities in North America; these include freshwater marshes, shrub bogs, white cedar swamps and wet hammocks. The bottomland hardwood forests for which the ecoregion is famous are dominated by bald cypress and swamp tupelo. Bald cypress swamps are dominated by their namesake tree, are too wet for foot travel. Many uncommon orchids grow among the baldcypress branches. Swamp tupelo, along with water tupelo, dominate mixed-hardwood swamp forests; these grow aside water-adapted oaks that include water oak, swamp chestnut oak, cherrybark oak, willow oak, overcup oak. Swamp hickory and water hickory are found here. Pawpaw grows in the understory. Atlantic white cedar swamps occur along blackwater rivers. Pocosins are damp, sandy, or peaty areas far from streams, they have scattered pond pine and a dense growth of evergreen shrubs including gallberry.
Barrier islands along the coast protect extensive estuaries and sounds. Carolina bays are a unique habitat of the ecoregion; the nine-banded armadillo is a distinctive animal. The Virginia opossum is abundant. In the mixed pine-oak forests, the brown-headed nuthatch feeds on pine seeds; the yellow-throated warbler is distributed. The northern parula warbler and the eastern bluebird are found here; the Bachman sparrow and red-cockaded woodpecker, both uncommon live in this ecoregion. The bottomland forests support abundant arthropods, produce mast that sustains migratory birds during the winter, produce boles, branch cavities, rotting logs that support various detritivores and hole-nesting species. In the extreme southeast regions the large American alligator can be found along tidal inlets and marsh areas; the main causes of habitat conversion are agriculture, fire suppression, coastal development and draining of wetlands, damming of rivers. The western part of the ecoregion has been most altered.
There, the upland vegetation has been nearly converted. Long-leaf pine savannas have nearly disappeared; the least altered habitats in the ecoregion are deep peatlands. Francis Marion National Forest Brunswick County Pinelands Holly Shelter Gamelands Croatan National Forest
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the capital and second largest city of the U. S. state of South Carolina, with a population estimate of 134,309 as of 2016. The city serves as the county seat of Richland County, a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County, it is the center of the Columbia metropolitan statistical area, which had a population of 767,598 as of the 2010 United States Census, growing to 817,488 by July 1, 2016, according to 2015 U. S. Census estimates; the name Columbia is a poetic term used for the United States, originating from the name of Christopher Columbus. The city is located 13 miles northwest of the geographic center of South Carolina, is the primary city of the Midlands region of the state, it lies at the confluence of the Saluda River and the Broad River, which merge at Columbia to form the Congaree River. Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina, the state's flagship university and the largest in the state, is the site of Fort Jackson, the largest United States Army installation for Basic Combat Training.
Columbia is located 20 miles west of the site of McEntire Joint National Guard Base, operated by the U. S. Air Force and is used as a training base for the 169th Fighter Wing of The South Carolina Air National Guard. Columbia is the location of the South Carolina State House, the center of government for the state. In 1860, the city was the location of the South Carolina Secession Convention, which marked the departure of the first state from the Union in the events leading up to the Civil War. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Columbia were a people called the Congaree. In May 1540, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto traversed what is now Columbia while moving northward; the expedition produced the earliest written historical records of the area, part of the regional Cofitachequi chiefdom. From the creation of Columbia by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1786, the site of Columbia was important to the overall development of the state; the Congarees, a frontier fort on the west bank of the Congaree River, was the head of navigation in the Santee River system.
A ferry was established by the colonial government in 1754 to connect the fort with the growing settlements on the higher ground on the east bank. Like many other significant early settlements in colonial America, Columbia is on the fall line from the Piedmont region; the fall line is the spot where a river becomes unnavigable when sailing upstream and where water flowing downstream can power a mill. State Senator John Lewis Gervais of the town of Ninety Six introduced a bill, approved by the legislature on March 22, 1786, to create a new state capital. There was considerable argument over the name for the new city. According to published accounts, Senator Gervais said he hoped that "in this town we should find refuge under the wings of COLUMBIA", for, the name which he wished it to be called. One legislator insisted on the name "Washington", but "Columbia" won by a vote of 11–7 in the state senate; the site was chosen as the new state capital in 1786, due to its central location in the state.
The State Legislature first met there in 1790. After remaining under the direct government of the legislature for the first two decades of its existence, Columbia was incorporated as a village in 1805 and as a city in 1854. Columbia received a large stimulus to development when it was connected in a direct water route to Charleston by the Santee Canal; this canal connected the Cooper rivers in a 22-mile-long section. It was first chartered in 1786 and completed in 1800, making it one of the earliest canals in the United States. With increased railroad traffic, it ceased operation around 1850; the commissioners designed a town of 400 blocks in a 2-mile square along the river. The blocks were sold to speculators and prospective residents. Buyers had to build a house at least 30 feet long and 18 feet wide within three years or face an annual 5% penalty; the perimeter streets and two through streets were 150 feet wide. The remaining squares were divided by thoroughfares 100 feet wide; the commissioners comprised the local government until 1797 when a Commission of Streets and Markets was created by the General Assembly.
