John Hick (politician)
John Hick was a wealthy English industrialist, art collector and Conservative Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1868 to 1880. He is associated with the improvement of steam-engines for cotton mills and the work of his firm Hick, Hargreaves and Co. universal in countries where fibre was spun or fabrics woven. Hick was the eldest son of Benjamin Hick, a civil and mechanical engineer responsible for improvements to the steam-engine, his wife Elizabeth Routledge, daughter of William Routledge of Elvington Yorkshire. Elizabeth's brother and Hick's uncle, Joshua Routledge an engineer living in Bolton, designed the Engineer's Improved Slide Rule and patented improvements to the Rotary Steam Engine. Educated at a private school near Alderley and Bolton Grammar School where he received a commercial and classical education, Hick entered Benjamin Hick's Soho Works from school and from a young age, management of the Bolton engineering firm Benjamin Hick and Son with his father. Following Benjamin Hick's death in 1842, Hick became senior partner in the family business Hick, Hargreaves, & Co and a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1845.
He was Church Warden for James Slade, Governor of Bolton Grammar School, Town councillor for nine years from 1844, a member of the Society of Arts, founder member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers from 1847 until 1852, member of the London Association of Foreman Engineers and Draughtsman, National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church in England and Wales, Justice of the Peace for the Borough of Bolton and Salford Hundred, liberal patron of the fine arts and a director of the London and North Western Railway under the chairmanship of Sir Richard Moon and Lord Stalbridge, from 1871 until his death. In 1839 while working for B. Hick and Son, John Hick Jr as he was referred to at the time, was awarded the Silver Medal by the Society of Arts for his novel invention of an expanding mandrel for turning lathes, it was an adaptation of a principle developed by Marc Brunel for pulley block manufacture at Portsmouth and received the praise of three eminent engineers.
During 1842 Hick was awarded a second silver medal by the Society of Arts for his invention of an Elliptograph. Hick received further praise from James Nasmyth, William Fairbairn, Joseph Whitworth, amongst others, Charles Holtzapffel, Chairman of the Committee of Mechanics. Models of both devices were placed in the Society's repository. Hick contributed a paper to the Institute of Mechanical Engineers in 1849 on a friction clutch for connecting and disconnecting the driving power with shafts and machinery. A B. Hick and Son, 1:12 scale patent model of disconnecting apparatus, for screw propellers, c. 1855 is held in the Science Museum marine engines collection. John Hick married Margaret Bashall, eldest daughter of industrialist William Bashall, partner in Bashall & Boardman of Farington Lodge, near Preston on 24 June 1846, they raised four daughters. Following Margaret Hick's death in 1872, Hick married the sister of his son-in-law, Rebecca Maria Ashworth, eldest daughter of Edmund Ashworth JP of Egerton Hall on 16 December 1874 at Holy Trinity Church, Clapham.
Edmund Ashworth was a cotton manufacturer, proprietor of E. Ashworth & Sons and Egerton Mill, founder member of the Anti-Corn Law League with his brother Henry Ashworth JP, in association with John Bright and Richard Cobden, supporter of reforming, anti-slavery and peace organisations; the Ashworths are both thought to have been Oswald Millbank in Benjamin Disraeli's novel Coningsby. The two families were linked by marriage in 1868 when Hick's first child and eldest daughter Margaret married Edmund Ashworth Jr; the "highly respected" Reverend Bashall retired to the position of curate at St Barnabas church, Addison Road, Kensington from about 1876 remaining in the area until his death, 1902. 1851 saw the Crystal Palace Exhibition in Hyde Park. While the family business of Benjamin Hick and Son displayed machinery and engineering models in the Crystal Palace, John Hick sat as a United Kingdom Juror with the notable figures of Wilhelm Engerth, William Fairbairn, John Farey, Henry Maudslay, grandson of Henry Maudslay, Rev. Henry Moseley and Robert Napier for Class V.
