France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
New Town, Edinburgh
The New Town is a central area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. A masterpiece of city planning, it was built in stages between 1767 and around 1850, retains much of its original neo-classical and Georgian period architecture, its best known street is Princes Street, facing Edinburgh Castle and the Old Town across the geographical depression of the former Nor Loch. Together with the Old Town, the New Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995; the idea of a New Town was first suggested in the late 17th century when the Duke of Albany and York, when resident Royal Commissioner at Holyrood, encouraged the idea of having an extended regality to the north of the city and a North Bridge. He gave the city a grant:That, when they should have occasion to enlarge their city by purchasing ground without the town, or to build bridges or arches for the accomplishing of the same, not only were the proprietors of such lands obliged to part with the same on reasonable terms, but when in possession thereof, they are to be erected into a regality in favour of the citizens.
It is possible that, with such patronage, the New Town may have been built many years earlier than it was but, in 1682, the Duke left the city and became King in 1685, only to lose the throne in 1688. The decision to construct a New Town was taken by the city fathers, after overcrowding inside the Old Town city walls reached breaking point and to prevent an exodus of wealthy citizens from the city to London; the Age of Enlightenment had arrived in Edinburgh, the outdated city fabric did not suit the professional and merchant classes who lived there. Lord Provost George Drummond succeeded in extending the boundary of the Royal Burgh to encompass the fields to the north of the Nor Loch, the polluted body of water which occupied the valley north of the city. A scheme to drain the Loch was put into action, although the process was not completed until 1817. Crossing points were built to access the new land; the Mound, as it is known today, reached its present proportions in the 1830s. As the successive stages of the New Town were developed, the rich moved northwards from cramped tenements in narrow closes into grand Georgian homes on wide roads.
However, the poor remained in the Old Town. A design competition was held in January 1766 to find a suitably modern layout for the new suburb, it was won by 26-year-old James Craig, following the natural contours of the land, proposed a simple axial grid, with a principal thoroughfare along the ridge linking two garden squares. Two other main roads were located south with two minor streets between. Several mews off the minor streets provided stable lanes for the large homes. Completing the grid are three north-south cross streets. Craig's original plan has not survived but it has been suggested that it is indicated on a map published by John Laurie in 1766; this map shows a diagonal layout with a central square reflecting a new era of civic Hanoverian British patriotism by echoing the design of the Union Flag. Both Princes Street and Queen Street are shown as double sided. A simpler revised design reflected the same spirit in the names of civic spaces; the principal street was named George Street, after the king at the time, George III.
Queen Street was to be located to the north, named after his wife, St. Giles Street to the south, after the city's patron saint. St Andrew Square and St. George's Square were the names chosen to represent the union of Scotland and England; the idea was continued with the smaller Thistle Street between George Street and Queen Street, Rose Street between George Street and Princes Street. King George rejected the name St. Giles Street, St Giles being the patron saint of lepers and the name of a slum area or'rookery' on the edge of the City of London, it was therefore renamed Princes Street after his sons. The name of St. George's Square was changed to Charlotte Square, after the Queen, to avoid confusion with the existing George Square on the South Side of the Old Town; the westernmost blocks of Thistle Street were renamed Hill Street and Young Street, making Thistle Street half the length of Rose Street. The three streets completing the grid, Castle and Hanover Streets, were named for the view of the castle, King George's father Frederick, the name of the royal family respectively.
Craig's proposals hit further problems. The exposed new site was unpopular, leading to a £20 premium being offered to the first builder on site; this was received by John Young who built Thistle Court, the first buildings in the New Town, at the east end of Thistle Street in 1767. Instead of building as a terrace as envisaged, he built a small courtyard. Doubts were overcome soon enough, further construction started in the east with St. Andrew Square. Craig had intended that the view along George Street be terminated by two large churches, situated at the outer edge of each square, on axis with George Street. Whilst the western church on Charlotte Square was built, at St Andrew Square the land behind the proposed church site was owned by Sir Lawrence Dundas, he commissioned a design from Sir William Chambers. The resulting Palladian mansion, known as Dundas House, was completed in 1774. In 1825 it was acquired by the Royal Bank of Scotland and today is the registered office of the bank.. The forecourt of the building, with the equestrian monument to John Hope, 4th Earl of Hopetoun, occupies the proposed church site.
