William Kerr, 6th Marquess of Lothian
William Kerr, 6th Marquess of Lothian, was the son of William Kerr, 5th Marquess of Lothian. He was a soldier and representative peer 1817-1824; when he was five he was the subject of several pictures with his sister, executed by Valentine Green as mezzotints for publication. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh. In 1786 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were James Hutton and John Robison. He was Lord Lieutenant of Roxburghshire from 1812 and of Midlothian from 1819, he served as a Colonel in the Edinburgh Militia. He was created a Knight of the Thistle in 1820 and Baron of Kersheugh in 1821, he lived in the family home of Monteviot House near Jedburgh. He died in Richmond, Surrey on 27 April 1824, he married, Lady Harriet Hobart-Hampden, a younger daughter of John Hobart, 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire, on 14 April 1793. They had four children: John Kerr, 7th Marquess of Lothian Lord Schomberg Robert, died unmarried. Lady Isabella Emily Caroline, died unmarried.
Lord Henry Francis Charles, religious minister, married Louisa Hope, a daughter of Sir Alexander Hope. His first wife died in 1805 and on 1 December 1806, at Dalkeith House, he married Lady Harriet Scott, a younger daughter of Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, they had eight children: Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Kerr, married Charles Trefusis, 19th Baron Clinton. Lady Harriet Louise Anne, married Sir John Stuart Hepburn Forbes, 8th Baronet. Lady Frances, married George Wade. Lady Anne Katherine, died unmarried. Lord Charles Lennox, married Charlotte Hanmer, a daughter of Sir Thomas Hanmer, 2nd Baronet. Lord Mark Ralph George, died unmarried. Lord Frederick Herbert, married Emily Maitland, a daughter of Sir Peregrine Maitland. Lady Georgiana Augusta, married Rev. Granville Forbes
John Scott (British Army officer)
Major-general John Scott of Balcomie was a Scottish politician and senior British Army officer. He was born the son of David Scott, he joined the British Army in 1741 as an ensign in the 12th Regiment of Foot and rose via different regiments to the rank of Major-general in 1770. He served as Colonel of the 108th regiment of Foot from 1762 to 1763 and as Colonel of the 26th Regiment of Foot from 1763 to his death, he was the Member of Parliament for Caithness from 1754 to 1761, for Tain Burghs from 1761 to 1768, for Fife from 1768 until his death in 1775. A successful gambler, he purchased Denmylne Castle in Fife in 1772. Not requiring the castle itself he allowed it to fall into a state of disrepair, he died in 1775. George Devol asserted that - General Scott, the father-in-law of George Canning, made one of the largest winnings known, he won at White's one million dollars, owing to his knowledge of the game of whist. On 5 November 1770, he married Lady Mary Hay, daughter of the Earl of Errol 16 years old.
It is mentioned in one source. He married secondly, on daughter of Robert Dundas, of Arniston, the younger, they had three daughters: Henrietta, born 1774, who married 4th Duke of Portland. Thepeerage.com
The Moray Estate in Edinburgh was an exclusive early 19th century building venture attaching the west side of Edinburgh's New Town. Built on an awkward and steeply sloping site, it is a masterpiece of urban planning. With generous plots accommodating huge townhouses it has accommodated the rich and famous from its outset; the ground, extending to 5.3 hectares, was acquired in 1782 by the 9th Earl of Moray from the Heriot Trust. The land contained Drumsheugh House and large gardens lying between Charlotte Square and the Water of Leith. In 1822 his son, Francis Stuart, 10th Earl of Moray, commissioned the architect James Gillespie Graham to draw up plans to build over 150 huge townhouses on the land; the houses were set on large plots by surrounding New Town standards, were complemented by a series of private gardens, most notably on the slopes of the Water of Leith. Sales were begun by auction on 7 August 1822. Over and above the cost of the plot, purchasers agreed to a build cost of £2000 to £3000 and an annual fee of £30.
A "penalty clause" imposed a fine of £100 on buildings not completed within 30 months. If comparing these prices to the norm for the affluent New Town this was ten times more than might have been expected. While the houses were among the largest built, this guaranteed an exclusivity from the outset. While the majority of plots sold well and the scheme as a whole was completed in 1858; as one of the most affluent areas in Edinburgh, it set a trend. Glazing was changed to one-over-one format over the entire estate by 1950, but when architectural conservation came to the fore in the 1970's, it was one of the first areas to wholly restore windows to their original form. Most basements throughout the estate are now separate properties and many of the blocks are divided into flats; the Bank Gardens between the estate and the Water of Leith extend to 4.1 acres and slope steeply and were raised further to level the estate. A inevitable landslip occurred at the back of the Ainslie Place feus in 1825 and had to be rectified by the addition of structural arches by James Jardine.