Three main issues occupied most of their time: public drunkenness and poor sanitation. As one of the first planned cities in the United States, Columbia began to grow rapidly, its population was nearing 1,000 shortly after the start of the 19th century. In 1801, South Carolina College was founded in Columbia; the original building survives. The city was chosen as the site of the institution in part to unite the citizens of the Upcountry and the Lowcountry and to discourage the youth from migrating to England for their higher education. At the time, South Carolina sent more young men to England; the leaders of South Carolina wished to monitor the development of the school. Columbia received its first charter as a town in 1805. An intendant and six wardens would govern the town. John Taylor, the first elected intendant served in both houses of the General Assembly, both houses of Congress, as governor. By 1816, there were a population of more than one thousand. Columbia became chartered with an elected mayor and six aldermen.
Two years Columbia had a police force consisting of a full-time chief and nine patrolmen. The city continued to grow at a rapid
Huger, South Carolina
Huger is an unincorporated community in Berkeley County, South Carolina, United States. It is part of the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Cainhoy Historic District, Middleburg Plantation, Pompion Hill Chapel, Quinby Plantation House-Halidon Hill Plantation, White Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Kings Mountain National Military Park
Kings Mountain National Military Park is a National Military Park near Blacksburg, South Carolina, along the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The park commemorates the Battle of Kings Mountain, a pivotal and significant victory by American Patriots over American Loyalists during the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Thomas Jefferson considered the battle "The turn of the tide of success." The Battle of Kings Mountain was fought on October 7, 1780, destroyed the left wing of Lord Cornwallis' army ending Loyalist ascendance in the Carolinas. The victory halted the British advance into North Carolina, forced Lord Cornwallis to retreat from Charlotte into South Carolina, gave General Nathanael Greene the opportunity to reorganize the American Army. Prior to 1780, much of the Revolutionary War was fought in the Northern states. After an unsuccessful Northern campaign, British General Clinton decided to turn his attention to the south, where he believed that he and his troops would join up with loyalist militias and take the area.
The campaign began with a swift move to capture Charleston, taken over after two months of fighting. After the capture of Charleston, Clinton wanted to capitalize on his victory, sent British detachments in all directions, to subdue as much resistance as possible. After placing Cornwallis in charge of the Southern Campaign, Clinton returned to New York, where much of the British high command was. Clinton's instructions were to first finish off South Carolina, move north, to North Carolina, followed by Virginia. After the defeat at Charleston, Colonel Abraham Buford, whose force of 400 Virginians had been too late to help defend Charleston, decided to take his troops and head back to Virginia. In late May, his troops were intercepted by Colonel Tarleton's troops; when the two forces met, the Battle of Waxhaws ensued. Realizing his force could not win, Buford sent forward a messenger to surrender, Buford's requests were ignored. Tarleton wanted to make an example of Buford's troops, killed 113 of his men, wounded around 50 so badly that they could not be moved.
Another 50 were taken prisoner, the remaining 200 managed to escape. The Battle of Waxhaws helped inspire armed resistance in much of the south in the Carolinas; the situation in the southern states was getting desperate. Many people considered giving up the Carolinas without a fight. There were few organized forces left in the south. Theodore Roosevelt's quote, from his book Winning of the West, sums up the situation quite well: "Except for occasional small guerrilla parties, there was not a single organized body of American troops left south of Gates....". Despite the derelict feelings of many southerners, enough patriotism was stirred to gather a small contingent of men to defend the Kings Mountain area. Despite reported ankle-deep snow during their march, the men continued to march on. After stopping for a lunch break at the Roan Highlands, it was discovered that two men with tory leanings were missing. Deciding that the British may be closer than thought, the commanding officers decided to change their route.
The men traveled on a couple more days, until stopping at Gillespie's Gap to divide their troops in case of a British ambush. After dividing their troops, the now-separated forces marched on, until they met again on September 30. Men from Wilkes County and Surry County, North Carolina joined the so-called Overmountain Men on their march towards the British, bringing their total force to about 1,400; the army resumed marching on October 1, they stopped due to heavy rains, which continued on in to the next day. After an hour of combat the Patriot forces defeated the British, took nearly 700 prisoners. Kings Mountain National Military Park was established on March 3, 1931 by an act of Congress: "in order to commemorate the Battle of Kings Mountain." The park is the terminus of the Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail commemorating the route of the Patriot army from over the Appalachian Mountains to the battle. The park adjoins Kings Mountain State Park, which offers camping, picnicking and a "living history" farm.
It is 30 miles south of Charlotte, North Carolina and 60 miles North of Greenville, South Carolina. Kings Mountain can be seen from I-85 North for many miles. A one and a half mile paved trail leads from the visitors' center around the base of the mountain along the Patriot lines and ascends to the crest where the Loyalists were positioned; the trail passes several monuments and small, the earliest dating from 1815, as well as Patrick Ferguson's grave, giving a good sense of the battleground. The trail is moderately steep in places; as part of the NPS' Centennial Initiative, the trail will be rehabilitated to eliminate the steeper sections of the trail, making it accessible to everyone. On the sesquicentennial of the battle, then-president Herbert Hoover gave a speech commemorating the battle and the monument as "a place of inspiring memories." In the speech, he chronicled the basic history of America, detailing many great things about America, such as the rise of the American man and women. The whole speech can be read here.
A year after Hoover gave his speech, a monument was erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution, which states "ON THIS SITE / PRESIDENT HOOVER / ADDRESSED AN AUDIENCE OF 75,000 / AT THE CELEBRATION OF THE / SESQUI CENTENNIAL / OF THE BATTLE OF KINGS MOUNTAIN," finishing with the date of the address. The monument, placed where Hoover was standing, is a stop along the historic loop trail. Brown's Mountain - Cherokee County Joes Mountain - York County Kings M
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in