St. Andrew's Church had to be built on a site on George St
Francis Douglas, 8th Earl of Wemyss
Francis Wemyss Charteris Douglas, 8th Earl of Wemyss, 4th Earl of March, known as the Earl of March from 1810 to 1826 and as the Earl of Wemyss and March from 1826 to 1853, was a Scottish peer. Wemyss was the son of Francis Wemyss Charteris, Lord Elcho, the grandson of Francis Charteris, de jure 7th Earl of Wemyss, he was educated at Eton College 1780 to 1787. In 1810 he succeeded his second cousin twice removed William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry and 3rd Earl of March to the Earldom of March, as the lineal heir male of the aforementioned Lady Anne Douglas, sister of the first Earl of March, he assumed the surname of Douglas. In 1821 he was created Baron Wemyss, of Wemyss in the County of Fife, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which entitled him to an automatic seat in the House of Lords. In 1826 he obtained a reversal of the attainder of the earldom of Wemyss and became the eighth Earl of Wemyss as well. From 1821 to 1853 he served as Lord-Lieutenant of Peeblesshire. On 31 May 1794, he married Margaret Campbell and they had eight children: Lady Charlotte Charteris Lady Louisa Antoinetta Charteris Lady Harriet Charteris Lady Eleanor Charteris, married Walter Frederick Campbell of Shawfield Francis Wemyss-Charteris, 9th Earl of Wemyss Hon. Walter Charteris Lady Margaret Charteris Lady Katherine Charteris Wemyss, married her first cousin George Grey, 8th Baron Grey of Groby.
Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Wemyss
George Kinnaird, 9th Lord Kinnaird
George William Fox Kinnaird, 9th Lord Kinnaird, KT, PC was a Scottish Whig politician. He served as Master of the Buckhounds under Lord Melbourne from 1839 to 1841. Knnaird was the eldest son of Charles Kinnaird, 8th Lord Kinnaird, by Lady Olivia Laetitia Catherine FitzGerald third daughter of William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster. Kinnaird succeeded his father in the lordship of Kinnaird in 1826; this did not entitle him to an automatic seat in the House of Lords. However, in 1831 he was created Baron Rossie, of Rossie Priory in the County of Perth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which gave him a seat in the upper chamber of Parliament. In December 1839 he was appointed Master of the Buckhounds under Lord Melbourne, a post he held until the government fell in 1841, he was sworn of the Privy Council in early 1840. In 1857 he was made a Knight of the Thistle. Three years he was created Baron Kinnaird, of Rossie in the County of Perth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In contrast to the earlier barony, created with normal remainder to heirs male, this barony was created with special remainder to his younger brother, Arthur.
Kinnaird served as Lord Lieutenant of Perthshire from 1866 to 1878. Lord Kinnaird married the Honourable Frances Anne Georgina Ponsonby, only daughter of William Ponsonby, 1st Baron de Mauley, at Great Canford, Dorset, on 14 December 1837, they had three children: Hon. Olivia Barbara Kinnaird. Victor Alexander Kinnaird, Master of Kinnaird. Charles Fox Kinnaird, Master of Kinnaird. Lord Kinnaird died in January 1878, aged 70, without surviving male issue; the barony of Rossie became extinct on his death while he was succeeded in the Scottish lordship and barony of Kinnaird by his younger brother, Arthur. Lady Kinnaird died in March 1910, aged 92. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Kinnaird
Richard Butler, 2nd Earl of Glengall
Richard Butler, 2nd Earl of Glengall, styled Viscount Cahir between 1816 and 1819, was an Irish Tory politician and peer. He was the son of 1st Earl of Glengall and Emily Jefferys. On 17 July 1818 he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Tipperary. Seven months he succeeded to his father's title and resigned his seat. On 1 September 1829 he was elected as an Irish representative peer, took his seat in the House of Lords on the Tory benches. On 20 February 1834 he married Margaret Lauretta Mellish, the daughter of William Mellish and together they had two daughters. Having no male issue, his titles became extinct upon his death in 1858
Earl of Wemyss and March
Earl of Wemyss and Earl of March are two titles in the Peerage of Scotland, created in 1633 and 1697 that have been held by a joint holder since 1826. The Scottish Wemyss family had possessed the lands of Wemyss in Fife since the 12th century. In 1625 John Wemyss was created a Baronet, of Wemyss in the County of Fife, in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia. In 1628 he was raised to the Peerage of Scotland as Lord Wemyss of Elcho, in 1633 he was further honoured when he was made Lord Elcho and Methel and Earl of Wemyss in the Peerage of Scotland, he supported the Scottish parliament against Charles I, died in 1649. He was succeeded by the second Earl. In 1672 David resigned his peerages to the Crown in return for a new patent with original precedency and extending the limitation to his daughters. Lord Wemyss had no male issue and on his death in 1679 the baronetcy became extinct, he was succeeded in the peerages according to the new patent by his daughter Margaret, the third Countess of Wemyss. She married as her first husband her third cousin twice removed Lord Burntisland.