A further landslip in the south-west corner in 1837 required further arches and these were re-invented as a high level walkway leading to Dean Bridge. However the southern section of the Bank Gardens did not become operational until 1840. Over and above the Bank Gardens two other substantial private gardens were created: Moray Place Gardens and Ainslie Place Gardens. Of these Moray Place Gardens is sufficiently large and sufficiently screened to provide tennis courts and croquet lawns; the several garden areas remain the private joint property of the Moray Estate owners. Appearing as a circle but a duodecagon this is the largest and grandest space within the plan. Technically it is symmetrical around its northwest/southeast axis, but the scale of the form and central gardens makes this impossible to interpret on the ground, this is only visible from above. Although rear mews were standard at the time of building, the layout only permitted mews on the north-east side. Lord Moray took one of the most prominent houses: 28 Moray Place.
Other notable residents included Alexander Kinnear, 1st Baron Kinnear, George Deas, Lord Deas, Sir David Baxter of Kilmaron, Charles Dundas Lawrie, John Learmonth, John Sinclair, 1st Baron Pentland, Charles Hope, Lord Granton, Robert MacFarlane, Lord Ormidale, John MacGregor McCandlish, John Hope, Lord Hope, Francis Brown Douglas, Bouverie Francis Primrose, Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey, George Young, Lord Young, Thomas Charles Hope, Sir James Miles Riddell, John Fullerton, Lord Fullerton, Baron Hume, Robert Kerr, Lord Kerr, William Thomas Thomson and his son Spencer Campbell Thomson, Thomas Jamieson Boyd, James Skene, Sir James Wellwood Moncreiff, 9th Baronet, John Corse Scott, Rev George Coventry Named after the Earl's wife, Margaret Jane Ainslie, daughter of Col. Sir Philip Ainslie of Pilton, Ainslie Place stands in the centre of the scheme; the format is an oval circus laid on a south-west to north-east axis, between the two halves of Great Stuart Street. The scheme has always been popular with Scottish law lords and eminent physicians.
Notable residents include John Millar, Lord Craighill, William Blackwood, Edward Maitland, Lord Barcaple, John MacWhirter, John Cowan, Lord Cowan, Mark Napier, Reginald Fairlie, John Duncan, Alexander Bruce, James Ivory, Lord Ivory, James Gregory and his eminent sons Donald, William and James all at 10, Sir William Edmonstone, George Cranstoun, Lord Corehouse, John Hay Forbes, Lord Medwyn, James Spence, Francis Cadell and his actress sister Jean Cadell, John Rankine, Dean Edward Ramsay and his brother Admiral Sir William Ramsay in life. This street forms the entrance into the estate from the south. Randolph Crescent Garden was retained by Lord Moray and Graham's plan showed a large mansion in the centre as a replacement to Drumsheugh House, it was decided this was not a good location to build. The elevated ground level in the central garden is due to the placing of excess soil here during original construction, it facilitated a large air raid shelter being constructed here during the Second World War.
Notable residents include Edward Gordon, Baron Gordon of Drumearn, William
Water of Leith
The Water of Leith is the main river flowing through Edinburgh, Scotland, to the port of Leith where it flows into the sea via the Firth of Forth. It rises in the Colzium Springs at Millstone Rig of the Pentland Hills, it travels through Harperrig Reservoir, past the ruins of Cairns Castle, through Balerno, Juniper Green, Slateford, Saughton, Roseburn and on to the nearest it gets to the Edinburgh city centre at the Dean Village, on the site of old watermills in a deep gorge. This ravine is spanned by the Dean Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry, lies next to the New Town; the river flows on past Stockbridge, Inverleith and Warriston where it passes through shallows at a place known as Puddocky, thought to refer to "puddocks", the Scots language term for frogs, but took its name from the former Paddock Hall, sited nearby. The river continues past Bonnington, the site of another watermill, to Leith where it widens into the old harbour and port at the Shore.
Leith Docks have been extended out into the firth from the old shoreline, there are now plans to discontinue their use as a port and use the area for housing redevelopment. There is a Water of Leith Walkway beside the river for the 12.25 miles from Balerno to Leith, with half a mile of the route on roads. The route forms an attractive haven for wildlife, passing through areas of woodland well separated from roads. For some distance the walkway follows the route of former railway tracks, the remains of tunnels and other features of more than one railway may be seen at many places along the route. A visitor centre is open to the public where the Union Canal passes over the Water of Leith via the Slateford Aqueduct at Slateford, in south-west Edinburgh; the Water of Leith Conservation Trust is dedicated to the enhancement of the river. The Trust provides education programs about the environment; the river is stocked with brown trout, contains wild grayling, stone loach, three-spined Stickleback and flounder.