Machines for Direct Use, Including Carriages and Marine Mechanism. Condition 6. of the Exhibition's Decisions Regarding Juries restricted jurors from competing for prizes in the class to which they were appointed. In 1855 Hick exhibited two pieces from his collection of art works: The Stag Hunt and Lady Jane Grey and Roger Ascham by John Callcott Horsley in the Fine Art Division of the Exposition Universelle alongside his father-in-law William Bashall who presented The Madrigal by Horsley. Hick and Bashall used the same pair again for the 1857 Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester with Cupid and Psyche by Benjamin West PRA and Crossing the Broo
John Ramsbottom (engineer)
John Ramsbottom was an English mechanical engineer. Born in Todmorden on the county border of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Ramsbottom was the son of a steam cotton mill owner, he learned about steam engines, rebuilding his father's and invented the weft fork that enabled looms to be run at high speed. He created many inventions for railways. In 1839 Ramsbottom joined Sharp and Company of Manchester who made both industrial stationary engines and steam locomotives, learned of the latter, he was recommended by Charles Beyer in 1842 to become locomotive superintendent of the Manchester and Birmingham Railway. In 1846 the M&BR merged and became the London and North Western Railway, Ramsbottom became District Superintendent North Eastern Division. In 1857 Ramsbottom became locomotive superintendent of the Northern Division, based at Crewe, he is credited with designing and introducing the first water troughs to be used by locomotives to pick up at speed. LNWR 2-2-2 Cornwall, rebuilt to his design in 1858 In 1852 he invented the split piston ring, which provided a tight seal of the piston against the cylinder with low friction.
His other inventions included the Ramsbottom safety valve, the displacement lubricator, the water trough. Ramsbottom became a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1866, he was president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1870 and 1871. Ramsbottom retired in 1871, becoming in 1883 a consulting engineer and a director of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, he was a director of Beyer-Peacock. Http://www.steamindex.com/people/ramsbott.htm Obituary
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-6-2 represents the wheel arrangement of no leading wheels, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and two trailing wheels on one axle. The type is sometimes known as a Branchliner. While some locomotives with this wheel arrangement had tenders, the majority were tank locomotives which carried their coal and water onboard. Finland used two classes of 0-6-2T locomotive, the Vr2 and the Vr5; the Vr2 class was numbered in the range from 950 to 965. Five of them are preserved in Finland, no. 950 at Joensuu, no. 951 at Tuuri, no. 953 at Haapamäki, no. 961 at Jyväskylä and no. 964 at the Veturimuseo at Toijala. The Vr5 class was numbered in the range from 1400 to 1423. No. 1422 is preserved at Haapamäki. Between 1890 and 1898, four 0-6-2 tender locomotives were placed in service by the Cape Copper Company on its 2 ft 6 in gauge Namaqualand Railway between Port Nolloth and O'okiep in the Cape Colony. Acquired to meet the traffic needs of the upper mountainous section of the line, they became known as the Mountain type.
The first three of these locomotives were described as the Clara Class, while the fourth was included in this Class by some and included in the subsequent Scotia Class by others. Between 1900 and 1905, six more Mountain type 0-6-2 tender locomotives were placed in service by the Cape Copper Company. Described as the Scotia Class, they were similar to the earlier Clara Class locomotives, but with longer boilers, longer fireboxes and larger firegrates. In 1892 and 1893, the Nederlandsche-Zuid-Afrikaansche Spoorweg-Maatschappij of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek placed twenty 3 ft 6 in Cape gauge 0-6-2T locomotives in mainline service. Since the railway classified its locomotives according to their weight, these locomotives were known as the 40 Tonners. Three classes of 600 mm gauge 0-6-2 locomotives were supplied to German South West Africa between 1904 and 1908. In 1904, the Otavi Mining and Railway Company acquired fifteen tank locomotives from Arnold Jung Lokomotivfabrik in Germany. Two of them survived to be taken onto the South African Railways roster in 1922.
They were referred to as the Jung locomotives. Ten Class Ha tank locomotives were supplied by Henschel & Son in 1904. One survived the First World War into the SAR era. Fifteen Class Hb tank locomotives were supplied by Henschel between 1905 and 1908; the last six locomotives were delivered as tank-and-tender engines, equipped with optional coal and water tenders. Six of them survived into the SAR era. In the United Kingdom, the type was only used for tank engines and was first used by William Barton Wright of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1880; the arrangement was soon afterwards used by F. W. Webb of the London and North Western Railway on his famous Coal Tanks of 1881-1897. Many locomotives of this type were used to haul coal in the South Wales Valleys by the Great Western Railway and its predecessors. Several railways around London used the type for heavy suburban passenger trains, notably the following: The London Brighton and South Coast Railway with the E3, E4, E5 and E6 classes designed by R. J. Billinton between 1894 and 1904.
