Roman Catholic Diocese of Carpi
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Carpi is in Emilia Romagna, Italy. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Modena-Nonantola, Carlo Belloni Giacomo Boschi Filippo Cattani Adeodato Antonio Giovanni Luigi Caleffi, O. S. B. Clemente Maria Bassetti Pietro Raffaelli Gaetano Maria Cattani Gherardo Araldi Andrea Righetti Giovanni Pranzini Carlo de Ferrari, artemio Prati Alessandro Maggiolini Bassano Staffieri Elio Tinti Francesco Cavina Carpi belonged originally to the Countess Matilda, from whom it passed in 1115 to the Holy See. From 1215 to 1319 it was subject to Modena and from the date until 1525 was ruled by the Pio. Under Pope Julius II it became dependent on the Holy See. Carpi was created a see only in 1779, by Pope Pius VI and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian politics and Italian historiography, for short period is one of the most contested. Italian nationalism was based among intellectuals and political activists, often operating from exile, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman province of Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was a foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state, as a result. This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, became the site of proxy wars between the powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France.
Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante Alighieri, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead in Italia Mia, Niccolò Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy to free her from the barbarians. I am an Italian, he explained, the French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleons choice of rulers, as Napoleons reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians.
Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary, Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo wanted the unification of Italy under a federal republic. That proved too extreme for most nationalists, the middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont. One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari, a political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century. After 1815, Freemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections, a void was left that the Carbonari filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals, the Carbonari disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical, the Carbonari movement spread across Italy
Kingdom of Italy
The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders.
Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king.
However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberals
Capuchin Church, Vienna
The Capuchin Church in Vienna, Austria is a church and monastery run by the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin. The official name of the church is Church of Saint Mary of the Angels, about 1599 the Capuchin brothers under Lawrence of Brindisi resided at Vienna on their way to Prague, where they had been sent by Pope Clement VIII in the course of the Counter-Reformation. The church was donated by will of Anna of Tyrol, consort of Holy Roman Emperor Matthias of Habsburg, construction was delayed due to the outbreak of the Thirty Years War and not finished until 1632, under the rule of Matthias successor Ferdinand II. The aisleless church contains the tombs of friar Marco dAviano and architect Donato Felice dAllio as well as a pietà by Peter Strudel. Its subterranean mausoleum is the Imperial Crypt that has been the place of entombment for the Habsburg dynasty, Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. The lying in repose for the last heir to the Austrian and Hungarian throne, Otto von Habsburg, the church is used daily by the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter for the celebration of the 1962 extraordinary form of the Roman Rite.
The face of the Capuchin Church building was restored in 2016, removing the line dividing the colors of the church face, the Capuchin Church contains the Imperial Crypt, called the Capuchin Crypt, a burial chamber beneath the church and monastery. Since 1633, the Imperial Crypt has been the place of entombment for members of the House of Habsburg. The bodies of 145 Habsburg royalty, plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are deposited here, the most recent entombment was in 2011. The visible 107 metal sarcophagi and five heart urns range in style from puritan plain to exuberant rococo, some of the dozen resident Capuchin friars continue their customary role as the guardians and caretakers of the crypt, along with their other pastoral work in Vienna
Order of the Golden Fleece
It became one of the most prestigious orders in Europe. The chaplain of the Austrian branch is Cardinal Graf von Schönborn and it is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, and 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign. The Orders first King of Arms was Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, so that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order. Should honor those who wear it, and be encouraged to employ themselves in noble deeds, the bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleeces reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven. He was succeeded as king by Philip V, a Bourbon, in either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French. These, and other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813, napoleon created by Order of 15 August 1809 the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces, in view of his sovereignty over Austria and Burgundy.
This was opposed by Joseph I of Spain and the new order was never awarded, in 1812 the acting government of Spain awarded the order to the Duke of Wellington, an act confirmed by Ferdinand on his resumption of power, with the approval of Pope Pius VII. Wellington therefore became the first Protestant to be awarded the Golden Fleece and it has subsequently been awarded to non-Christians, such as Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand. There was another crisis in 1833 when Isabella II became Queen of Spain in defiance of Salic Law that did not allow women to become heads of state and her right to award the Fleece was challenged by Spanish Carlists. Sovereignty remained with the head of the Spanish house of Bourbon during the republican and Francoist periods and is today by the present King of Spain. Knights of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style His/Her Excellency in front of their name, King Juan Carlos I of Spain – Former Sovereign of the Order as King of Spain from 1975 to 2014.
The problem of inheritance was avoided on the accession of Maria Theresa in 1740 as sovereignty of the Order passed not to herself but to her husband. Sovereignty remains with the head of the House of Habsburg, which was handed over on 20 November 2000 by Otto von Habsburg to his elder son, die Schatzkammer in Wien, Symbole abendländischen Kaisertums. Der Schatz des Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies, ISBN 3-7017-0541-0 Boulton, DArcy Jonathan Dacre,1987
The Allerheiligen-Hofkirche is a church in the Munich Residenz designed by Leo von Klenze and built between 1826 and 1837. The church was damaged from bombing during World War II. It is now used for concerts and events, the commission marked a reversal of the policy of secularisation, carried out under his father Maximilian I at the beginning of the century. Leo von Klenze produced various designs between 1826 and 1828, using not only the Capella Palatina, but St Marks in Venice as inspiration. Even before a design had been agreed there had been a ceremonial laying of the stone in 1826. The church was designed with an entrance for the king from within the Residence. The public entrance faced east, towards the Marstallplatz, above the doorway a deesis sculpted in relief is framed by a gothic wimperg, with statues of Saint Peter and Saint Paul on either side. Inside, the nave is made up of two domes and an apse, each separated by an arch of brickwork and these, like the columns that separated the side aisles and supported the gallery, were originally richly ornamented.
On April 25,1944, bombs destroyed all but the outer walls, the rich interior ornament was almost completely lost. Although other parts of the Residence were restored soon after the war, in 1986 the decision was made to restore it. The restoration was completed in 2003, together with the recreation of an enclosed garden, no attempt was made to recreate the original ornament in the restored building, which instead in its simplicity shows the architectural qualities of Klenzes design. It is now used for concerts and events, within the limits of respecting its former character as a church and it is a regular concert venue for the ensemble Taschenphilharmonie. Rasp, München, Kunst und Kultur, 134–5
Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria
Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria was a daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She was Duchess consort of Modena by her marriage to Francis V, Adelgunde was the sixth child and fourth daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. She was born in Würzburg on 19 March 1823, included among her siblings were Maximilian II of Bavaria, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, King Otto of Greece and Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria. On 20 March 1842 in Munich, Adelgunde married Archduke Francis of Austria-Este, eldest son of Francis IV, Duke of Modena, the couple had only one child, Princess Anna Beatrice Theresia Maria. Francis acceded to the dukedom on his fathers death in 1846 as Francis V, after the Italian Unification, Francis was deposed, and he and his wife were exiled to Vienna, where he died fifteen years later. Adelgunde survived her husband for years and died in Munich at the age of 91. She never remarried and is interred in Vienna, a pearl brooch formerly owned by her was auctioned at Sothebys in 2012
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the Prince-electors, until the Reformation the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. The title was held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany, in theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among the other Catholic monarchs, in practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances made him. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, effectively became hereditary holders of the title, after the Reformation many of the subject states and most of those in Germany were Protestant while the Emperor continued to be Catholic. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last Emperor as a result of the collapse of the polity during the Napoleonic wars, from the time of Constantine I the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.
In the west, the title of Emperor was revived in 800, as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was known as the Investiture Controversy. After Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III, no pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in 962. Under Otto and his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, the various German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germans, after which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. After Charles Vs coronation, all succeeding emperors were called elected Emperor due to the lack of papal coronation, the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope, the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empires final dissolution.
The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was August Emperor of the Romans, the word Holy had never been used as part of that title in official documents. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, the English term Holy Roman Emperor is a modern shorthand for emperor of the Holy Roman Empire not corresponding to the historical style or title. Successions to the kingship were controlled by a variety of complicated factors, elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France, although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. The Electoral council was set at seven princes by the Golden Bull of 1356, another elector was added in 1690, and the whole college was reshuffled in 1803, a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire. After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine, with the exception of Charles VII.
Maximilian I and his successors no longer travelled to Rome to be crowned as Emperor by the Pope, Maximilian therefore named himself Elected Roman Emperor in 1508 with papal approval. This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors, of his successors only Charles V, the immediate one, received a papal coronation
Francis IV, Duke of Modena
His father was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, Duke of Breisgau, his mother Maria Beatrice Ricciarda dEste, Duchess of Massa and Princess of Carrara, Lady of Lunigiana. He was a grandson of Maria Theresa of Austria, head of the House of Habsburg and he thus became the first member of the House of Habsburg-Este to rule the Este inheritance in Northern Italy. Francis is distinguished for his stern and tyrannic rule by which he repressed all the democratic movements appearing during his reign, the harshness of the Ducal policies are illustrated by the hanging of Ciro Menotti for an attempted insurrection against the Duke. In 1812 Francis married his niece the Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy, the couple had four children, Maria Theresa, married Henri, comte de Chambord. Francis V, Duke of Modena, married Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria, Ferdinand Karl, married Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Father of Maria Theresia, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Maria Beatrix, married Juan, Count of Montizón.
Andrew Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky Knight of the Order of St
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland, in 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which become a separate state in 1993 with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was a unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its lands. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, and in the east by Moravia. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia and the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps, much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention was by Tacitus Germania 28, and mentions of the name are in Strabo. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz home and this Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobods kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. The Czech name Čechy is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, to the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, and to the southeast in Hungaria, were Sarmatian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus and he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its mountains and forests.
In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards, even settling as far away as Spain and Portugal. With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia. These are precursors of todays Czechs, though the amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves, the first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic Lombards left Bohemia. Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by Samos tribal confederation and his death marked the end of the old Slavonic confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after Carantania in Carinthia. Other sources divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Beheimare, Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but only became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century