He was the son of General Sir James Wemyss of Caskieberry, grandson of James Wemyss, younger brother of Sir John Wemyss, great-grandfather of the first Earl of Wemyss. She was succeeded by her son from her first marriage, the fourth Earl, he served as Lord High Admiral of Scotland and sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1707 to 1710. Lord Wemyss married Lady Anne Douglas, daughter of William Douglas, 1st Duke of Queensberry and sister of William Douglas, 1st Earl of March. On his death the titles passed to his second but eldest surviving son James, the fifth Earl, he married the great heiress Janet Charteris, daughter of Colonel Francis Charteris, who had made a large fortune by gambling and was noted for the rape of Anne Bond. Their eldest son David, Lord Elcho, was implicated in the Jacobite rising of 1745, was attainted. On his father's death in 1756 he was not allowed to succeed to the peerages but nonetheless assumed the title of Earl of Wemyss. Lord Elcho died childless and the peerages would have but for the attainder devolved upon his younger brother Francis, the soi disant seventh Earl, who assumed the title.
He assumed the surname of Charteris in lieu of Wemyss on being made heir his maternal grandfather Colonel Charteris's estate. His successor was his grandson Francis, the soi disant eighth Earl. In 1810, upon the death of William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry and 3rd Earl of March, he succeeded as fourth Earl of March, fourth Viscount of Peebles and fourth Lord Douglas of Neidpath and Munard as the lineal heir male of the aforementioned Lady Anne Douglas, sister of the first Earl of March. On his accession to these titles he assumed the surname of Charteris-Wemyss-Douglas. In 1821 he was created Baron Wemyss, of Wemyss in the County of Fife, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1826 he obtained a reversal of the attainder of the earldom of Wemyss and became the eighth Earl of Wemyss, he was succeeded by the ninth Earl of Wemyss and fifth Earl of March. He served as Lord-Lieutenant of Peeblesshire from 1853 to 1880; when he died the titles passed to his son, the tenth Earl. He represented Haddingtonshire in the House of Commons for many years.
He was succeeded by his fifth but eldest surviving son, the eleventh Earl. He sat as Conservative Member of Parliament for Haddingtonshire and Ipswich and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Haddingtonshire from 1918 to 1937; as of 2014 the titles are held by the thirteenth Earl of Wemyss and ninth Earl of March, who succeeded in 2008. He is Chief of Clan Charteris. Several other members of the Wemyss Charteris, have gained distinction. William Wemyss, son of the Hon. James Wemyss, third son of the fifth Earl, was a Lieutenant-General in the Army, his elder son James Erskine Wemyss was a Rear-Admiral in the Royal Navy and the grandfather of Admiral of the Fleet Rosslyn Erskine-Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss, known as Sir Rosslyn Wemyss between 1916 and 1919. William Wemyss, younger son of the aforementioned William Wemyss, was a Lieutenant-General in the Army. William Binfield Wemyss, son of James Wemyss, younger son of the aforementioned the Hon. James Wemyss, was a General in the Army; the Hon. Frederick William Charteris, third son of the ninth Earl, was a Captain in the Royal Navy.
The Hon. Sir Evan Edward Charteris, sixth son of the tenth Earl, was a historian and barrister and notably published biographies of John Singer Sargent and of Edmund Gosse; the Hon. Martin Michael Charles Charteris, second son of the aforementioned Captain Hugo Francis Charteris, Lord Elcho, eldest son of the eleventh Earl, was private secretary to Queen Elizabeth II and was created a life peer as Baron Charteris of Amisfield in 1978. Hugo Charteris, grandson of the eleventh Earl, was screenwriter, his son, Jamie Charteris, became a successful cartoonist. The titles of Lord Douglas of Neidpath and Munard, Viscount of Peebles and Earl of March were created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1697 for Lord William Douglas, with remainder to heirs male of his body, failing which to his other heirs male and of tailzie, he was the second son of 1st Duke of Queensberry. He married Anne Douglas-Hamilton, 2nd Countess of Ruglen, daughter of John Douglas, 3rd Earl of Selkirk and 1st Earl of Ruglen, they were both succeeded by the third Earl of March and third Earl of Ruglen.
In 1768 he was created Baron Douglas of Am