The Great Eastern Railway Class L77 of 1914, designed by Alfred John Hill. The Great Northern Railway N1 and N2 Classes, designed by Nigel Gresley between 1906 and 1921. Gresley improved upon the GER class with various versions of his London and North Eastern Railway N7 class, built between 1925 and 1928. In the United States, 0-6-2 locomotives were 2-6-0 type locomotives, rebuilt with a larger firebox and therefore required greater weight distribution near their backs; the leading wheels were therefore relocated to the rear as trailing wheels. Nearly all of these locomotives were used on branch lines. Many 0-6-2 types were found in the state of Hawaii on sugar cane railroads across the state. Most notable were the 0-6-2T’s of the Mcbryde Sugar Company of Kauai, 3 of which survive and are the only original steam engines operating in Hawaii
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-6-0 represents the wheel arrangement of no leading wheels, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. This was the most common wheel arrangement used on both tender and tank locomotives in versions with both inside and outside cylinders. In the United Kingdom, the Whyte notation of wheel arrangement was often used for the classification of electric and diesel-electric locomotives with side-rod coupled driving wheels. Under the UIC classification, popular in Europe, this wheel arrangement is written as C if the wheels are coupled with rods or gears, or Co if they are independently driven, the latter being electric and diesel-electric locomotives; the 0-6-0 configuration was the most used wheel arrangement for both tender and tank steam locomotives. The type was widely used for diesel switchers; because they lack leading and trailing wheels, locomotives of this type have all their weight pressing down on their driving wheels and have a high tractive effort and factor of adhesion, making them comparatively strong engines for their size and fuel consumption.
On the other hand, the lack of unpowered leading wheels have the result that 0-6-0 locomotives are less stable at speed. They are therefore used on trains where high speed is unnecessary. Since 0-6-0 tender engines can pull heavy trains, albeit the type was used to pull short and medium distance freight trains such as pickup goods trains along both main and branch lines; the tank engine versions were used as switching locomotives since the smaller 0-4-0 types were not large enough to be versatile in this job. 0-8-0 and larger switching locomotives, on the other hand, were too big to be economical or usable on built railways such as dockyards and goods yards the sorts of places where switching locomotives were most needed. The earliest 0-6-0 locomotives had outside cylinders, as these were simpler to construct and maintain. However, once designers began to overcome the problem of the breakage of the crank axles, inside cylinder versions were found to be more stable. Thereafter this pattern was adopted in the United Kingdom, although outside cylinder versions were widely used.
Tank engine versions of the type began to be built in quantity in the mid-1850s and had become common by the mid-1860s. 0-6-0 locomotives were amongst the first types to be used. The earliest recorded example was the Royal George, built by Timothy Hackworth for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1827. Other early examples included the Vulcan, the first inside-cylinder type, built by Charles Tayleur and Company in 1835 for the Leicester and Swannington Railway, Hector, a Long Boiler locomotive, built by Kitson and Company in 1845 for the York and North Midland Railway. Derwent, a two-tender locomotive built in 1845 by William and Alfred Kitching for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, is preserved at Darlington Railway Centre and Museum. For a steam tank locomotive, the suffix indicates the type of tank or tanks: 0-6-0T - side tanks 0-6-0ST - saddle tank 0-6-0PT - pannier tanks 0-6-0WT - well tankOther steam locomotive suffixes include 0-6-0VB - vertical boiler 0-6-0F - fireless locomotive 0-6-0G - geared steam locomotiveFor a diesel locomotive, the suffix indicates the transmission type: 0-6-0DM - mechanical transmission 0-6-0DH - hydraulic transmission 0-6-0DE - electric transmission All the major continental European railways used 0-6-0s of one sort or another, though not in the proportions used in the United Kingdom.
As in the United States, European 0-6-0 locomotives were restricted to switching and station pilot duties, though they were widely used on short branch lines to haul passenger and freight trains. On most branch lines, though and more powerful tank engines tended to be favoured. In New South Wales, the Z19 class was a tender type with this wheel arrangement, as was the Victorian Railways Y class; the Dorrigo Railway Museum collection includes seven Locomotives of the 0-6-0 wheel arrangement, including two Z19 class, three 0-6-0 saddle tanks and two 0-6-0 side tanks. Tank locomotives used by Finland were the VR Class Vr1 and VR Class Vr4; the VR Class Vr1s were numbered 530 to 544, 656 to 670 and 787 to 799. They had outside cylinders and were operational from 1913 to 1975. Built by Tampella and Hanomag, they were nicknamed Chicken. Number 669 is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum; the Vr4s were a class of only four locomotives, numbered 1400 to 1423 built as 0-6-0s by Vulcan Iron Works, United States, but modified to 0-6-2s in 1951-1955, re-classified as Vr5.