A few sea-trout run the river, occasional Atlantic salmon are reported, although those from which scale samples have been obtained have turned out to be from other catchments. Until the weirs are either demolished or furnished with effective fish-passes, there is little chance of a population of salmon establishing themselves in this river again. Roe deer, badgers and other mammals are seen; the river and its environs are the haunt of a wide variety of woodland and water birds, including kingfishers, wagtails and dippers. The name Leith may be of Brittonic origin and derived from *lejth meaning'damp, moist', it is less that the name derives from the Old Norse lodda meaning a river. The Gaelic form of the name is Lìte. Rivers of Scotland Water of Leith Conservation Trust: The River, Visitor Center, Conservation Scottish Government, 16/03/07: Water of Leith Flood Prevention Scheme Water of Leith Water of Leith Millennium Bid document; the bid was successful and paid for new sections of the Visitor Centre.
"Forth District Salmon Fishery Board" "River Forth Fisheries Trust"
Charlotte Square is a garden square in Edinburgh, part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The square is located at the west end of George Street and was intended to mirror St. Andrew Square in the east; the gardens are not publicly accessible. Named St. George's Square in James Craig's original plan, it was renamed in 1786 after King George III's Queen and first daughter, to avoid confusion with George Square to the south of the Old Town. Charlotte Square was the last part of the initial phase of the New Town to be "completed" in 1820. Much of it was to the 1791 design of Robert Adam. In 1939 a sizable air-raid shelter was created under the south side of the gardens, accessed from the street to the south. In 2013 the south side was redeveloped in an award-winning scheme by Paul Quinn, creating major new office floorspace behind a restored series of townhouses. Edinburgh Collegiate School was located in Charlotte Square; the garden was laid out as a level circular form by William Weir in 1808.
In 1861 a plan was drawn up by Robert Matheson, Clerk of Works for Scotland for a larger, more square garden, centred upon a memorial to the deceased Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria. The commission for the sculpture was granted in 1865 to Sir John Steell; the main statue features an equestrian statue of the prince, in field marshal's uniform, dwarfing the four figures around the base. It was unveiled by Queen Victoria herself in 1876; the stone plinth was designed by the architect David Bryce and the four corner figures are by David Watson Stevenson, George Clark Stanton and William Brodie. The statue was intended to go in the centre of the eastern edge of the garden, facing down George Street; this remodelling featured major new tree-planting. The central open space is a private garden, available to owners of the surrounding properties. For the last three weeks in August each year Charlotte Square gardens are the site of the Edinburgh International Book Festival; the railings around the gardens were removed in 1940 as part of the war effort.
The current railings date from 1947. On the north side, No. 5 was the home of John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, who bought it in 1903 and gave it to the National Trust for Scotland on his death. It was the Trust headquarters from 1949 to 2000. Bute did much to promote the preservation of the Square. Nos. 6 and 7 are owned by the National Trust for Scotland. No.6, Bute House is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland. In 1806 it was home to Sir John Sinclair creator of the first Statistical Account of Scotland. No. 7 was internally restored by the Trust in 1975 to its original state, is open to the public as The Georgian House. The upper floor was the official residence of the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; the building includes one fireplace brought from Hill of Tarvit in Fife in 1975. West Register House St. George's Church, forms the centre of the west side, it was designed by the architect Robert Reid in 1811, broadly to Adam's plan. The church opened in 1814 and was converted to its current use in 1964.
It is one of the main buildings of the National Records of Scotland From the inception of Charlotte Square in 1791, it was anticipated it would be one of the top addresses in Edinburgh. As the Victorian era commenced, the square was occupied by the elite of the middle class: legal and medical professionals; this is reflected in the notable residents listed below. As the 20th century began most buildings were still occupied as residential addresses, although more are offices occupied by guardians. Pioneer of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, was born in nearby South Charlotte Street
James Gillespie Graham
James Gillespie Graham was a Scottish architect, prominent in the early 19th century. Graham was born in the son of Malcolm Gillespie, a solicitor, he was christened as James Gillespie. He is most notable for his work in the Scottish baronial style, as at Ayton Castle, he worked in the Gothic Revival style, in which he was influenced by the work of Augustus Pugin. However, he worked in the neoclassical style as exemplified in his design of Blythswood House at Renfrew seven miles down the River Clyde from Glasgow. Graham designed principally country churches, he is well known for his interior design, his most noted work in this respect being that at Taymouth Castle and Hopetoun House. Some of his principal churches include St Andrew's Cathedral in Glasgow, St Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral and the Highland Tolbooth Church in Edinburgh, his houses include Cambusnethan House in Lanarkshire. He was responsible for laying out the Moray Estate of Edinburgh's New Town, for the design of Hamilton Square and adjoining streets in the New Town of Birkenhead, for William Laird, brother-in-law of William Harley, major developer of the New Town upon Blythswood Hill in Glasgow.
