Bracebridge is a suburb of the city and county town of Lincoln, England. It is situated 2 miles south from the city centre on the main A1434 Newark Road, stretching from St Catherine's to Swallowbeck alongside the east bank of the River Witham, uphill to the more upmarket Bracebridge Heath. Under the Local Government Act 1888 Bracebridge was part of Kesteven and considered a separate town within that county; the Local Government Act 1894 changed Bracebridge's status to an Urban District within Lincoln in the county of Lindsey. Bracebridge now falls within the county of Lincolnshire. Bracebridge was served by the now-defunct Bracebridge railway station, located to the rear of the Manse estate, accessible from Brant Road. Bracebridge lowfields consist of Brant Road area to Waddington Village in the south and Newark Road area to St. Catherines roundabout at South Park. Using Cross O'Cliff hill from the South Park roundabout, one can access Bracebridge Heath, which has a mixed development of old and new properties and commercial units.
It is possible to access the town of Sleaford from'the heath' as it is locally known via the A15 or Grantham via the A607. Both Bracebridge and Bracebridge Heath are served by regular bus services; the Number 1 goes from Lincoln City bus station to Grantham via Cross O'Cliff hill and the A607, Bracebridge Lowfields are served by the 13/14 Service which travels around the Larne Road area and on to Waddington village. Serving Bracebridge is the number 27 which travels to ASDA in North Hykeham. All Saints' Church was remodelled in 1875 by J L Pearson, it is a Grade I listed building. Media related to Bracebridge, Lincolnshire at Wikimedia Commons
Cambridge University Boat Club
The Cambridge University Boat Club is one of the rowing clubs of the University of Cambridge, England. The club was founded in 1828 and has been located at the Goldie Boathouse on the River Cam, Cambridge since 1882. Nowadays, training takes place on the River Great Ouse at Ely; the prime constitutional aim of CUBC is to beat Oxford University Boat Club in the annual Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. CUBC lead OUBC in the series by 83 races to 80, with 1 dead heat in The Boat Race 1877; the inaugural meeting of Cambridge University Boat Club took place at Gonville and Caius College on 9 December 1828. Following this meeting, it was agreed that a challenge be sent to the University of Oxford to organise a race between representatives of the two universities. A letter was sent to Oxford in which they were challenged "to row a match at or near London, each in an eight-oared boat during the ensuing Easter vacation"; the first Boat Race took place at Henley-on-Thames in June 1829. CUBC was one of five clubs which retained the right until 2012 to appoint representatives to the Council of British Rowing.
The others were Leander Club, London Rowing Club, Thames Rowing Club and Oxford University Boat Club. CUBC has produced numerous Olympic-level rowers in its history. During the Boat Race period both the Blue Boat and Goldie crews boat from King's College School's Boat House on the Putney embankment. Notes Bibliography Dodd, Christopher; the Oxford & Cambridge Boat Race. Stanley Paul. ISBN 978-0-09-151340-5. CUBC website
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
Edmund Cartwright was an English inventor. He graduated from Oxford University early and went on to invent the power loom. Married to local Elizabeth McMac at 19, he was the brother of Major John Cartwright, a political reformer and radical, George Cartwright, explorer of Labrador. Cartwright was taught at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, University College and for an MA degree at Magdalen College, where he was received a demyship and was elected a Fellow of the College, he became a clergyman of the Church of England. Cartwright began his career as a clergyman, becoming, in 1779, rector of Goadby Marwood, Leicestershire. In 1783, he was elected a prebendary at Lincoln Cathedral. Edmund Cartwright designed his first power loom in 1784 and patented it in 1785, but it proved to be valueless. In 1789, he patented another loom which served as the model for inventors to work upon. For a mechanically driven loom to become a commercial success, either one person would have to attend one machine, or each machine must have a greater productive capacity than one manually controlled.
An old man named. Cartwright added parts to his loom, namely a positive let-off motion and weft stop motions, sizing the warp while the loom was in action, he commenced to manufacture fabrics in Doncaster using these looms, discovered many of their shortcomings. He attempted to remedy these in a number of ways: by introducing a crank and eccentric wheels to actuate its batten differentially, by improving the dicking mechanism, by means of a device for stopping the loom when a shuttle failed to enter a shuttle box, by preventing a shuttle from rebounding when in a box, by stretching the cloth with temples that acted automatically, his mill was repossessed by creditors in 1793. In 1792, Dr Cartwright obtained his last patent for weaving machinery; however all his efforts were unavailing. His plans for sizing them while a loom was in operation, before being placed in a loom, failed; these problems were resolved in 1803, by William Radcliffe and his assistant Thomas Johnson, by their inventions of the beam warper, the dressing sizing machine.
In 1790 Robert Grimshaw of Gorton, Manchester erected a weaving factory at Knott Mill which he intended to fill with 500 of Cartwright's power looms, but with only 30 in place the factory was burnt down as an act of arson inspired by the fears of hand loom weavers. The prospect of success was not sufficiently promising to induce its re-erection. In 1809 Cartwright obtained a grant of £10,000 from parliament for his invention. In May 1821, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Cartwright patented a wool combing machine in 1789 and a cordelier in 1792, he designed a steam engine that used alcohol instead of water. Edmund Cartwright was buried at Battle, his daughter Elizabeth married the Reverend John Penrose and wrote books under the pseudonym of Mrs Markham. Timeline of clothing and textiles technology Cartwright, Edmund. Armine and Elvira: A Legendary Tale. London: John Murray. Strickland, M.. A Memoir of the Life and Inventions, of Edmund Cartwright, D. D. FRS, Inventor of the Power Loom, Etc. Etc.
London: Saunders and Otley. Retrieved 21 April 2008. Hunt, David. "Cartwright, Edmund". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4813. Media related to Edmund Cartwright at Wikimedia Commons "Edmund Cartwright and the power loom" – at Cotton Times "Richard Arkwright and Edmund Cartwright: Inventors of Important Textile Manufacturing Machines" – at Grimshaw Origins Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cartwright, Edmund". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Somerville College, Oxford
Somerville College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1879 as Somerville Hall, it was one of the first two women's colleges in Oxford, its alumni, such as Margaret Thatcher, Indira Gandhi, Dorothy Hodgkin, Iris Murdoch, Vera Brittain, Cornelia Sorabji, Dorothy L. Sayers and many activists, have played a important role in feminism. Today, around 50% of students are male. Somerville has the biggest college library in Oxford and is known for its friendly and liberal atmosphere, varied architecture and excellent hall food, its liberal character traces back to its foundation by social liberals as the first non-denominational college in Oxford, deliberately unlike the Anglican Lady Margaret Hall, the other women's college opened in the same year. Somerville is one of the few Oxford colleges where students may walk on the grass and in 1964, Somerville became one of the first colleges to abandon the policy of locking its gates at night to prevent students staying out late.
No gowns are worn during Formal Halls. The current principal is Janet Royall, Baroness Royall of Blaisdon, who succeeded Alice Prochaska in 2017. Between 2006 and 2018, the financial endowment rose from £44.5 million to £80.6 million. Its total net assets in 2018 were £225.0 million, the seventh highest total for an Oxford undergraduate college. The college is located in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter and Jericho, at the southern end of Woodstock Road, with Little Clarendon Street to the south and Walton Street to the west, it is near the Science Area, Oxford University Press, Radcliffe Observatory, Blavatnik School of Government and between the University Parks and Port Meadow. It is located nearby the colleges Green Templeton College, Keble College and St Anne's College and the PPH St Benet's Hall. Somerville is one of only three Oxford colleges to provide on-site accommodation for all undergraduates throughout their course; the college is home to circa 600 students. More than half of the UK students admitted to Somerville are educated at state schools, close to the university average.
Its sister college is Girton College, England's first residential college for the higher education of women. In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford; some of the more prominent members of the association were George Granville Bradley, Master of University College, T. H. Green, a prominent liberal philosopher and Fellow of Balliol College, Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College. Talbot insisted on a Anglican institution, unacceptable to most of the other members; the two parties split, Talbot's group founded Lady Margaret Hall, which opened its doors for students in 1879, the same year as Somerville did. Thus, in 1879, a second committee was formed to create a college "in which no distinction will be made between students on the ground of their belonging to different religious denominations." This committee had close ties to the Liberal Party. This second committee included John Percival, George William Kitchin, A. H. D. Acland, Thomas Hill Green, Mary Ward, William Sidgwick, Henry Nettleship, Walter Pater and A. G. Vernon Harcourt.
This new effort resulted in the founding of Somerville Hall, named for the recently deceased Scottish mathematician and renowned scientific writer Mary Somerville. It was felt that the name would reflect the virtues of liberalism and academic success which the college wished to embody, she was admired by the founders of the college as a scholar, as well as for her religious and political views, including her conviction that women should have equality in terms of suffrage and access to education. Madeleine Shaw Lefevre was chosen as the first principal because, although not a well-known academic at the time, her background was felt to reflect the college's political stance; because of its status as both women's college and non-denominational institution, Somerville was regarded within Oxford as "an eccentric and somewhat alarming institution." When opened, Somerville Hall had twelve students, ranging in age between 17 and 36. The first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above a baker's shop on Little Clarendon Street.
Just two of the original 12 students admitted in 1879 remained in Oxford for three years, the period of residence required for male students to complete a bachelor's degree. However, as the college admitted more students, it became more formalized. Somerville appointed its first in-house tutor in 1892 and, by the end of the 1890s, female students were permitted to attend lectures in all colleges. In 1891 it became the first women's hall to introduce entrance exams and in 1894 the first of the five women's halls of residence to adopt the title of'college', the first of them to appoint its own teaching staff, the first to build a library. In Oxford legend it soon became known as the'bluestocking college', its excellent examination results refuting the widespread belief that women were incapable of high academic achievement. In the 1910s, Somerville became known for its support for the women's suffrage campaign. In 1920, Oxford University allowed women to therefore gain degrees. From the college's inception, all female students had to be chaperoned when in the presence of male students.
The practice was abolished in 1925, although male visitors to the college were still subject to a curfew. In 1925, during the principalship of Emily Penrose, Somerville's college charter was granted. During World War I the college was converted
Harewood is a village and civil parish in the City of Leeds metropolitan borough, West Yorkshire, England. The civil parish population at the 2011 census was 3,734, it sits in the Harewood ward of Leeds City Council and Elmet and Rothwell parliamentary constituency. The A61 from Leeds city centre to Harrogate passes through the village; the A659 from Collingham joins the A61 outside the main entrance to Harewood House to descend the slopes of the Wharfe valley before continuing towards Pool-in-Wharfedale. The Harewood Arms public house and hotel is opposite the entrance to the Harewood Estate. Other facilities in the village include a Post Office, a medical centre, mobile library, community cafe, a village hall, it is the location of Harewood speed Hillclimb. The exterior set for the soap opera Emmerdale is located in the Harewood estate. Harewood C of E Primary School is a state-funded faith school which stands opposite the grounds of the Harewood estate on the A61 and was built by the estate in 1864 for estate workers' children.
In 2005 and 2008 the school was awarded "outstanding" grading following Ofsted inspections. The school maintains its historic links with the estate, the children use its grounds and educational facilities. Gateways School is an independent private school with a sixth form; the junior school and nursery are co-educational, admitting boys and girls to age 11. Harewood House, a country house was designed by architects John Carr and Robert Adam, built between 1759 and 1771 for Edwin Lascelles, 1st Baron Harewood, its garden of more than 100 acres is set in a landscape of 1,000 acres designed by Lancelot "Capability" Brown. All Saints' Church, the former parish church, stands to the west of the village, in the grounds of Harewood House, built in the 18th century; the village was relocated in the late 18th century, leaving the church isolated from the village population. It is a Grade I listed building but is no longer used for worship and is in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. Harwood Harewood Castle "The Ancient Parish of Harewood".
GENUKI. Retrieved 29 October 2007. Harewood Parish Council Website