Finland’s tender locomotives were the classes C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6. The Finnish Steam Locomotive Class C1s were a class of ten locomotives numbered 21 to 30, they were operational from 1869 to 1926. They were nicknamed Bristollari. Number 21, preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum, is the second oldest preserved locomotive in Finland; the eighteen Class C2s were numbered 31 to 43 and 48 to 52. They were nicknamed Bristollari; the C3 was a class of only two locomotives, numbered 74 and 75. The thirteen Class C4s were numbered 62 and 78 to 89; the fourteen Finnish Steam Locomotive Class C5s were numbered 101 to 114. They were operational from 1881 to 1930, they were nicknamed Bliksti. No 110 is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum; the C6 was a solitary class of one locomotive, numbered 100. In New Zealand the 0-6-0 design was restricted to tank engines; the Hunslet-built M class of 1874 and Y class of 1923 provided 7 examples
Francis Trevithick, from Camborne, was one of the first locomotive engineers of the London and North Western Railway. Born in 1812 as the son of Richard Trevithick, he began the study of civil engineering around 1832, by 1840 was employed by the Grand Junction Railway. After leaving the LNWR he returned to Cornwall and became factor of the Trehidy estates, of which his grandfather had been mineral agent in the 18th century, he wrote a biography of his father and, in 1872, had it published. He was buried there, his son, Arthur Reginald Trevithick, worked for many years on the LNWR, including several years as assistant locomotive works manager at Crewe. Another son, Frederick Harvey Trevithick, worked for both the Great Western Railway and the Egyptian State Railways and at the latter advanced to Chief Mechanical Engineer. Another son, Richard Francis Trevithick worked on the LNER, but worked for Rosaario Cordova Railway in Argentine, CME Ceylon Government Railways and joined Japan's Imperial Government Railways where he was the Locomotive Superintendent responsible for the first locomotive to be constructed in Japan.
1840 Appointed resident engineer on the GJR between Birmingham and Crewe 1841 Appointed Locomotive Superintendent of the GJR at Edge Hill railway works, Liverpool 1843 Transferred to the new works at Crewe as Locomotive Superintendent. Trevithick's foreman at Crewe was Alexander Allan. 1846 When the GJR became part of the LNWR, Francis Trevithick became Locomotive Superintendent of the Northern Division. His opposite number on the Southern Division, was Edward Bury until his resignation in 1847, from March in that year J. E. McConnell. 1857 Northern and North Eastern Divisions of the LNWR were combined. The Locomotive Superintendent on the North Eastern Division was John Ramsbottom, who took over at Crewe and Trevithick was obliged to resign. LNWR 2-2-2 3020 Cornwall Locomotives of the London and North Western Railway London and North Western Railway Society, retrieved 2007-10-01 Steam Index article Richard Trevithick & his successors: son Francis, grandsons Arthur & Frederick, retrieved 2007-10-01 Nock, O.
S.. North Western. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0016-6
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is rather referred to as multiple units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars. Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front. However, push-pull operation has become common, where the train may have a locomotive at the front, at the rear, or at each end; the word locomotive originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus "place", the Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in 1814 to distinguish between self-propelled and stationary steam engines. Prior to locomotives, the motive force for railways had been generated by various lower-technology methods such as human power, horse power, gravity or stationary engines that drove cable systems. Few such systems are still in existence today. Locomotives may generate their power from fuel, or they may take power from an outside source of electricity.
It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: A steam locomotive is a locomotive whose primary power source is a steam engine; the most common form of steam locomotive contains a boiler to generate the steam used by the engine. The water in the boiler is heated by burning combustible material – coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam; the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are connected to the locomotive's main wheels, known as the "drivers". Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons called "tenders" pulled behind; the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick in 1802. It was constructed for the Coalbrookdale ironworks in Shropshire in the United Kingdom though no record of it working there has survived. On 21 February 1804, the first recorded steam-hauled railway journey took place as another of Trevithick's locomotives hauled a train from the Pen-y-darren ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, to Abercynon in South Wales.
Accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations including the use of high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine and increased its efficiency. In 1812, Matthew Murray's twin-cylinder rack locomotive Salamanca first ran on the edge-railed rack-and-pinion Middleton Railway. Another well-known early locomotive was Puffing Billy, built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne; this locomotive is the oldest preserved, is on static display in the Science Museum, London. George Stephenson built Locomotion No. 1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north-east of England, the first public steam railway in the world. In 1829, his son Robert built The Rocket in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Rocket was entered into, won, the Rainhill Trials; this success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent early builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the UK, US and much of Europe.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, built by Stephenson, opened a year making exclusive use of steam power for passenger and goods trains. The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II. Steam locomotives are less efficient than modern diesel and electric locomotives, a larger workforce is required to operate and service them. British Rail figures showed that the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was about two and a half times larger than the cost of supporting an equivalent diesel locomotive, the daily mileage they could run was lower. Between about 1950 and 1970, the majority of steam locomotives were retired from commercial service and replaced with electric and diesel-electric locomotives. While North America transitioned from steam during the 1950s, continental Europe by the 1970s, in other parts of the world, the transition happened later. Steam was a familiar technology that used widely-available fuels and in low-wage economies did not suffer as wide a cost disparity.
It continued to be used in many countries until the end of the 20th century. By the end of the 20th century the only steam power remaining in regular use around the world was on heritage railways. Internal combustion locomotives use an internal combustion engine, connected to the driving wheels by a transmission, they keep the engine running at a near-constant speed whether the locomotive is stationary or moving. Kerosene locomotives use kerosene as the fuel, they were the world's first oil locomotives, preceding diesel and other oil locomotives by some years. The first known kerosene locomotive was a draisine built by Daimler in 1887. A kerosene locomotive was built in 1894 by the Priestman Brothers of Kingston upon Hull for use on Hull docks; this locomotive was built using a 12 hp double-acting marine type engine, running at 300 rpm, mounted on a 4-wheel wagon chassis. It was only able to haul one loaded wagon at a time, due to its low power output, was not a great success; the first successful kerosene locomotive was "Lachesis" built by Richard Hornsby & Sons Ltd. and delivered to Woolwich Arsenal railway in 1896.
The company built a series of kerosene locomotives between 1896 and 1903, for use by the British military. Petrol locomotives use petrol as their fuel. Most petrol locomotives built were petrol-mechanical, using a mechanical transmission to deliver the power output of the engine t
A compound locomotive is a steam locomotive, powered by a compound engine, a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. The locomotive was only one application of compounding. Two and three stages were used for example. Compounding became popular for railway locomotives from the early 1880s and by the 1890s were becoming common. Large numbers were constructed two- and four-cylinder compounds, in France, Austria and the United States, it declined in popularity due to maintenance issues and because superheating provided similar efficiencies at lower cost. Nonetheless, compound Mallets were built by the Norfolk and Western Railway right up to 1952. In the usual arrangement for a compound engine the steam is first expanded in one or two high-pressure cylinder having given up some heat and lost some pressure, it exhausts into a larger-volume low-pressure cylinder, thus extending the expansion part of the thermodynamic cycle; the cylinders can be said to work in "series" as opposed to the normal arrangement of a simple-expansion locomotive where they work in "parallel".
In order to balance piston thrusts of a compound, the HP:LP cylinder volume ratio has to be determined by increasing the LP cylinder diameter and/or by lengthening the stroke. In non-condensing engines, the HP:LP volume ratio is 1:2¼. On geared locomotives, cylinder volumes can be kept more or less identical by increasing LP piston speed. Compound may refer to any multiple-expansion engine. Added insight comes with the terms double, quadruple. An experimental triple-expansion locomotive, named the L. F. Loree, was built by the American Locomotive Company and the Delaware & Hudson Railroad in 1933; the main benefits sought from compounding are reduced fuel and water consumption plus higher power/weight ratio due to more expansion in the cylinder before the exhaust valve opens, which gives a higher efficiency. Where heavy grades and low axle loads were combined, the compound locomotive was deemed to be the most viable solution. Successful design of a compound locomotive demands a firm grasp of thermo- and fluid dynamics.
This is true of locomotives built in the early years of the 20th century. The problem not only affected compounds, but was dramatic in their case due to the long steam cycle which made them sensitive to temperature-drop and condensation of the steam during its lengthy passage. In rebuilding older locomotives from 1929 onwards, Chapelon was able to inexpensively obtain what seemed "magical" improvements in power and economy by improving flow through the steam circuit, at the same time putting in a larger superheater to increase the initial steam temperature and delay condensation in the LP cylinders. To prevent severe condensation taking place, the L. N. E. R. Applied resuperheat to their water-tube boilered No. 10,000 to make up for inadequate HP superheat. The Paris-Orleans Railway designed a demonstrator 2-12-0 locomotive, No. 160-A1, with resuperheat between HP and LP stages. They fitted steam jackets to both HP/LP cylinders for what was believed by Chapelon to be the first time for a compound locomotive.
Resuperheating was by Porta on his prototype 4-8-0 rebuild:'La Argentina'. Proponents of simple expansion argue that use of early cut-off in the cylinder thus expanding small quantities of steam at each piston stroke obviates the need for the complication and initial expense of compounding and indeed multi-cylinder single expansion – this is an ongoing debate. There are many configurations, but two basic types can be defined, according to how HP and LP piston strokes are phased and hence whether the HP exhaust is able to pass directly from HP to LP or whether pressure fluctuations necessitate an intermediate "buffer" space in the form of a steam chest or pipe known a