According to the writer Frank Arneil Walker he may have been responsible for the remodelling of Johnstone Castle, Renfrewshire. He designed and built a house at 34 Albany Street in Edinburgh's New Town for himself and his wife and lived there from 1817 to 1833, he died in Edinburgh on 11 March 1855 after a four-year illness. He is buried in the sealed south-west section of Greyfriars Kirkyard called the Covenanter's Prison together with his wife and other family members. In 1815 he married Margaret Ann Graham, daughter of a wealthy landowner, William Graham of Orchill in Perthshire. Together they had two daughters. In 1825, on the death of his wife's father, the couple inherited his large country estate, James thereafter became known as James Gillespie Graham, his wife died in 1826, he married again, to Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Major John Campbell of the 76th Regiment of Foot. See Snizort Parish Church and manse Achnacarry House, Inverness-shire Alterations in the Gothic style, Lanrick Castle New Kilpatrick Parish Church, Bearsden A grand crescent of townhouses, Warriston Crescent, Edinburgh Arisaig Church Cupar County Buildings Drumtochty Castle Falkirk Parish Church Culdees Castle, Muthill Sleat Manse, Skye Fife County Prison, Cupar Crawford Priory Steeple of Monimail Church Enlargement of Cameron House, Loch Lomond Candleford House Completion of Eredine House Monument to Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, Comrie Auchtertool Parish Church Bowland House, Stow of Wedale Clackmannan Parish Church Gray's Hospital, Elgin Liberton Parish Church Edmonstone Castle near Biggar Enlargement of Glenbarr Abbey Torrisdale Castle Cambusnethan Priory Inverary Courthouse Dunoon Parish Church Keith Parish Church The Market House, Duns Channelkirk Church Remodelling of Dunblane Cathedral St Mungo's Parish Church, Alloa Blythswood House, demolished, for the owners of the Lands of Blythswood, Glasgow Restoration of the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling Dunbar Parish Church Remodelling of Duns Castle Logie Easter Parish Church George Street Independent Church, Glasgow Nicolson Street Church, Edinburgh interior and roof lost to a fire in 1930s Mar and Kellie mausoleum Alloa Layout of Blythswood Square in Glasgow for William Harley Manse at Kinloss Lee Castle, Carnwath Mountquhanie, Fife Kirkwall School Enlargement of Allanton Castle, Cambusnethan Kilmaron Castle Terrace of large townhouses, 1-11 Albyn Place, Edinburgh Terrace of large townhouses, 1-11 St Colme Street, Edinburgh Huge crescent of terraced houses, 1-36 Moray Place, Edinburgh Crescent of houses and flats, 1-8 Randolph Crescent Kersfield, Berwickshire Kilmadock Parish Church, Doune Mausoleum, Springwood Park, Kelso Dormont near Dalton, Dumfriesshire Dunninald Castle Terraces houses, Alva Street, Edinburgh Hamilton Square, Birkenhead Leith Tolbooth, Tolbooth Wynd, Edinburgh demolished to build Council housing Layout of Blacket Place, Edinburgh Enlargement of Wishaw House Layout of Melville Street and Walker Street, Edinburgh Rafford Parish Church Dunino Parish Church Enlargement of Inverkeithing Parish Church Morham Manse, Haddington Muthill Church Commercial Bank, Inverness Quality Street, Mutton Hole, now called Davidsons Mains, Edinburgh Manse, Lanarkshire Murthly House near Dunkeld 18 to 20 Queensferry Street, Edinburgh Ardhmor House, Dalgety Bay Dalgety Kirk, Dalgety Bay Spire on the Town House, Haddington Errol Parish Church Steeple on Montrose Old Church Chapel at St Margarets Convent, Whitehouse Loan, Edinburgh Bolfracks near Aberfeldy Commercial Bank, Aberdeen Greenside Parish Church, Edinburgh Ardmaddy Castle Chapel interior, George Heriot's School Remodelling of Taymouth Castle Remodelling of Kinglassie Parish Church Tolbooth Church, Edinburgh now known as The Hub Remodelling of Brodick Castle Episcopal Chapel, Gask Ayton Castle Wester Bogie House, Fife
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi